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International Correspondence School having admitted in an article in the American machinist that but 2.6 per cent. of the students have been awarded a certificate or diploma. The vast majority of men enrolling are soon discouraged, and frequently lose faith in their work.

The question may be asked, “ Are not the existing evening schools meeting the demands of this kind of education?” In order to enter our present evening high or technical schools the applicant must be a graduate of a grammar school or pass an examination equivalent to the work of the ninth grade. As I said above, very few of our industrial workers are graduates from the grammar schools, and those who are not, can not pass the entrance examination. Most of the students in the existing technical schools are superintendents, firemen, and overseers of shops and factories. So there is a need of an educational institution to meet the needs of the industrial workers. Some educators may say, as the principal of the textile school said to me, “ Let these workers go to the evening elementary school until they are qualified to pass the entrance examination to the technical or evening high schools.”

A former superintendent of public schools of Springfield, Mass., one of the foremost educators of the country, and one whose progressiveness is shown by the introduction of industrial training into public evening schools, sought to discover why mechanics, mill workers, etc., did not attend our present evening schools. One reason assigned was as follows:-Instruction in both the evening elementary and high schools usually draws a large number of people who are relatively young,—that is, boys and girls from 14 to 15 up to 25 years. Older mechanics and mill workers, who may, perhaps, have some reputation in their trade, and who wish to perfect themselves in certain technical lines, do not wish to be groupe with persons of that age, feeling that such persons, having come recently from the public schools, are able to answer questions better, use English better, and appear to better advantage than their older associates. Mature men are often sensitive about the comparisons which the younger members of the class are apt to make at their expense.

A second reason was that the public evening schools usually aim at teaching a subject quite systematically and modeled (possibly too much so) after the day schools. Industrial workers have intensely practical aims when they come to an evening school, and are unwilling to study systematically an entire subject; they demand that the instruction shall lead directly to the specific things which they want to know. If they are put into classes in which they are obliged to spend a month or more on preliminary work, the value of which they do not immediately discover, they will not attend.

So it is clear as the result of this investigation, that the present evening technical and evening elementary and high schools can not meet the educational needs of the industrial worker.

The purpose of most of our evening technical schools is to give not only the highest possible instruction in science, but the application of this knowledge to the operations of the industry. The evening courses are the same as the corresponding day courses. What is needed is a school lower in its entrance requirements and giving instruction of a character niore directly vocational or concerned with the daily needs of the worker. This idea has been carried out in the Lawrence Industrial School. It was established two years ago under the Industrial School Act. The school is free. Textbooks are furnished free. These books are edited by the instructors, and printed by the Commission on Industrial Education. The problems, drawings and notes are problems, drawings and notes coming from the mill and shops, so that the school keeps in touch with the industries. These notes and problems are obtained by means of a question box placed in the classrooms. The instructors are practical men working in the industries and conversant with the needs of the operators.

Our evening instruction appeals to the student immediately at the beginning of his work. For example, a young machinist had received a reprimand from his foreman because he could not read a working drawing with sufficient skill to do properly his daily work. He enrolled two years ago in the mechanical drawing course in the public evening drawing school, thinking this course would meet his deficiency. He found that the first two lessons were concerned with lettering plates, the next three with drawing straight and curved lines and the handling of instruments, and that the remainder of the term was spent on the projection of points, lines, surfaces, and solids. During all this time he was receiving in his daily work the same reprimands, and was therefore debating in his own mind the value of the drawing course. It is undoubtedly true that the drawing

. course this teacher had outlined in the drawing school is a proper one for teaching mechanical drawing for those who are to be draftsmen, but the average apprentice machinist as well as this young man does not see the direct application of this instruction to his work. He enrolled in the drawing school for a definite purpose. To be sure it was a narrow one, but nevertheless it had economic value to him. As the result of this young machinist's experience the principal of the Industrial School immediately offered a course in blue print reading and arithmetic for machinists. This is one of the most popular courses in the school.

The first lesson begins with some elementary instruction in the reading of simple drawings; to teach him in five lessons where to look for the dimensions denoting length, breadth, and thickness; to show him the principles of simple sectional drawings and have him comprehend the laying out of holes for drilling. Instead of leaving school at the fifth lesson, with no instruction which appealed to him, the student has received enough in those five lessons to fit him to meet the needs of his foreman, and is anxious to continue and receive the more definite and thoro instruction in the theory of mechanical drawing, so as to be able to make sketches of machines and parts by means of a ruler and compass. It is not the aim of this course to teach the students to make pretty picture drawings.

The instruction in the various branches of mathematics are adapted to meet the needs of the mill operative, the machinist, and the steam engineer. The terms used in the classroom savor of the shop and mill. For example, how to find the heating capacity of a boiler does not appeal to the weaver in the mill. On the other hand, how to find the size of pulley for a certain loom does not awaken the interest in the steam en


gineer as much as the problem involving the same operations dealing with a problem in the boiler room.

All our students are classified into vocational classes according to their trade. For example, there is a class in arithmetic for engineers and a separate class in the same subject for boiler firemen. Again, the textile designers have a class in arithmetic called cloth calculations. This idea carries out the plan of the old workingman's guilds. Each guild was formed for the purpose of social intercourse and mental stimulus. Each trade had its own guild. The daily trade experiences of each member became the property of all members. Discussion relating to the practises of their chosen trade occupied their attention. So today working men have common trade interests. Our evening students are grouped according to their occupations, and in this way have an opportunity to talk over these interests. The teacher acts as a leader and draws out the students in telling their trade experiences, and thru the expression of these various opinions the work practical solution of the particular problem at hand is obtained. It is difficult to get students to recite and express themselves at the blackboard. A free discussion of the point at issue makes the student lose his self-consciousness, and before he is aware of it, he is at the board illustrating his particular method of solution. Of course, such discussions are under the wise guidance of the teacher.

Provision is made for students who can not attend but once or twice a week. It is quite common for students to stay away because they can not attend “regularly.” This applies to a great many textile workers. In prosperous times the mills are run evenings, and the employed are expected to work overtime. But they can usually get away for one night in the week during such times. They can not always tell definitely what nights they will be called upon to work. Students who are working overtime are allowed to attend any night during the week after the work is fairly started. Such a plan is feasible. Boiler firemen alternate in working day and night. A fireman who works days this week will work nights next week, and so on. The week he works nights he attends the day classes, and the next week he attends the evening classes.

A certificate is awarded each person completing a course. Day classes are formed for the convenience of those who are unable to attend the evening sessions.

The school is in a position to compete with any of its kind, over $32,000 being represented in its up-to-date woolen, worsted, cotton, and steam machinery.

Classes in the following subjects will be formed for both day and evening pupils : Woolen and worsted spinning, woolen and worsted weaving, woolen and worsted finishing, dobby and jacquard weaving, cotton spinning, cotton weaving, loomfixing and loom calculations, mill arithmetic and mill book-keeping, elementary and advanced textile designs, elementary and advanced cloth calculations, industrial and commercial electricity, steam engineering for firemen, steam engineering for engineers, arithmetic for firemen and engineers, blue print reading, machine drawing and arithmetic for machinists, shop arithmetic, industrial and commercial chemistry, experimental and practical dyeing, and dressmaking for working girls.

The courses of woolen and worsted manufacturing are arranged to meet the daily needs of those working in these industries. Instruction is given in all the various processes employed in adapting the wool fiber to cloth; namely,—sorting, scouring, carding, combing, spinning, designing, weaving, dyeing, and finishing


The cotton courses are designed to meet the needs of the men working in these industries ;—to make better workers of them and to train them to think and take an interest in their work. If sufficient numbers register, classes will be formed in picking, carding, drawing, roving, spinning, combing, designing, and weaving. In connection with this work a course in knitting is offered. The equipment of the department is of the best up-to-date cotton machinery.


CHEMICAL LABORATORY This work is carried on in a building located in an ideal spot for a dye house. It is situated on the banks of the Merrimack

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