Mangrove Ecosystems: Function and Management

Capa
Springer Science & Business Media, 26 de mar de 2002 - 292 páginas
Protection of the environment has nowadays become a major challenge and a condi tion for survival of future human generations and life on Earth in general. Yet it is still far too much of a dream or hope rather than a reality in the policy of our societies. Presently we are experiencing an unprecedented exponential growth of demography combined with a race for profit, resulting in excessive consumption particularly of en ergy, and a serious impact on the world ecosystems. Various types of pollutants and emerging new diseases not only disrupt the normal course of life, but also above this some of the atmospheric pollutants are most likely involved in the changing climate. We fear and literally shiver at the thought that the "changing climate" would ultimately disrupt the fragile thermodynamic equilibrium between the atmosphere and the oceans. Are we insensitive to these facts to the point of pushing our descendants, some genera tions ahead, into a new glacial period after a first period of warming up, at least, in northern Europe, like the one that took place 13 to 14 millennia ago? Surely the planet's nature is not prepared to be dominated by man and will go its way, whether humanity will be alive or dead.
 

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Conteúdo

American Mangroves
1
112 Mangrove Diversification in the GulfCaribbean Region
5
114 Extension of Mangroves on the American Continent
6
12 Flora Composition and Distribution
11
121 True Mangrove Trees
12
122 Associated Flora
17
13 Mangrove Fauna
20
132 Crabs
21
IndoWest Pacific Mangroves
123
a Unique Marginal and Fragile System
125
33 Arid Coastal Systems Including Coastal Lagoons
129
34 Estuarine and Deltaic Mangrove Ecosystems
135
341 Mangroves of Bangladesh Sundarbans and Accretion Areas
142
342 South and Southeast Asia River Deltas
157
343 Mangroves of the Irrawaddy and Mekong River Deltas
158
35 Small Deltas and Coastal Mangrove Ecosystems
161

133 Mollusks
23
134 Fish
24
135 Insects
25
137 Reptiles
27
139 MangroveRoot Epibiontic Community
28
1310 The Sediment Fauna
29
1311 Mangroves and Fisheries
30
14 Mangrove Forest Structure and Development
31
142 Primary Production Biomass Distribution and Allocation
35
15 The Physical Environment
37
152 Hydrology
39
16 Environmental Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystems
41
162 Human Impacts
45
17 Mangrove Uses
52
18 Mangrove Management in the Neotropics
54
182 Management and Conservation of Mangrove Areas
58
19 Concluding Remarks
61
Mangroves of Africa
63
22 Extent and Distribution of Mangroves
66
222 East Africa
72
23 Physical Environment
77
232 East Africa
83
24 Mangrove Vegetation
86
242 Mangrove Zonation
88
243 Productivity
90
244 Ecophysiology
93
25 Mangrove Associated Fauna
97
252 Vertebrates
99
26 Uses of Mangroves
100
262 East Africa
103
27 Natural Threats to Mangrove Ecosystems
107
272 East Africa
108
28 Human Threats to Mangrove Ecosystems
109
Restoration and Rehabilitation
112
292 East Africa
115
210 Conclusion
118
Dedication
120
36 Oceanic Islands
174
361 Socotra
175
364 Mangroves from Other West Pacific Islands
185
365 Small Ocean Islands of the West Pacific
189
37 Systems Dominated by SocioEconomic Factors Management and Phenology
195
38 Concluding Remarks
211
Acknowledgements
215
Mangrove Phenologies and the Factors Influencing Them in the Australasian Region
217
42 Definitions
218
44 The Influence of Floral Phenologies on Genetic Variation
222
45 Year to Year Differences in Floral Development
224
46 Latitudinal Influences on Floral and Leafing Phenologies
226
461 Continuous Flowering in Equatorial Sites
227
47 Links between Floral and Leafing Phenologies in Avicennia marina
228
481 Predictions Based on Observed Patterns in Avicennia marina
229
482 Using the Equation Model to Predict Floral Phenologies of Avicennia marina
230
483 Testing the Model in a Special Case a Near Equatorial Site at Singapore
231
49 Conclusions
233
Integrated and Adaptive Mangrove Management Framework an Action Oriented Option for the New Millennium
235
52 Causes of Destruction and Wetland Loss
237
522 Property Rights and Mangrove Ecosystems
238
523 Government Failures and Management Rights
239
53 Diversity in the Mangrove System SpatialTemporal Variation in Wetlands
241
54 National Mangrove Policies Strategies and Plans
242
55 Economic Valuation
245
56 Uncertainty about SpatialTemporal Interconnectedness
247
57 Land Use Zoning
248
58 Community Participation
249
59 Integrated Adaptive Mangrove Management Framework IAMMF
250
591 Reflective Stage
251
592 Policy Options Stage
252
593 Action Management and Management Instrument
254
510 Application of the ThreeTiered Process
255
References
257
Subject Index
281
Taxonomic Index
287
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