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vorced from environmental study, is likely, moreover, to be in the nature of a static process, that is, to be based upon essentially dogmatic and “ systematic” foundations, which in their nature are likely to be uncritically unprogressive and conservative. Changing conditions of life necessitate changing ideals, or at least changing interpretations of old ones. Study of social environment will do as much as any other one thing to encourage the desirable dynamic element in idealbuilding

If there be any large measure of truth in the trend of thought followed out in this paper, the future will see a decided change in the type of mentality manifested by college graduates—a change from what Professor Giddings calls the dogmatic-emotional type to the critically-intellectual, and from mere convivial or austere character, as the case may be, to the cool-headed rationally-conscientious character, and finally from the type that secures coöperation and leadership thru dogmatism and emotional sympathy to that which secures it thru deliberation, discussion, investigation, and rational generalization. If indeed, as Professor Giddings asserts, we must acknowledge that “rational social choice, the formation of true public opinion, and the rational leadership of social activity are and must always continue to be, the function of the few," : it is because the production of this sort of rational efficiency is a difficult matter; and, if the college is today suffering much adverse criticism and is open to the charge of failure in this regard, it may be because it has failed to change its ideals to conform to changing social needs. In its aim at “character” perhaps it has sometimes if not always had in mind the dogmatic-sympathetic type and not the sympathetic-rational type which is almost surely the type which today is and will be the really efficient type in the satisfaction of both vocational and social needs. In the development of this sympathetical and rational efficiency the social sciences are to play a leading part.

A. B. WOLFE OBERLIN COLLEGE

Descriptive and historical sociology, p. 350, 351.

VII

CURRENT EDUCATIONAL PUBLICATIONS 1

308 p.

Anderson, Lewis F. History of common school education. New York, H. Holt and company, 1909.

Outlines the history and development of the common or non-professional

school, and of the science and art of common school education. Birdseye, Clarence F. The reorganization of our colleges. New York, The Baker & Taylor company, 1909. 410 p.

A reviewer in the Dial (April 16, p. 265), while conceding that much of

the emphasis of the book is timely, and some of it commendable," protests emphatically, against the temper and trend of this ambitious vol

We are told repeatedly and variously that the college is a factory-when it is not a department store; that the methods of the great industries and of the trusts are the only ones that can save the situation; that a separate department of administration is what colleges need."

ume.

Blandin, Mrs. Isabella Margaret Elizabeth. History of higher educa

tion of women in the South prior to 1860. New York and Washing

ton, The Neale publishing company, 1909. 328 p. Bradford, John Ewing, ed. The James McBride manuscripts. Sections

relating to the Miami university, 1. Cincinnati, Press of Jennings and Graham (1909) 40 p. (Historical and philosophical society of

Ohio. Quarterly publication. 4, I, January-March 1909) Brown, Robert Perkins, ed. Memories of Brown; traditions and re

collections gathered from many sources. Editors: R. P. Brown, 1871, H. R. Palmer, 1890, H. L. Koopman, librarian, C. S. Brigham, 1899 Providence, R. I., Brown alumni magazine company, 1909. 495 p:

Made up of traditions and recollections of Brown University gathered

from many sources, including a large number of alumni, old periodi. cals, and Mr. Authony McCabe, the latter for many years in the service

of the university. Buffalo public library. Class-room libraries for public schools. Listed by grades. 3d ed. Buffalo, Printed for the Library, April 1909.

Contains list of books for grades 1-9 respectively, author-title index, subject

index, books suggested for reference libraries in public schools, stories

and poetry about children for teachers and parents. Conference on the care of dependent children, Washington, D. C.,

January 25, 26, 1909. Proceedings. Washington, Government printing office, 1909. 231 p.

Should the state educational authorities exercise supervision over the edu

cational work of orphan asylums and kindred institutions? Discussion by Elmer Ellsworth Brown, William B. Streeter, Charles Richmond Henderson, Michael Francis Doyle, Mrs. William Einstein, B. Pickman

Mann, Henry W Thurston. p. 151-158. 1 Compiled by John D. Wolcott, of the United States Bureau of Educa. tion Library, to which books and pamphlets should be sent for inclusion in this record.

166 P.

Draper, Andrew S. Addresses and papers, 1908-1909. Albany, New York State Education Department (1909) 180 p.

CONTENTS.-The rational limits of academic freedom.-Desirable uniformity

and diversity in American education.-From manual training to technical and trades schools. The democratic advance in American universities.—The adaptation of the schools to industry and efficiency.—The school needs of a city.-Suggestions to the staff of the Education de. partment.--Agriculture and its educational needs.-Conserving child

hood.—Lincoln. Goldschmidt, Frau Henriette. Was ich von Fröbel lernte und lehrte; Sipe, Susan B. School gardening and nature study in English rural

versuch einer kulturgeschichtlichen begründung der Fröbel'schen erziehungslehre. Leipzig, Akademische verlagsgesellschaft m.b.h., ,

1909. 167 p., illus. Graves, Frank Pierrepont. A history of education before the middle ages. New York, The Macmillan company, 1909. 304 p.

“ Prof. Graves ... makes two facts plain: (1) that education, whether

in uncivilized or civilized society, has always aimed at preparation for life through adjustment of the individual to the social order into which he was born; (2) that in this process social progress has resulted from the development of individualism wherever permitted.”-Outlook, April 17,

p. 865. Illinois educational commission. Tentative recommendations in regard to minimum salaries for teachers. Springfield, 1909. 37 p.

Its Bulletin No. 7. McKeever, William Arch. Psychologic methods in teaching. Chicago, A. Flanagan company (1909) 332 p.:

The author sets forth his views in remarkably simple and clear

language. The object is to give the teacher an insight into the forces, that are employed in developing, and training a human being

from infancy to old age.”—Introduction by J. M. Greenwood. Misawa, Tadasu. Modern educators and their ideals. New York, D. Appleton and company, 1909. 304 p.

CONTENTS.-Introduction.-5. A. Comenius.—John Locke.-J. J. Rousseau.

Basedow and Kant.--Heinrich Pestalozzi.-J. C. Fichte.-Friedrich
Froebel.-J. F. Herbart.--Herbert Spencer.-G. W. F. Hegel.-W. T.
Harris and G. S. Hall. “ The book practically consists of excerpts

from the main works of the thinkers here chosen.”—Pref. Natorp, Paul. Philosophie und pädagogik; untersuchungen auf ihren grenzgebiet. Marburg, N. G. Elwert'sche verlagsbuchhandlung, 1909.

CONTENTS.-1. Über philosophie als grundwissenschaft der pädagogik.—

2. Individualität und gemeinschaft, eine philosophisch-pädagogische untersuchung.-3. Über philosophie und philosophisches Studium.-4.

Zum gedächtnis Kants.-5. Was uns die Griechen sind. Neet, George Wallace. Practical methodology. Valparaiso, Ind. The

M. E. Bogarte book co., 1909. 495 p. Norton, Arthur O. Readings in the history of education. Medieval universities. Cambridge, Harvard university, 1909. 155, P.

The first instalment of a series planned with the view of illustrating, mainly from the sources, the history of modern education in Europe

and America. Pomatto, Lorenzo. Lotte pedagogiche e lotte civili. Torino, S. Lattes

& c. (etc., etc.) 1909. 495 p. Shields, Thomas E. The making and unmaking of a dullard. Washington, D. C. The Catholic education press (1909] 296 p.

“ In this book an attempt is made to show some of the things that render school life odious to the children, some of those things that make truants and dullards out of the best of children [and] finally the relationship that exists between industrial processes and home duties on the one hand and the development of the child's mind and character on the other."-Introduction.

362 p.

schools and in London. Washington, Government printing office, 1909. 37 p. (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Office of experiment stations. Bulletin 204)

A report upon some investigations of methods of teaching nature study

and school gardening conducted by Miss Sipe in connection with a recent

visit to Europe. Smith, William Walter. Religious education; a comprehensive textbook. Milwaukee, Young Churchman co., 1909. 509 p.

CONTENTS.-1. The scope and aim of religious instruction.—2. The teacher,

his character and training.-3. The child and child-study, or the process of mind growth.—4. The lesson and its preparation.-5. The curricu. lum.-6. The class.--7. The school and its organization.-8. The history of religious education. “ The outcome of a wide demand for a complete handbook, covering fully all phases of religious education in the Church.”—Pref.

Sogard, John. Public school relationships; chapters on the interrelation

ships of the school officers, the teachers, the pupils and the community.

New York, Hinds, Noble and Eldredge (1909) 121 p. Stern, Clara und William. Erinnerung, aussage und lüge in der ersten

kindheit. Leipzig, J. A. Barth, 1909. 170 p. (Monographieen über

die seelische entwicklung des Kindes. 2) Stevenson, Adlai E. Education and business leadership. Chicago, Uni

versity extension association, 1909. 16 p. Sturdy, William A. The economy of education. Boston, J. D. Bonnell & son, 1909. 384 p.

" It is the purpose of this writing to demonstrate the present evils of the

educational system of America, and show the need of an American literature based upon American principles of progress, for the introduction

of economy in education.”—Introduction. Vargas, Moises. Bosquejo de la instruccion publica en Chile. Obra

dedicada a los señores delegados y adherentes al IV Congreso cienti fico (1. Pan-americano) 25 Diciembre de 1908, 5 Enero de 1909. San

tiago (1909) 453 p. Watson, Foster. The English grammar schools to 1660: their curriculum and practice. Cambridge, University press, 1908.558 p.

“The work is mainly bibliographical-an account of the books actually

used in schools from the invention of printing wn to the Restoration, and of the school curriculum... Prof. Watson...

what teachers did not what they intended to do—and he passes no judg. ment on their doings.”—Journal of education (London), February, 1909, p. 123.

tells

us

VIII

DISCUSSIONS

FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN THE HIGH SCHOOL

I read with great interest an article in the March number of the Review on “ Foreign languages in the high school.” I am not a school-teacher, but have been interested in languages and the methods of teaching them ever since I was in college fifteen years ago. I have also read a good deal of educational literature, have tried to keep abreast with the times, and have given some instruction in language during the past few years. Perhaps, therefore, my point of view as a layman not wholly unacquainted with the subject may be of some interest.

According to the author of the above-mentioned article, foreign languages are studied in the high school for two reasons: first, to obtain practical mastery of the language studied; and, secondly, to help one's English. Latin, he admits, is inferior to Greek from the literary point of view, and to German and French from the practical one. Yet he advocates Latin because of its supposed assistance in mastering the English language.

Such a claim seems to me to have an insufficient foundation. A good knowledge of Latin will undoubtedly help one to understand the English language: so will a good knowledge of French or Anglo-Saxon or German. But that the knowledge of any of these which can be acquired in the high school will be of much assistance in the practical command of English is very doubtful. Three months of English word-study with a good dictionary and a modern grammar will help one's English more than a four years' high-school course in Latin.

Briefly consider Latin from the four points of view of its

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