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supplies of manure, is a most important it for producing grain, the food of man. object, and calls for a contribution of all The sowing of grass--seed and a rotation of the knowledge and experience of the mem-crops, are among the most important imbers of this Society, and for all the infor- provements in agriculture, introduced du. mation derivable from other sources. ring the last century. The beneficial ef.
In general, it may be observed that al- fects of this practice are now so well unmost every animal and vegetable substance derstood, that the man who suffers his furnishes a portion of the food of plants ; land to rest unseeded, after a crop, for a and every such substance, not more valua- purpose of recruiting its strength hy a sponble for some other purpose, should be con- taneous growth of weeds and grass, may verted to this use. Great improvements be considered as neglecting one of the may be made, in making and collecting most obvious advantages which Providence manure, by zo constructing stables, sties, has offered to his industry. and harn-yards, as to save the excretions In the preparation and management of of domestic animals, and by mixing them the manure of barn-yards, and of compost, with other manuring substances.
it is important to provide shelter to secure Ashes, leached and unleached, are well them from waste. In the common pracknown to be a valuable manure--and their tice of suffering the substances to lie spread, effect is particularly remarkable in pro- and exposed to a burning sun and to washducing clover on dry land.
ing rains, during the summer, it is probable Lime or calcarious earth, is considered that one half of the nutritious matter is as manure of value upon some kinds of lost. The substances, in a state of decomsoil ; but probably it has been little used position, should be sheltered from rains within the limits of this Society. It must and the direct action of the sun, or, if this remain for future experience to determine cannot be done, they should be collected its efficacy, and the kind of soil to which into large piles and covered with earth, it may be usefully applied.
weeds or straw. Marine shells, beds of which gave inex In rural economy, it is of no small, mohaustible fertility to certain tracts of land ment to attend to the destruction of weeds. on the sea-shore, are not within our reach The more perfectly free from weeds land -and the like remark is applicable to fish, can be kept, the larger and better will be muscles, and sea-weed.
the crops ; as weeds deprive grain of a Marl is a manure of great value ; but I part of the nutrition of the soil, and pream not informed whether any considerable vent the action of the sun, which is neces. beds of it have been found in this region. sary to elaborate the juices, separate the The discovery of such beds is however, an water from the nutritious maiter, and bring object tco interesting, to escape the at- the fruit to perfection. Noxious plants tention of this Suciety.
therefore should be effectually subdued ; Gypsum or plaster-stone is a very effi- and such as spring up among corn and po. cacious manure, on some kinds of soil, and tatoes, after the plough and hoe can be for some species of plants.--Its real value used with safety, should be extirpated by however has not been ascertained, in all the hand, before their seeds are ripencases by accurate experiments; and on ed. And what shall we say of the former some crops, its value is probably overrated. who suffers a rank, luxuriant growth of A series of experiments on different soils, briers and weeds to stand unmolested conducted with skill and care, and the re- about his house and barn, and on the borsults ascertained by weight and measure, ders of his garden and fields ? The best would throw important light on this sub- mode of subduing and extirpating weeds, ject, and direct the hushandman to a more is a subject that demands particular attensuccessful application of this manure. tion-nor is it less important to check the
There is one resource for restoring fer- introduction and spread of any new plant tility to an impoverished soil, which is that is noxious to the growth of grass and within esery farmer's power--this is the grain. The Canada thistle, one of the seeding of land with some kind of grass. It most pernicious and troublesome weeds, is a striking evidence of the wisdom and and of very difficult extirpation, has spread goodness of the Creator, that those species over the northern parte of New-England, of plants which either grow spontaneously and is extending itself into the southern. in the greatest abuodance, or are produ- It is now seen in the counties of Franklin ced with the most case by cultivation, as and Hampshire, and in the town of Windherbage for cattle, should also be well sor in Connecticut ; the seeds being con. adapted to fertilize the earth, and prepare veyed from the North in grass seed, and
in oats or other fodder for horses. Its influence our general course of husbandry." seeds are feathered, and wasted to a dis. In the course of agricultural improvetance by the wind; and it propagates itself ment, the art of draining wet lands, which by lateral or horizontal roots. My own is now in its infancy in this country, will experience teaches that it is barely possi- demand the attention of farmers. Land ble to eradicate this plant, and if the far- abounding with springs may often be much mers have a just sense of their true inter- improved by draining. Valleys or depresest, they will attack it on its first appear- sions of land between hills, often contain ance, and check its propagation.
a body of alluvial soil, swept by rains The variety of the species of grass and from the adjacent declivities, enriched by roots which grow well in this climate, pre- deposits of vegetable mould, which have oludes the probability of a general failure been accumulating tor ages. These when of provisions and fodder ; and the experi- freed from a superabundance of water, ence of nearly two centuries authorises and exposed to the influence of the sun, the belief that the inhabitants of New-Eng- will often be found most excellent land for land are little exposed to famine. But let grazing or tillage. it he considered that our seasons are ex For the security of crops, good fences tremely variable, and that the revolution are indispensable; and most of the towns of a few years exhibits all the varieties of within this district abound with materials wet and dry, warm, cool, and temperate for this purpose. The hilly country is gen
Our crops are all exposed to erally furnished with stone ; and many destruction from winter-killing, insects, towns have a supply of chesnut, an invaand unseasonable frosts. We know luable timber for fencing. The towns adby observation that some species of grain jacent to the river, when other materials thrive best in one kind of season ; others, fail, or become too expensive, will find a in another; cool, temperate, and moder resource in the cultivation of the thorn. ately dry weather is far most favourable This subject naturally suggests the imto wheat, rye, oats, and barley; but warm portance of attending to the preservation summers are necessary to ripen maize or and increase of wood and timber. PerAmerican corn. As we are unable, when haps, in no particular, are the people of we sow and plant, to foresee what the gen- this country less provident, than in the eral character of the summer is to be, pru- continual destruction of these articles, deace dictates, that we should commit to without attempting to supply the waste. the earth, every year, a due proportion of They seem not to consider that the labour the seeds of every species of grain and of a lew weeks only is sufficient to prosroots, on which we depend for the subsis- trate a forest ; but that the growth of an tence of men and cattle. By this prac- age is necessary to replace it. In a large tice we multiply the chances of securing a part of New-England, good timber and good crop from one or more of the kinds. wood for fuel are already scarce ; and
The failure of one species of grain, in a with an increasing population, and growparticular season, is no good reason for ing manufactures, in a cold climate, what neglecting to attempt to raise it, the next is to be the situation of the inhabitants, a year. Indeed, in such a variable climate, century hence, without more care and such failure rather increases the probabili- economy! Let every owner of land conty of a good crop, the succeeding year. sider that even now a forest of pine, oak, After the loss of American corn by frost in chesnut, ash, and maple, adds a great va1816, a great cry was raised against the lue to his farm ; and that this value will cultivation of that species of grain in New- increase or diminish, according to his care England; and with no inconsiderable ef in the management of his wood land. fect ; for a less quantity of it has been In the cultivation of fruit trees, there is planted, the last two years, and more land in this region of country, great room for has been appropriated to the raising of improvement; both in the pruning and culother species of grain, and of potatoes, tivation of such trees as we have, and in The present year has shown the impro- supplying better species of fruit.' It is priety of this change of practice ; for po- paintul to see valuable orchards in a state tatoes and several kinds of grain have pro or decay, merely for want of culture—and duced a light crop, and the season has equally to be regretted that so little attenbeen favourable to maize. The inference tion is paid to the selection of good fruit, from these facts is, that we should not suf- especially durable and pleasant fruit for fer a particular instance of ill success, to winter's use.
The trouble and expence
of procuring the best species, are very ia- , ways the fact; and it may justly be ques. considerable, and furnish ao just apology tioned, whether the puncture of any insect for the neglect. Peaches thrive well, in would produce such an effect. It is most the neighbourhood, but the produce is pre- probably a disease, for which no effectual carious, and the tree short-lived ; yet it is remedy has yet been discovered. But easily replaced, as it bears fruit the fourth the most favourable position for this tree, or birth year from the seed. The Quince according to my observation, is, in a moist thrives well, and seldom fails to yield fruit. strong soil, and in the coldest situation The Plum-tree grows well, but is subject that can be found, as on the north side of a to premature decay from the bursting of building or hedge. the bark, and a consequent excresence. Cherries of all kinds may be cultivated This has been ascribed to the puncture of to advantage. an insect, and the excresence often contajas a small worm. But this is not al
(To be continuod.)
Department of manufacture.
MANUFACTURES-THE ARTS OP ELEGANCE, AND THE ARTS OF USE.
[We are fully impressed with torted members, and ghastly aspeet. But
whoever has travelled through the towns the belief that nothing can be and cities of the British Isles, during the furnished to our manufacturing that it is not alone in manufacturing dis
last twenty-five years of war, must know friends superiour to the following tricts, or manufacturing countries, that
beggary and wretchedness are to be found. continuation of the Address which whoever would describe depravity and we commenced in our last Num- immorality, may visit barracks, camps,
and men-of-war; and, moreover, those naber.]
Ed. tions which are not manufacturing will be
found most to abound in profligacy and (Continued from page 55.)
disorder. In those countries that enjoy the 4th. That manufactures degrade and de- benefit of manufactures, their wholesome moralize.
effect upon the morals of the people is too We are inclined to believe that in the often defeated by the immoderate use of British factories are found disgusting exhi- spiritous liquors, which, and not manu. bitions of human depravity and wretched factories, are the most prolific source of But we cannot believe that the ex
poverty and immorality.' Experience has ercise of industry could ever be the cause shown that the persons employed in manuof demoralizing any race of men ; although factories are as sober as any of the workunequal laws and bad examples may have ing class. A reason for which may be, that tendency. In this country there are that the employers have better means of extensive manufactories, and yet no such watching over their conduct, and controlconsequences are observed.
ling their disorders; or, where that cannot The best account we have of the pollu be effected, discharging those whose bad tion of British manufactures is in a work example might corrupt the rest. entitled “ Espriella's Letters." To judge And it appears, from the authentic trea. from that work, British manufactures are tise of Mr. Colquhoun, that before the preobjects of abhorrence. But, for the hon- sent unparalleled state of distress in Eng. our of humanity, we must suppose that land, there were only seven paupers to picture something over-coloured.
every hundred inhabitants in the manufacSurely, we have not witnessed in our fa- turing districts, and in others, not manubrics any of those fearful apparitions, dit- facturing, there were but twenty-one. ting through the smoke of their
Was it manufactures that humbled pairs, like the spirits of the damned; squal. Spain, whose power and pride stood once id and palid, with green hair, red eyes, dis- 'es high as England's? What manufactures
strew the streets of Naples with idle Laza-, reward; and if they fear sickness or decrironi ? What manufactures debase Portu- pitude in our factories, there is no authorigal? Is it the manufacturing of tooth-picks ty, power, or necessity, that can confine at the university of Coimbra ? or is it the them for a day. They may shape their stripping off the bark from the cork tree course to any part of a territory as expanin the forest, to be carried to England, cut, sive as the ocean they have traversed, find and sent back to bottle their wine? Is it a thousand ways to bestow their industry the encouragement of domestic manufac-to their advantage, with land, free and untures that has degraded the children of occupied, on which to settle ; and under Erin? or is it that every demoniac effort has no circumstances need they fear the dreadbeen used, to depress its industry, stifle its ful calamity of famine, from which they genius, and trample down its virtues ? fled.
And why is Capada so different from the 5th. That manufactures should be left United States, although untàsed ? Be- to their natural growth. cause, even the timber of their woods is sent To the friends of America, it will be to be made into ships, and returned, ready argument enough that domestic manufacframed, to be launched on the lakes for tures are for the permanent interest of their defence.
their country, and the only sure means of But at length, though late, the continen- our independence. What would not wistal pations have taken the alarm, and dom and patriotism do to secure such obcombinations are formed, by both sexes, jects ? against the importation of these manufac We ask not one-third of the protection tures ! Shall we be less quicksighted ? If, which Britain has bestowed upon her main war, they could not overcome us, shall nufactures. We ask not more protection they in peace destroy us? If they feel than our commerce has received by disDow the effects of their ambition, they can-criminating duties and navigation laws ; not complain : They are the general and what we do ask, is but until our tender challengers. We come but as others do, grizzle shall be hardended, and our joints to try with them the strength of our youth. knit. But under what protection British
We have, besides, none of those great manufactures grew, and still maintain manufacturing cities ; nor do we wish for themselves, we shall now show: and then, such. Our fabrics will not require to be in our turn, ask these advisers, why ours situated near mines of coal, to be worked should be left to themselves rather than by fire or ateam, but rather on chosen sites, their own. bythe fall of water, and the running streams, Coeval with the first dawn of English the seats of health and cheerfulness, where prosperity, we find in the British code, good instruction will secure the morals of laws for the protection of British manuthe young, and good regulations will pro- factures. One of their ancient kings, the mote, in all, order, cleanliness, and the third Edward, is magnified in their histoexercise of the civil duties. This, with ry, for his wise foresight in enacting these the beneficial clauses usual in our inden- statutes, to which their increasing gratness tures of apprenticeship, and the vigilant is ascribed. To those acts is referred the eye of the magistrate to enforce them, will consequence to which that little island has obviate every apprehension. And we haz- since attained; the bursting of the feudal ard nothing by the assertion, that some of chains; the growth of art and science; and the best educated of the poorer class, in that power, of which the abuse has at this country, are those brought up in fac- length recoiled upon the head of pride and tories, and such as would otherwise have usurpation. been destitute of education altogether ; We do not ask for such laws as the and those whose tenderness inclines them British code exhibits. We would not sato make this objection are requested to crifice to a golden idol the rights or feelreflect, that the paternal regard of the le- ings of humanity. We would not chain to gislature is awake to this subject; and the ground the harmless artificer; nor unthat, to every institution of this kind, a der accumulated penalties restrain his school will be appendant. Then, if it natural rights. Yet such are British statplease heaven to redeem the thousands, utes. The oppressor may trample on him, and tens of thousands, that groan in the famine stare him in the face; his children land of bondage, and open them a pas- cry for bread, when he has none to give sage through the waves, as to the Is-them; be his disgust or his enterprise raelites of old, this shall be their land of what it may, he “must abide the pelting promise. Here shall their industry find its of the storm;" his native land is his dun:
geon, and his industry his crime. If a mas- Britain and America, as manufacturing riter of an American vessel offer to trans- vals, speaks thus : “ This is the era (he port him to a country where his heart's says) of a systematic contest which must, hopes are centred, he, too, is condemned, eventually, endanger the safety of the
a seducer of artisans,' to like ruinous manufactures of the one or the other." inflictions, and punished for his charitable Now, though this is not a war of arms, ministry. The exporter of a tool or im- yet it is a war more, subtle and more plement used in any art, or the master deadly, a war that can deprive us of every who receives it in his ship, is subject to means of future resistance, and insure sucsimilar pains and forfeitures.
cess to some future invasion. It is that Nor is this, like the feudal laws, or warfare, which, two years after victory, monastic institutions, an obsolete system; has left us worse than a conquered pation; many of these statutes are of modern date, without a single piece of coined money and some of the time of the reigning mon in the purse of any individual. If we arch.* We wish for nothing that can af- hesitate now, we deserve our adversa. fect the personal right of any individual; ry's scorn ; if we will be deceived, why citizen, alien, native, or foreigner; we should he not deceive us ; if we are claim only for our country the honourable content to be undone, why should he feel protection of its very dearest interests. remorse ; if we have no remedy, we are But, we think this argument may show to be pitied and not blamed ; if we have, how far Great Britain is from doing that and want courage to apply it, we are to herself which her emissaries never fail to be blamed, but not pitied If we do not preach to us-that is, letting her manufac- make a stand upon this giound, we need tures take care of themselves. Nor is it Jefend no other post; thier interest, the king, nor his cabinet, nor his parlia- supported by the government, by their ment, to whom this policy is to be ascrib- laws, by public patronage, and wealthy ed. It is the public voice. So dearly do combinations, by export duties, and Englishmen prize that interest they would bounties on exportation, will prevail have us forego.
against our's, unsupported and neglectWe would here notice two branches of ed, and our interest will be more than domestic manufactures, the shoe and endangered, in this systematic contest, if hat nianufactures, which have, by the une gives all the blows, and the yther means of the protection of government, passively receives them. prospered to that degree that they, at this Nor is it a principle of English origin, day, render us independent of foreign sup- merely to encourage and protect domes. ply. But facts are so abundant that the tic arts. All wise states have acted on details would lead to interminable length. it. In ancient Rome, though artificers
We find a member of parliament, the were of the class of slaves, they were celebrated Mr. Brougham, who brought greatly favoured. They had their own about the repeal of the orders in coun- temples, chose their own patrons to de. cil, by showing the effects of our non-im- fend ibeir causes, and were exempt portation law upon their manufactures from personal services to the state. This energetic denouncer of the abuses of they were incorporated into colleges power, versed in the subject, and speak or companies, hart their own tutelary ing for popularity, in arraigning as mad-gods, and when their labours were endness the excessive exportations to the con- ed, they hung up their tools with cere. tinent of Europe, admits, nevertheless, monial rites as votive offerings ; and all " that it is well worth while to incur a this for their utilily alone, having to loss on the first exportation, in order, by fear no hostile competition. the glut, to stifle in the cradle those rising manufactures in the United States, force we are now to array ourselves, nor
Besides, it is not against an armed which the war, had forced into prema- against legitimate or liberal competion, ture existence, contrary," as he is plea- but against concealed hostility, and sed to assert, " to the natural course of practices full of dishonour. Whether things." And a celebrated writer on the these proceed from the government, or colonial policy of Great Britain, whose the people, or from an interested class, words are considered next to official, in a hey will not be less ruinous to us, unchapter on the relative situation of Great
less we oppose them by means prompt, * Geo. I. c. 27. Geo. III. c. 13. Geo. vigorous, and effective. If in ordinary III. c. 71. Geo. III. c. 37. Geo. III. c. 60. times such conspiracy against our pros