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ledge of the practice of rural hus-, scanty supply of coarse fodder. When
young animals have been stipted in their bandry.]
food, for two or three years, and their
growth checked, when it should be most TO the cultivation of the more rare and rapid and vigorous, is it rational to sup. delicious fruits, there is an objection, ari- pose that better feeding will afterwards sing out of the moral state of society, give to them their full expansion of body which ought not to pass unnoticed. Many and strength of limbs? If the expence of persons neglect to plant some of the best good feeding is somewhat greater, will not kinds of fruit-trees, and in some instances, the owner be amply repaid in the increa. such trees have been hewn down, because sed value of the animals? And what is the fruit is subject to be stolen. The fact the difference in the taxes paid on cattle cannot be denied ; and it is evidence of a of a poor quality, and on those of more defect of morals reproachtul to the cha- value, and of a higher price in the marracter of the country. Apples are in such ket? abundance, that the taking of a few, from The horses generally used in this part a neighbour's orchard, without his know- of New-England are of an inferior breed, ledge or consent, has not been treated as and of a low price ; but probably for use theft. This indulgence has perhaps con- on farms, they are preferable to those of tributed to introduce the practice of plun. larger size and more beauty, which can dering gardens and orchards of more rare, hardly be supposed to perform services and on account of their scarcity, more equal to the additional price of purchase, valued fruits. But surely men in a chris- aud expence of keeping. But it deserves tian country, must know, and are able to to be considered, whether for the saddle, make their children and apprentices un- for carriage, and for market, it would not derstand, that in the eye of reason and law, be eligible to introduce and encourage the and in the view of heaven, it is as really propagation of a handsomer breed. the crime of theft, to take fruit from an Of sheep and swine, we probably posother's inclosure, without his consent, as sess the best species : but doubtless imto take money from his chest. If the provements may be made in the mode of youth of this country do not thus under- feeding and fattening them with the least stand the fact, it is important that the in- expence. structions of the desk, the discipline of In regard to the importance of manuparents and guardians, and the penalties factures, the encouragement of which is of law, should be combined, to impress up- one object of this association, there can on their minds, this salutary lesson of be only one opinion. Every country should, morality.
as far as possible, not only produce the Another object, interesting to the com- materials of the clothing, utensils and furmunity, and especially to the agricultural- niture consunied by its inhabitants, but ists, is the improvement of domestic ani- should work these materials into the form mals. This is to be effected, not so much, required for use. No nation should deI apprehend, by importing and raising ia- pend on foreign countries, for essential arrieties of a larger size, as by selecting for ticles ; as supplies of such articles are propagation, those of the best shape and liable to be interrupted in time of war ; qualities, from the species we now possess, and as they draw, from the country, the and by giving them all the perfection of profits of its agriculture. The more comwhich they are susceptible. Among in- plete a country is supplied with every ardividuals of the same species, there is a ticle of consumption, by the labour of its great difference in the form and qualities own citizens, the more independent it must which render them profitable to the own- be, and the more sources of wealth does er ; both in the males for labour, in the it retain in its own power.
many females for dairy, and in both for slaugh- pects, the present state of our manufacter. The improvement of domestic ani- iures is highly gratisying ; and in particumals of all kinds, must depend chiefly on lar, with respect to the articles of prime selecting the best of the species for propa- use and necessity made in families. In gation, and' iu supplying them with a suf- New-England, most of the cloths of coarse iciency of good fodder, and suitable shel. fabric are manufactured in families, and ter from inclemencies of the weather. Avehiefly by the industry of females, the va. it deserves to be well considered, whether iue of whose labour, in this respect, is not it is not ill-timed economy to turn off young easily estimated. To such an extent are cattle with cold lodgiogs in winter, and a likese domestic mapusactures carried, that
in some towns, and probably in many, not AGRICULTURAL ADDRESSES.
[It is a source of no small gradomestic labours limited to the manufac. ture of cloths for wearing apparel—they tification to the farmers, that the estend to many other articles. In the manufacture of the finer cloths,
rank they were ever entitled to our country is making rapid advances ; hold, is now with universal con. and already such cloths enter advantageously into competition with superfine im- sent, assigned to them. Agriculported cloths. The manufacture of cot- ture is the employment originalton, which at the close of the late war, suffered extreme depression, is again re- ly designed by God for It is viving, but under, many disadvantages, the life's blood of allother employMany of the most necessary utensils and articles of clothing and furniture, are made ments. That decree which orin New-England, not only for home con. sumption, but for exportation ; such as dained that man should earn his bats, shoes, saddlery, and cabinet work. bread by the sweat of the face, We are supplied also from our own manu. factories with axes, hoes, scythes, and has proved a blessing rather than various castings ; and it may be well to consider, whether the manufac- a curse. The ambition, the luxu. ture of saws, screws, cutlery, and some ries, and the propensities of men, other utensils of iron, might not be introduced or extended by due encouragement. havecreated many artificial wants, On this subject, a detail of particulars cannot be expected in this address ; but which, in the present state of the I will take the liberty to offer a few re world, are deemed to be the nemarks on the obstacles that impede the progress of manufactures in the United cessaries of life.". To supply States.
It may be admitted, without an impro- these, requires the various emper indulgence of national vanity, that our ployments which now divide men citizens are not deficient in ingenuity or dexterity; and skill, in any kind of work, into various occupations. But, they may, and will acquire, whenever suitable encouragement is offered to call their to the cultivator of the earth, are ingenuity into exercise. Most of the raw they all indebted for the means materials, which enter into the manufacture of essential articles, are produced or by which they prosecute their found in our own country; and others are business. within our reach. Under these advantages however, our manufacturing establish It is from the cultivation of the ments have to contend with a serious obstacle, in the high price of labour ; nuore earth, that the American merespecially in the making of articles of fine chant finds a cargo of cotton, rice, texture. The use of machinery, and the employmeut of females and children, sup- tobacco, flour, beef, pork, butter, ply; in part, a remedy for this evil; and government lends its and by protecting cheese, and everything he exports. duties. Still it must be difficult for a coun- From the same source the Manutry, in which a dollar will purchase only one or two day's labour, to sustain a com- facturer " has his wealth." petition, in manufacturés, with a country in which a dollar will purchase four, five,
It was not, until within a few or six day's labour. The great obstacle then to the success of manufactures in the days past, that the writer obtained United States, is the depreciated value of the first address delivered to the money-an evil which also materially af. fects our commerce.
Hartford County Agricultural So. (To be continued.)
ciety, by HENRY L. ELLSWORTH, delivered by Eathan A. Andrews, Esq. of Windsor, Connecticut, in Esq. of Berlin, Conn. in 1819. 1818. Having commenced and Although Mr. Andrews, like Mr. almost completed the publica. Ellsworth, has spent most of his tion of Mr. Webster's Address, time in literary and professional which embraces most of the sub- pursuits, they have both recentjects in Mr. Ellsworth's, we think ly turned much of their attention itinexpedient to publish the whole to the cultivation of their farms. of it. But we cannot forbear in- Having studied chemistry and natcorporating into our Journal, the ural philosophy as sciences, they following impressive appeal to are enabled to apply them to the lovers of the “land of their practical husbandry. Mr. Anfathers."]
Ed. drews, in the following perspicu
1 But beside the public advantage as a ous manner, shews what agriculcheck to emigration, private life will parti: türe may become.]
Ed. cipate largely in the blessings retained for the domestic circle. Why must we, gen. tlemen, be called, to repeat those heart But though it is believed that the state rending separations from our beloved re- of agricultural science is such as has just latives and friends ? Why must those been represented, there is no occasion for friends be subjected to the dangers and despondence. In the progress of every privations of new settlements? Why must science there must have been a period, in children be driven from the protection of which the existence of certain insulated parents, or old age be left to totter to the facts, was all that was known, respecting grave, without the solace of filial support ? it. As the number of known facts increaHas friendship no charms ? Have parents sed, the attention of mankind was graduno claims on filial gratitude ? Has a de- ally drawn to an examination of their congenerate posterity forgotten the tombs of nection, and the first attempts were made their ancestors ? The Canadian Indians to arrange and classify them. Such, was when solicited, once, to emigrate, replied, probably in a degree, the state of geome" What ! shall we say to the bones of our try, until the discoveries of the earlier fathers, arise ! go with us into a foreign mathematicians were collected, and their jand.” Stoicism may boast of indifference ; nutual dependencies as parts of the same philosophy may enjoin fortitude under the system were exhibited by Euclid. Such was trials of life ; affection may yield to the the state of natural history, in all its branimperious demands of necessity; but the ches for many ages, during which facts bast "Jingering look” will show tears of were accumulated, and imperfect systems sorrow, and in distant climes the heart were formed and exploded, until by the will often sigh for its dear native home. comprehensive minds of Linnæus, Jussieu, But, gentlemen, what shall be done? How Werner, and others, some of its branches can emigration be discouraged ? I apswer, have probably been reduced to permaMake Agriculture lucrative here, and you nent systems. Such also was the state will gratify the love of gain; make it fash. of chemistry, until the latter part of the jonable, and it will allure ambition ; make it eighteenth century, when, by the labours a study ; learn how to cullivate a little well, of Lavoisier and others, was reared, from and leave room for posterity to settle in the the confusion and technical jargon of alland of their futhers.
chemy, the most splendid system of experimental philosophy, which the scientific
mind has ever contemplated. Is it then The second Address to this presumptuous to expect, that the princi
ples of agriculture will at some future pehighly respectable society, was' riod be established; and that the causes
of success or of miscarriage, will not be ces not only that invaluable class left for conjecture to determine ? The fact, that the principles of chemistry, and of citizens, whose knowledge of of those branches of natural history, which agriculture is founded upon expe. are most nearly connected with agricul. ture, have but recently been settled, af-rience, but also those who can refords a ground of hope, that, those of ag. duce theory to practice, that we riculture will soon be elucidated.
may shortly be furnished with-+ It affords the strongest ground Ą Code of Agriculture adapted to of hope, that as the Agricultural the Climate and Soil of ConnectiSocieties in Connecticut, embra- cut.
Department of banufacture.
MANUFACTURES THE ARTS OF ELEGANCE, AND THE ARTS OF USE.
AS we had supposed, before we vidual profit. They are strugwere informed of the fact, but a gling to shew the people of small proportion of the readers America the road to real Indepenof the Rural Magazine, had never dence-Agriculture and Manubefore seen or read the Address facture : which, in our Prospecof the American Society for the tus we ventured to pronounce the encouragement of Domestic Manu- hand-maids of Commerce. factures.' Its perusal will afford in In our first Number, we briefly struction to the Manufacturer, for addressed“ The Manufacturers of the general and minute acquain- Connecticut.” Subsequent obtance which the Society possess, servation has confirmed the wriconcerning the real and permanentter, in the correctness of the pointerest of our vast country. The sitions there laid down. That views of this Society, which, as the citizens of our state possess before mentioned, has for mem- every advantage for the manufacbers the three ex-Presidents, and ture of iron, wood, wool, cotton, the present chief magistrate of flax, and hemp; leather, silk, glass, the Republic, are not confined to gun-powder, tinware, muskets, a single manufactory of a single swords, and pistols ; printed books, article. They have in view the and a long list of other articles, common benefit, as well as indi- I there now remains no doubt.
Notwithstanding the superiour seas to be traversed forever to fertility of the southern and west-procure that which our own land ern states, it is not to be forgot- might produce ? Away with our ten that fifteen sixteenths of their senseless vaunting about indeimmense agricultural products pendence, if this state of things is arise from the labour of slaves ; to continue. and ebony may as easily be con
Of Connecticut, we repeat verted to alabaster, as to make what we said in our Prospectus, African slaves ingenious manu- and we challenge a denial of its facturers. The manners, habits, correctness" It must become and pursuits, of the white popu- an agricultural and manufactulation, produces a settled aver-ring state, or its rank in the unsion to manufacture. From ion will be lost-its active citiwhence then, but from the north-zens will emigrate, and its preern and eastern states, are its nu- sent cheering aspect, will be chanmerous and rapidly advancing ged for a melancholy succession population to obtain a supply of of “ Deserted villages.” The rimanufactured goods, adequate to sing generation of Connecticut, the demand for, and the consump- many of whom once found "an tion of, them ? Should it be an- home upon the deep," must now swered-from Europe ? a blush seek one in the distant howling of shame ought to suffuse the face wilderness, unless they cultivate of him who makes it, as it would and improve the soil which most of those who should hear it. was cleared by the industry of What! are our enterprising and their grandsires, and defended ingenious countrymen forever to by the valour of their fathers. depend upon foreigners, for those The Legislature of the state, now necessaries of life, which are pro- in session, deeply impressed with duced in abundance within our the importance of this subject, own Republic ? Are the freemen are now investigating it with of America, forever to be clad in view of extending aid to agricul. the fabrics manufactured by the tural and manufacturing instituslaves of European and Asiatic tions. To the glory of our state, monarchs ? Are our coffers for Literary institutions are amply ever to be drained and poured in. provided for. Religious instituto the laps of English, French, tions have always been fostered-und Dutcb, manufacturers ? Are and it is sincerely to be boped