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tion for which we can entertain no other feeling than contempt. A feeling of veneration for what is in itself venerable from age or association we reverence; but the affectation of building new houses to resemble old ones, is quite as ridiculous as it would be for a young man to affect the gait of his grandfather. There are a few large houses built of brown stone in the fashionable avenues, in imitation of Gothic castles, with pie-crust battlements and other follies; but the majority of the new houses in the upper part of the city, particularly those in the Fifth-avenue and Union. square, are truly fine specimens of street architecture. It is true that there is no Farnese nor Pandolfini palace among them yet, but contras. ted with the finest houses in the city some ten or fifteen years since, many of these buildings are truly of a palatial character. Much credit is due to Mr. French, the architect, who has built some of the finest of these splendid mansions. He was the architect of Stewart's marble store in Broadway, which has an imposing façade, although it is by no means free from very obvious defects of taste. He also built the splendid house of Mr. Penniman in Union-square, and the magnificent hotel of Colonel Thorn in Sixteenth-street. The house of Colonel Thorn is unquestionably the finest private dwelling in the country. It is not yet completed, but it has an air of unostentatious magnificence that no town house in the Union can pretend to. It is such a house as might have been expected from the elegant taste and ample means of the accomplished owner and the cultivated talents of his architect. It is constructed of brown free stone, and has a character of unpretending dignity not common with most of our new houses, which appear to lift themselves up on purpose to attract attention. Colonel Thorn is a gentleman of cultivated taste, whose experience in the fashionable world have been quite different from those of our ordinary men of fortune. During his residence in Paris he excited the envy of certain vagabond English writers, who manifested their hatred of America by attempting to ridicule a private citizen whose sole offence was liberal conduct and elegant hospitality. The English will forgive anything to an American sooner than his refinement of manners. They have chosen to erect their own standard of Americanism, and all who overtop it are sure of being ridiculed by their snubbish writers.
The social career of Colonel Thorn has been so frequently the theme of remark, that we inay be excused following for a moment, in connection with the subject in hand, his magnificent mansion in Paris. His brilliant entertainments, elegant equipages and princely expenditure attracted the attention of that vast metropolis, the modern Babylon of more than ancient grandeur, not merely that they were unrivalled in their kind, but for the singular phenomenon that an American, a republican, an unsophisticated Yankee, should have ventured into the proud domain of aristocratic splendor, and taken the prize in a costly race with the nobles and millionaires of Europe. It was a revelation of American ambition and energy in a new field, and of all others the last where the aristocracy expected to meet a transatlantic competitor. It may be supposed the pretensions of the presumptous intruder, in their eyes, were not acknowledged without some scrutiny, and downright curiosity was aroused by its novelty. Their surprise was not a little excited to find that instead of bowing his knee, cap in hand, in homage to their nobility, and grateful for its condescending patronage, they were compelled to subscribe to all the usual forms of etiquette, and be regularly and influentially presented at the almost royal residence of Col. Thorn in the rue Varennes.* There were many amusing anecdotes current of the re
* This splendid hotel was the property of Madame Adelaide, sister of Louis Philippe, and therefore royal in more senses than one.
pugnance with which persons, particularly the English people of rank, submitted to these rigid exactions of form. “Did you ever hear the like?" exclaimed the Earl of W, on one occasion in a noble company, “why there is no getting to this Yankee Colonel's house without being presented with as much ceremony as going to court. What is this world coming to ?" But their wonder was doubled whenever they got there. The sumptuous furniture, the order of the service, the rare richness of the entertainment, the rank of his guests, the ease and distinction of his family, converted even the arrogant, purse-proud English into subdued and respectful admirers of what they might imitate, but not surpass. The diplomatic dinners of Col. Thorn were readily attended by the ambassadors of all the first European powers at Paris, whilst his balls, soirees, &c. were thronged by the highest rank of Paris. Strange to say, that in the first city of Europe, the house of an American gentleman conferred the stamp of fashion on those only who were favored with its entree. The gossip of the day was busy with the probable amount of his yearly expenditures; and all the details of his splendid establishment were canvassed to get at this mooted fact. It was found that his stable contained some twenty-five horses of the choicest breed; that his family had all their separate and gorgeous equipages; that his list of servants numbered nearly thirty; that his silver plate was enormous; and that even his sevres dessert-dishes cost 100 francs apiece; that one of his grand balls must stand him in 25,000 fr. ($5000); and so with these data on hand did the quidnuncs of Paris struggle to estimate the sum total of an American fortune. To the honor of Col. Thorn be it recorded, that in the height of his social grandeur he never ceased to shower his hospitalities on his American friends. All who came with letter or introduction were cordially received and kindly entertained. A good peep at the lions of the day, noble, diplomatic, literary, &c., made the acquaintance of Col. Thorn very desirable to an American traveller. It is true that Col. Thorn incurred the furious ill-will of many of his countrymen who came to Paris because he did not ring the bells of Notre Dame and invite them all pell-mell to his fine house. They had heard so much of him that they scarcely thought peradventure he had never heard of them. it is customary with the world when it hears of good dinners and grand parties being given at where they are not present, for them to abuse the giver thereof and call him a humbug. As we have all been guilty sometime or other of such folly we had best say nothing more about it. But, as said before, we are glad for the sake of our domestic architecture, that Col. Thorn has erected a noble mansion in 16th street. It will help vastly to ornament our growing town and to improve the taste and knowledge of our builders.
But we consider another theory connected therewith of far more imporance still. With a house admirably adapted to entertainment Col. Thorn intended doubtless to renew amongst us his Parisian magnificence, and the admirable taste and experience that all must allow him will doubtless make him not merely an arbiter elegantiarum, but give him social influence that he may turn to the best advantage. Our society in New-York, made up as it is, not only of persons from all parts of the Union, but also of numerous individuals from all parts of the world unknown, stands sadly in need of a regulator, a sifter, as it were, that can be effectually brought to bear when a standard is once erected of conventional proprieties. The wholesome influence of a single house in New-York which insists upon education, absence of pretension, simple manners, courteous bearing, and a decorous tone of remarks as the true elements of a polished society, we say the effect of such an influenee here or anywhere cannot be in any degree overrated.
Club-life in London has added to the British metropolis some of the finest instances of street architecture of which it can boast; but this peculiarly English phase of human existence has not been yet sufficiently Americanised to develop itself in the shape of architectural embellishment here. The Racket Club, however, in their way, have given us a new street front of great beauty, in their new house next to Niblo's garden.
This is one of the handsomest houses in Broadway, and it is to be hoped that with the spread of clubism, which is now becoming very formidable among us, there will be a corresponding development of this modern discovery in social machinery, in an agricultural point of view. Broadway has not much to boast of in its houses, and the dearness of land, and the noise and bustle of the great thoroughfare having driven all the wealth and fashion which were centered There, into the Fifth and Second Avenues, and the neighboring cross streets, it must depend for its embellishments upon the club-houses, theatres, and hotels, which, in a few years, will line it from one end to the other. Building warehouses in Broadway is a pure desecration; there is room enough in the river streets for such buildings.
But many of the recent erections of warehouses below Wall street are handsome additions to the architectural ornamentation of Broadway. An especially fine warehouse has just been put up on the site of the Old Lennox house, which contrasts strangely with the former fine houses in Broadway. The old three story brick dwelling houses, in which our rich merchants were content to display their hospitality iwenty years ago, although spacious and comfortable in their construction, were entirely destitute of all architectural embellishments; they had no dressings to their windows, and the fan-light over the door, and sometimes a fantastic wooden pillar, of no particular order or character, were all that our best houses could boast of in the way of external ornament. Now, the humblest of our city dwellings, however, make a gratifying display of linowledge and taste in their frontage, while the better class of dwelliugs in the squares and the avenues show an improvement in architectural science really marvellous.
OBITUARY OF HON. A. 1. EVERETT.
It is with poignant emotions of sorrow that we are unexpectedly called upon to preface the following article from the pen of the Hon. Alexander H. Everett, with the melancholy intelligence of his sudden death. The last vessel only from China brought a parcel containing it, with a letter addressed to the friend now recording his decease, wherein he thus expresses himself:
Macao, China, May 16, 1847. Dear Sir-I write a few lines by the “Howqua,” merely to say that I send by the samo vessel under cover to you an article for the Democratic Review. It is another letter in the correspondence with Professor Tucker on Population and Wages, of which several have already appeared. This will be found, I think, to contain a good deal of information upon the state of things in the Celestial Empire and will probably be thought more interesting than the others.
This brief extract reveals the whole character of the man. No sooner arrived in China with much important public business on his hands, and disturbed in health, than he occupies himself immediately with industrious investigations into the state of the interesting country before him, and the condition of its people, which passing through the crucible of a mind like his, so practical, just and enlarged, could not but be in the highest degree valuable to his country and
interesting generally to the reading world. With what unaffected modesty too, he speaks of his labors, not more useful than disinterested, since they were cheerfully given as voluntary additions to the common fund of knowledge. His pen is now silent for ever. These columns which he has so often enriched with his learning and adorned by the graces of his style, will have lost a charm not easily supplied and cannot be forgotten. He closed his letter saying“I shall go to Canton to reside pretty soon, and shall then be a little more au fait touching other matters of interest to us." How solemn and touching this formal announcement of his intention to take up his permanent residence at Canton, which, by the dates of the event, he could hardly have reached before he was summoned to the tomb. Under ordinary circumstances the death of such a man would be justly a cause of generat mourning; but occurring as it did in a country so far removed; cut off from the sympathy and consolation of relatives and friends, with but the faithful partner of his bosom to soothe him in his last extremity; a few brief weeks having only elapsed from his arrival ; his active mind already aroused by the novel objects about him; his deliberate preparations to devote himself to long and continued study ; little dreaming, alas! that he was on the verge of newer and deeper mysteries in that dread world “from wbence no traveller returns;" it is impossible to dwell on a series of facts so natural and affecting as these, without giving way to those ming!ed feelings of grief and awe so likely to be inspired by their contemplation. This is not the moment, with sensibilities lacerated by the severity of so unlooked for a loss, to attempt a calm appreciation of his rare mental attainments and various lofiy traits of char acter. His ability learning and industry are well known to the country, since for long years back he has widely and richly contributed to our periodical and standard literature.
In political life he rose to the most conspicuous stations, which he owed rather to the elevation of his mind and the distinction of his character than to mere party service; for happily he was not one of those, who, in the eager pursuit of personal aggrandizement, sacrificed on the hollow shrine of party devotion talents and acquirements destined for a higher purpose and a purer sphere. No; to his honor be it said, that he never
-Narrowed his mind, And gave up to party what was meant tor mankind." The last act of his life comes now to confirm this. The interesting and valuable remarks which it is our sad but honorable office to give to the public, a legacy as it were of the de. parted scholar, is not in the nature of an official report addressed to the government which he faithfully served, but a conscientious and pains-taking essay on subjects fraught with the high. est utility to the welfare of his fellow men. It will be read for its own sake far and wide by all classes of his countrymen and not a few of them who have been benefitted in times past by his instructions but will cheerfully pay the full meed of grateful homage to his long and arduous term of service in their behalf. He bas deserved well of his country-he has honestly labored for the profit of his age and generation; and with due reverence, these may be considered as sacred claims to the approval of a higher tribunal, whose rewards are promised 10 those who put their talents out to interest.“ Well done thou good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord.” We refrain from dwelling on this painful subject oppressed by a deep sense of our incompetency to do it justice. To others more worthy, the duty to pay a fitting tribute to talents and virtues which demand a loftier acknowledgment, but cannot receive an offering more sincere than that we now tearfully depose on his new-made grave. But ere we close this last expression of our recollections of this estimable man, let proper record be made of one quality of his nature, which none better than ourselves was capable of appreciating. Reared as Mr. Everett was, in a community where severity of manners is al. lied to great moral and religious austerity; his education serious, his temperament reserved, his habits grave, it could be only by the efforts of a really great understanding that he should have nurtured a tolerance of disposition that gave forbearance to his judgment and softness to his affections. Hence, whilst he loved learning he was friendly to the arts; and setting by his course a bright example of unspotted worth, he was mild to encouragement in his conduct to others less wise and less fortunate than himself. With the ancient he might have said :
“ Homo sum, humani nihil alienum á me puto," Adieu, the ripened scholar, the able writer, the distinguished politician, the excellent man. Adieu, Alexander Everett,
THE CONDITION OF CHINA,
WITH REFERENCE TO THE MALTHUSIAN THEORY, AS DISCUSSED IN A CORRE
SPONDENCE BETWEEN ALEX. H. EVERETT AND PROF. GEO. TUCKER, LATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA.
MACAO, April 30, 1847. DEAR SIR,
In a letter, which I addressed to you, nearly a year ago, from on board the United States ship Columbus, I promised to communicate to you the result of my observations on the state of population in this country, and its influence upon the reward of labor, or rate of wages—a question which had previously been the subject of an amicable correspondence between us. I quoted in that letter a passage from a recent work by Mr. Tradescant Say, in which he expressed the opinion, that the condition of the mass of the people in China affords a remarkable example of the favorable influence of the density of population upon the supply of the necessaries and comforts of life; and would even authorise the belief, which he professed himself to entertain, that the progress of population is the true index and principal immediate cause of the progress of national prosperity.
I regret to be obliged to add, that this estimable person, who, after publishing the work alluded to, was appointed British Consul at Amoy,-one of the four newly-opened ports,-has since died at his post. He was highly esteemed by his countrymen, and by the foreign community in general, and his early death is deplored as a public loss. He was one of the few foreigners who were willing to pardon some peculiarities of manners and character in the inhabitants of the Celestial Empire; and, without overlooking their defects, to render justice to their good qualities. It has given me pleasure to be able to cite the authority of so competent a judge in support of my own views, and, at the same time, to pay this slight tribute of respect to the memory of a most deserving and excellent man.
The state of the population in China is, on every account, a very curious subject. Its immense and wholly unparalleled amount--supposing the commonly received accounts to be well established—renders it one of the moral wonders of the world. Nearly four hundred millions of men, associated under one government, and composing one consolidated state—are a phenomenon, not only unequalled, but entirely unapproached in political history. It becomes, therefore, a matter of great interest to ascertain, first, how far the commonly received accounts can be relied on,-in other words, what the population of China really is ;-and, secondly, what sort of influence it exercises upon the character and condition of the people. So far as I have had opportunity to examine the subject, I see no reason to reject the common accounts, in which I also understand you to concur. The wonder, in fact, does not lie so much in the great density of the population, since China, in this respect, does not differ materially from the more densely peopled portions of Europe. It lies rather in the vast number of persons, who are here congregated into one political system. In regard to the influence of the state of population, such as it is, you suppose that its extraordinary density has had a disastrous operation upon the condition of the working classes, and reduced them to abject misery. I think I shall be able to satisfy you
that this opinion is erroneous, and that the working classes in China are fully as well, if not better paid for their labor than those of any other country.
VOL. XXI.-NO, CXIII.