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quisitions to the American Re-sion from the American governpublic which could be made. It ment. Their instructions from secured to this country the exclu- their own government were spesive navigation of the finest cific.-1st. To provide against the stream on the globe. It brought future impressment of American to the national treasury, a trea- Seamen--2d. To agree upon a sure almost inexhaustible. definition of Neutral Rights-3d.

The Louisiana treaty was con- To establish a demarkation of jointly made by Mr. Monroe and boundaries. Mr. Livingston, the American Mr. Fox succeeded Mr. Pitt in minister resident at the court of the administration of the British St. Cloud.

Government, and the negociation Mr. Monroe, having effected finally ended in making a treaty, the great object of his mission to to use the language of Mr. Mon. France, proceeded immediately RO E, “ the best that could then be to London, as successor of Mr. obtained." But it contained no Rufus King, who had obtained provision against impressment, and permission to return to America. of course, not within the special

The duties to be performed by instructions just mentioned. It the American minister at the was for this reason that it was im. Court of St. James, at this period, mediately rejected by President were no less arduous than those Jefferson. That consummate he had performed at St. Cloud. statesman could not endure that Mr. MONROE seems to have been his countrymen should any lonbrought into the world to be the ger, be captivated upon the ocean, being upon whom the hopes of when traversing that highway of his country were to be reposed, nations, in authorised commercial upon the subjects touching their pursuits. The American mission dearest interests.

were instructed to make another He arrived at London in 1803, attempt, by negociation, to seand remained there until the lat. cure their countrymen against an ter part of the year 1804. Early injury so degrading to an indein 1805, he was dispatched to the pendent nation such an invaSpanish court at Madrid, to nego- sion upon the rights of man. The ciate jointly with Mr. Charles second attempt was, like the first, Pinckney, a treaty with the Span-unsuccessful. ish government. This could not Hitherto the American seamen then be effected.

had been impressed only from He returned from Madrid to merchantmen; and although an London, at about the time of the injury to individuals is an injury death of William Pitt, and resu- to the nation, yet, in the attack med his negociation with the Brit- upon the Chesapeake, a national ish commissioners, lord Holland vessel, the national dignity was and lord Auckland. Mr. William directly insulted.

To imprese Pinckney was associated with him seamen from an U.S. Frigate, bein this negociation ; and, united longing to an infant navy, whose together, composed a special mis-' gallantry in the Mediterranean,

had excited the admiration, and zens: The conciliatory disposieven the jealousy of Nelson, pro- tion manifested by the governduced a ferment in the American ment, through the official commuRepublic, which never could sub- nications of Mr. MONROB to the side until ample reparation was British minister, Mr. Foster, rathobtained. Mr. MONROE, who con- er increased than diminished the tinued Minister resident at the insolence of the British cabinet. British court, was instructed to The time had come when Ameri, demand reparation. He prompt-cans, having emancipated themly demanded it, and pressed the selves from British tyranny, when demand with such determined en- in a state of infancy, would no ergy, that the administration dis- longer be reduced to submission, patched Mr. Rose on a special mis- having arrived to manhood. War sion to the American Republic. was declared against an enemy

This event closed the diplo- who would not be brought to conmatic career of Mr. Monroe in ciliation by negociation. Europe. He had gone through a The expediency, necessity, or course of duty in diplomacy, justice of the second war for which has never hitherto devol-American Independence, cannot ved upon an American. He re- be discussed in this place; and turned to America, after an ab- however passionately it might sence of five years, and retired to have once engaged the two great his private residence in Albe-parties of the American Repubmarle county, Virginia. lic, the glory acquired in it, and

In 1810, he was the third time the independence secured by it, called to the office of Chief Ma-Jhave decided the question. The gistrate of Virginia. But he had part taken in it by Mr. Monroe, is now become identified with the what belongs to this Sketch. whole Republic, and was called The two first campaigns of that to the most important station in war, were certainly calculated to it, except the one which he now excite the deepest solicitude of sustains. In 1811, he was ap- the administration. Although, in pointed Secretary of State, of the detached parts of the army and United States.

navy, exploits were achieved Two of the most powerful na- which would gild the pages of any tions of Europe, France, and Eng- history, yet it required all the land, rivals by nature, and by cen- energy of the Republic, to resist turies of struggles for dominion, the power of Britain and their Inwere now both guilty of aggres- dian allies in America. By the aid sions against the American Re- of the “ Allied Sovereigns,” the public. Mr. Monroe, as Secre- British empire had secured their tary, conducted the correspon- power in Europe, and directed dence on behalf of the American their whole power against the government, with both these pow. American States, once British ers, with a firmness and modera- Colonies, confidently expecting tion that excited the undivided to recolonize them. approbation of his fellow citi-! Her most experienced admi

rals asgailed ug upon the ocean-Statesman, was defended by the her generals, who had conquered judicious arrangement of the Solin Spain, Portugal, and France, dier. attacked us upon land. From

From the conclusion of peace Castine to New Orleans, upon in 1815, to the 4th March 1817, the seaboard from New Orleans Mr. MONROE continued in the De to Plattsburgh, upon the western partment of State, at which time frontier the Republic was encoun- he was raised to the highest statered by an implacable foe. tion, at this time, upon earth, that Death, ravishment, and conflagra-of President of the United States. tion, with all their appalling hor The great principles upon rours, had been witnessed upon which he will conduct his adminmany parts of the seaboard and istration, are contained in his Inthe frontiers, and Washington had augural Speech and First Mesbeen subjected to the torches of sage to Congress. Vandal warriors. At this disas In the summer and autumn of trous period, Mr. MONROE was 1817, Mr. MONROE made his first called upon to head the Depart- Tour through the states of Maryment of War, and, at the same land, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Newtime, to conduct the department Jersey, New York, and Newof state.

England; and was every where Although the war had raged received with those demonstrasometime, the fact will authorize tions of attachment and respect the assertion, that the departments which all the potentates of the were not only in a deficient state, Eastern world may justly envy, but in a state of almost inextri- but cannot hope to enjoy. cable disorder. The Commissa In December 1817, Mr. Moxry, the Quartermaster, and the ROE met the first Congress, that Hospital Departments needed a was assembled under his adminisradical reform. Mr. Monroe de-tration. Never, since the immor voted himself with such unceasing talized and sainted WASHINGTON assiduity to the arduous duty now first appeared at the head of that devolved upon him, that he near-august body, has any President ly become a victim to death. He been received with more marked saw the enemy, repelled in almost tokens of sincere respect, and deevery section of the union, di- served admiration. The great recting all their forces by land Councillors of the nation reposed and sea against the great key of in him a confidence, almost unthe country, New Orleans. The limited. Not that confidence Mississippi which Mr. Monroe which is enforced ; and which inmay almost be said to have acqui- duced an eminent English statesred for his country, was now in man to declare, (when called updanger of becoming the highway on to place it in the ministry) for its enemy into the bosom of-“Necessary confidence is, at best the Republic. But what was ac- but a necessary evil.” It was a quired by the wisdom of the confidence arising from cordia!

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approbation ; and that approba- try—in fine, a man whose like tion was founded upon deserved we scarce shall look upon again." merit.

The war with the Seminoles His first Message is in the hands and their diabolical instigators, of all, and by all admired. It ended in the complete discomfitevinces a familiar knowledge of ure of both; and the measures of the great principles of our admi- JAMES MONROE in the Cabinet, rable Constitution and of the great and of ANDREW Jackson in the interests of our expansive and ex- Field, have met with the appropanding Republic.

bation of an immense majority of Soon after the close of the ses- the American people. sion of Congress in 1818, the Pre Mr. MONROE, ever keeping in sident commenced his Second view the rights and the interests Tour, which was rendered very of the Republic, and fully deterlimited by the pressing necessi- mined that neither should be wanty of his presence at the seat of tonly invaded, was determined government.

that the controversy, so long pendThe appalling horrours of In- ing between the government over dian warfare were exhibiting its which he now so happily presides, tragical scenes upon the borders and that of Spain, over which the of the States and Territories imbecile and tyrannical Ferdibounding upon Florida. Aided nand VII. wields the scepter of de. and abetted by foreign emissa- spotic power, should be adjusted, ries, more destitute of mercy and caused a negociation to be enterprinciple, if possible than the Se- ed into, which has terminated in minoles themselves, these wretch-the cession of the Floridas to the ed and barbarous outcasts even American government. from savage society, were spread The advantages of this cession ing consternation, havoc, torture, can scarcely now be duly appreand death among the defenceless, ciated. It relieves an extensive and then undefended citizens, up- frontier from a civilized and baron the frontiers.

barous foe-it gives to us almost The President, assisted by the the complete command of the councils of a Cabinet of profound Gulph of Mexico, it increases our and patriotic statesmen, resorted national resources—it invites the to measures calculated to meet never-ending enterprise of our the emergency

citizens to extend the settlement In ANDREW JACKSON, Com- of our immense Republic--and mander in Chief of the Division of in short, it is an acquisition, sethe South, the President found a cond only to that of Louisiana, for Mon fit for any emergency-ma which the nation is indebted to Statesman cool and dispassionate JAMES MONROE. -a Soldier, terrible in battle and The President is now (May mild in victory—a Patriot, whose 1819)upon his Third Tour through bosom swelled with love of coun- the Southern and Western States.

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THE “ rural” scenery in the, When he returns from his fields country, in the charming month to his mansion, he beholds one of May, is calculated to excite daughter at the distaff--another the most exquisite delight. Na- in the loom, and a third in the ture, having been discharged, dairy-room. The careful and from the imprisonment of winter

prudent house-wife, superintend-enjoying refreshing showers

ing the whole domestic concern, and the genial warmth of the

welcomes her companion and sun,

is clothed in verdure. The their offspring to the hospitable Farmer views his mowing-lots, and well furnished board; renmatted with grass, and his pastures dered doubly delicious by the recovered with feed. His winter

flection that the bounties they and spring grains present the

enjoy, are the fruits of their own most cheering prospects. His

honest industry. The blessing of fruit-trees, in full blossom, con-heaven is craved upon their food, vert his farm into a carpet of va- and thanks returned to the“ giver rious hues. His herds, upon the

of gifts," when they have been hills and plains, promise him a

enjoyed. If this does not constisupply of beef, butter, and cheese, tute what may emphatically be and also a supply for the markets. called the happy family," where, His improved breed of swine assure him of a redundancy of pork upon this earth can it be found ?

Ed. and lard. And, that which crowns his enjoyments, he sees his sons, clad in the substantial and plain (WE continue the Address of garb, of the plain and substantial the Hon. Noah Webster, in this husbandman, following the plough Number, upon the subject of Ag. --repairing fences-cutting bush-riculture. The more it is exam es draining swamps and marsh- ined, the more it will be admired. es, and resorting to every impro- It evinces a scientific knowledge ved mode of improving land. of the theory, anda familiar know!

Vol. I.


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