Instrumental Multi-Element Chemical Analysis
In the past, the analysis of materials containing several elements presented unique problems for analytical chemists, so a sequence of wet chemical qualitative tests were performed to ensure each element in a sample was detected. Quantitative tests could then be performed with confidence. Modern analytical chemists can call on a range of specialist instrumental techniques which can detect the presence of all elements, often all at once, and often quantitatively. The drawback is that the instruments tend to be expensive, suited to particular sample types or matrices and complex in both setting up and in the interpretation of results. Furthermore the general analytical chemist may have access and familiarity with only one or two methods. The purpose of this book is to familiarize analytical chemists with all the multi-element analysis techniques, to enable them to specify the most appropriate test for any given sample.
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Inductively coupled plasma optical emission and mass spectrometry
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absorbance absorption acid activation addition amount Anal analysis analyte angle applications atoms background beam calculated calibration charge Chem chemical chromatography column common complex concentration conductance containing correction counts cross-sections decay depends depth detection detector determination distribution effects electrode elements emitted energy equation example exchangers excitation factors Figure flame function gamma-rays given half-life higher important incident increasing intensity interferences ionization ions irradiation isotope layer lead light limit mass materials matrix means measured metal method needed neutron nuclear obtained occur oo oo oo organic oxide particles peak phase photons plasma possible potential present radiation range ratio reaction reduced reference relatively sample scattering selectivity sensitivity separation signal solution species spectrometer spectrum standard surface Table techniques temperature trace tube usually wavelength X-ray