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The author desires to acknowledge the valuable assistance of ex-Senator WM. C. GEAR in the preparation of much of the statistical matter of this work.

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PREFACE.

At the very appropriate suggestion of Senator Jeremiah L. Carpenter, of the Eighth District, the appended is made the preface to this work :

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

[Became operative the first Wednesday in March, 1789.]
Pre AM ble.

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

ARTICLE I.
LEGISLATIVE Power.

SECTION I. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every-second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of

twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall

not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service"for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, threefifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and, until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment. Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Sena

tors of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the
second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expira-
tion of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if va-
cancies happen by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of
any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next
meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. -
No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty
years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when
elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but
shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.
The Senate shall choose their other officers, and have a President pro tempore, in
the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise the office of President
of the United States. -
The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for
that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the
United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be con-
victed without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from
office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit, under
the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to
indictment, trial, judgment and punishment according to law.
Sec. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and
Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the
Congress may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the
places of choosing Senators. -
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall
be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
Sec. 5. Each House shall be the judge of elections, returns, and qualifications
of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business;
but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to com-
pel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as
each House may provide.
Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for
disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.
Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time pub-

lish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy; and .

the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the de-
sire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the
other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which
the two Houses shall be sitting. -
Sec. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their
services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.
They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged
from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in
going to and returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either House,
they shall not be questioned in any other place.
No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected,
be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall
have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such
time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member
of either House during his continuance in office.
Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Represen-
tatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

s

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approves he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for or against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sunday excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

w Powers or con G Ress.

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; To borrow money on the credit of the United States; To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes; To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures; To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States; To establish post-offices and post-roads; To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive rights to their respective writings and discoveries; To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations; To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water; To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years; To provide and maintain a navy; To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces; To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions; To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the accept

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