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1279 Dionysius succeeds to the throne of Portugal. Par. C. XIX. 135.

1280 Albertus Magnus dies. Par. C. X. 95.

1281 Pope Nicholas III. dies. H. C. XIX. 71.

Dante studies at the universities of Bologna and Padua.

1282 The Sicilian vespers. Par. C. VIII. 80.

The French defeated by the people of Forli. H. C. XXVII. 41.

Tribaldello de' Manfredi betrays the city of Faenza. H. C. XXXII.

119.

1284 Prince Charles of Anjou is defeated and made prisoner by Rugier

de Lauria, admiral to Peter III, of Arragon. Purg. C. XX. 78.

Charles I. king of Naples, dies. Purg. C. VII 111.

1285 Pope Martin IV. dies. Purg. C. XXIV. 23.

Philip III. of France, and Peter III. of Arragon, die.
Purg. C. VII. 101, and 110.

Henry II. king of Cyprus, comes to the throne. Par. C. XIX. 144.
1287 Guid dalle Colonne (mentioned by Dante in his De Vulgari Elo-

quio) writes “The War of Troy..

1288 Haquin, king of Norway, makes war on Denmark. Par. C. XIX

135.

Count Ugolino de' Gherardeschi dies of famine. H. C. XXXIII. 14.
1289 Dante is in the battle of Campaldino, where the Florentines defeat

the people of Arezzo, June 11. Purg. C. V. 90.
1290 Beatrice dies. Purg. C. XXXII. 2.

He serves in the war waged by the Florentines upon the Pisans,
and is present at the surrender of Caprona in the autumn. H. C.
XXI. 92.

1291 He marries Gemma de' Donati, with whom he lives unhappily. By

this marriage he had five sons and a daughter.
Can Grande della Scala is born, March 9. H. C. I. 98. Purg. C.
XX. 16. Par. C. XVII. 75. and XXVII. 135.
The renegade Christians assist the Saracens to recover St. John
D'Acre. H. C. XXVII. 84.
The Emperor Rodolph dies. Purg. C. VI. 104. and VII. 91.
Alonzo III. of Arragon dies, and is succeeded by James II. Purg.
C. VII. 113. and Par. C. XIX. 133.

THE AGE OF DANTE.

IX

James, king of Majorca and Minorca, dies. Par. C. XIX. 133.

1303 Pope Boniface VIII. dies. H. C. XIX. 55. Purg. C. XX. 86.

XXXII. 146. and Par. C. XXVII. 20.

The other exiles appoint Dante one of a council of twelve, under

Alessandro da Romena.

He appears to have been much dissatisfied with his colleagues.

Par. C. XVII. 61.

1304 He joins with the exiles in an unsuccessful attack on the city of

Florence.

May. The bridge over the Arno breaks down during a representa-
tion of the infernal torments exhibited on that river. II. C.
XXVI. 9.
July 20. Petrarch, whose father had been banished two years be-

fore from Florence, is born at Arezzo.
1305 Winceslaus II. king of Bohemia, dies. Purg. C. VII. 99. and Par.

C. XIX. 123.

A conflagration happens at Florence. H. C. XXVI. 9.

1306 Dante visits Padua.

1307 He is in Lunigiana with the Marchese Marcello Malaspina. Purg.

C. VIII. 133. and C. XIX. 140.

Dolcino, the fanatic, is burned. H. C. XXVIII. 53.

1308 The Emperor Albert I. murdered. Purg. C. VI. 98. and Par. C.

XIX. 114.

Corso Donati, Dante's political enemy, slain. Purg. C. XXIV. 81.

He seeks an asylum at Verona, under the roof of the Signori della

Scala. Par, C. XVII. 69. He wanders, about this time, over va-

rious parts of Italy. See his Convito. He is at Paris twice ; and,

as one of the early commentators reports, at Oxford.

1309 Charles II. king of Naples, dies. Par. C. XIX. 125.

1

HELL.

CANTO I.

6

10

In the midway of this our mortal life,
I found me in a gloomy wood, astray
Gone from the path direct: and e’en to tell
It were no easy task, how savage wild
That forest, how robust and rough its growth,
Which to remember only, my dismay
Renews, in bitterness not far from death.
Yet to discourse of what there good befell,
All else will I relate discover'd there.

How first I enter'd it I scarce can say,
Such sleepy dulness in that instant weigh'd
My senses down, when the true path I left,
But when a mountain's foot I reach'd, where clos'd
The valley, that had pierc'd my heart with dread,
I look'd aloft, and saw his shoulders broad
Already vested with that planet's beam,
Who leads all wanderers safe through every way.

Then was a little respite to the fear,
That in

my

heart's recesses deep had lain,
All of that night, so pitifully pass'd :
And as a man, with difficult short breath,
Forespent with toiling, 'scap'd from sea to shore,
Turns to the perilous wide waste, and stands
At gaze; e'en so my spirit, that yet faild
Struggling with terror, turn’d to view the straits,

15

20

25

That none hath pass'd and liv’d.

My weary

frame
After short pause recomforted, again
I journey'd on over that lonely steep,
The hinder foot still firmer. Scarce the ascent
Began, when, lo! a panther, nimble, light,

30
And cover'd with a speckled skin, appear’d,
Nor, when it saw me, vanisli’d, rather strove
To check my onward going; that ofttimes
With purpose to retrace my steps I turn’d.

The hour was morning's prime, and on his way 35 Aloft the sun ascended with those stars, That with him rose, when Love divine first mov'd Those its fair works : so that with joyous hope All things conspir'd to fill me, the gay skin Of that swift animal, the matin dawn

40 And the sweet season. Soon that joy was chas'd, And by new dread succeeded, when in view A lion came, 'gainst me, as it appear'd, With his head held aloft and hunger-mad, That e'en the air was fear-struck. A she-wolf

45 Was at his heels, who in her leanness seem'd Full of all wants, and many a land hath made Disconsolate ere now. She with such fear O'erwhelmed me, at the sight of her appallid, That of the height all hope I lost. As one,

50 Who with his gain elated, sees the time When all unwares is gone, he inwardly Mourns with heart-griping anguish; such was I, Haunted by that fell beast, never at peace, Who coming o'er against me, by degrees

55 Impelld me where the sun in silence rests.

While to the lower space with backward step I fell, my ken discern'd the form of one, Whose voice seem'd faint through long disuse of speech. When him in that great desert I espied,

60 “ Have mercy on me!” cried I out aloud, “Spirit! or living man! whate'er thou be!”

He answer'd : “ Now not man, man once I was,
And born of Lombard parents, Mantuans both
By country, when the power of Julius yet

65

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