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A ABDUL MEDJID, Khan, late Sultan of Tur- most important of these measures were: the rekey, born May 6, 1822, succeeded to the throne organization of the army in 1843 and 1844, the July 1, 1839, died June 25, 1861. Educated in creation of new ministerial departments of comthe seclusion of the harem, and coming to the merce and public works, the reorganization of throne at the early age of 17, and possessing the provinces, the promulgation of a penal code naturally a kindly but indolent and almost and of a code of commerce, the establishment effeminate nature, it was hardly possible that of mixed tribunals allowing Christians a share he should have become an efficient ruler over with Mussulmen in the administration of jusan empire so extensive, and peopled by races tice, the introduction of a new monetary system, so diverse, even in the most favorable period the abolition of the Kharadj, or capitation tax, of its history. But his accession to the throne previously levied on all who were not Mussultook place at a time of unusual commotion, men; the reform of the system of public educaand when the strong arm of a wise and vigor. tion, and the introduction of postal service, ous ruler could hardly have saved the empire railroads, telegraphs, the regulation of quaranfrom disintegration and ruin. His father had tines, the establishment of banks, &c. been a man of great energy and iron will, and These reforms were at first put in force in had initiated reforms which, in the opinion of the capital, and thence extended gradually to the more fanatical Moslems, struck at the very the remoter provinces. Not being in the nefoundations of their faith. The ill-concealed ture of absolute decrees, but rather suggestions hostility of the mass of the Mohammedan peo- for reform, whose stringency was to be inple to these reforms would have awed a less creased as the people would bear them, they resolute ruler than Mahmoud II., and his death were at first of little effect,' except immediately leaving his reforms but half accomplished, en- in the vicinity of the capital. In Sept. 1854, couraged the hopes of the reactionary party. desirous of giving them a wider scope and a Nor were there wanting other causes of anxie- more decided efficacy, the sultan called a county to harass the mind of the boy sultan. Me- cil of tanzimat, or congress of representatives hemet Ali, Pasha of Egypt, his most powerful from all parts of his empire, and laid before vassal, had placed himself in an attitude of open them his measures. On the 18th February, rebellion during the lifetime of Mahmoud II., 1856, he issued a new Hatti-Humayoum or imand his son, Ibrahim-Pasha, on the 24th of perial decree, conforming and enlarging the June, 8 days previous to Abdul Medjid's acces- propositions of the Hatti-Scherif. These meassion to the throne, had defeated the sultan's ures indicated the progressive disposition of troops in the decisive battle of Nezib. The in- the sultan, and his desire to become an efficient terference of the allied powers alone prevented ruler. They were undertaken under circumthe Turkish empire from dismemberment at this stances of great difficulty ; from the commencejuncture.
ment of his administration to its close, there This danger passed, the young sultan applied was constantly some disturbing element to dehimself to the development of his father's plans lay or thwart his purposes: the Turko-Egyptof reform. The first step in this direction was ian question at the commencement of his reign, the promulgation of the Hatti-Scherif of Gul- and subsequently the Servian question; the inKhané, in Nov. 1839. This Hatti-Scherif was a surrection in Albania; the war in Koordistan; general decree in the nature of a bill of rights, the troubles in Syria, in Bosnia, and Montenedeclaring the equality of all his subjects, wheth- gro; the Turko-Greek and Wallachian revolu. er Mussulmen or not, before the law. Its in- tion of 1848–9; his noble refusal to surrender tention was inore fully developed in the subse- the Hungarian and Polish refugees, who had quent measures, now included under the name sought protection on his soil, to Austria and of the tanzimat, or system of reforms. The Russia in 1850 ; the question of the holy places which led to the Crimean war; the attempt to and not recognizable by analyses or microscopic assassinate him in 1859; and the Syrian mas- investigations. Thus we find that the feldspar sacres of 1860, were all so many obstacles to rock, containing seventeen per cent. of potash, his progress. To these might also be added bis when ground to the finest powder, will not natural indolence and love of sensual indul- supply potash directly to the higher class gence, his infirm health and his yielding disposi- of plants—still a rock containing feldspar will tion, which made him often the helpless prey of furnish potash to those of a lower class, such the dissolute ministers and the rapacious harem as the lichens and mosses, etc.; and on their which controlled him. He has been succeeded decay it returns to the soil in a progressed or adby his brother, Abdul Aziz Khan.
vanced condition, capable of being assimilated AGRICULTURE is the art of cultivating the by a higher class of plant. earth in order to increase the quantity and im- It is for this reason that, while ground feldprove the quality of its productions.
spar fails to prove a valuable amendment to The practical farmer should be able to raise soils, requiring additions of potash, unleached from a given number of acres, the largest quan- wood ashes so readily furnish plants with this tity of the most valuable produce, at the least necessary alkali. cost, in the shortest period, and without perma- The same truth is observable with phosphate nent injury to the soil; and therefore the great of lime, so readily assimilated by plants when problem which the present age has to solve, furnished in the form of animal bones, even is the discovery of the means of producing on after they have been heated to redness, so that a given area, a larger amount of bread and the phosphate of lime which they contain is meat to supply the wants of a continually in- freed from all surrounding matters. creasing population.
This same substance, without any differences The object of these remarks will not be to which may be recognized by the chemist, is give any history of agriculture, but rather to found in large quantities in what is known as show the advantages which have arisen from the phosphatic rocks, and some of them contain the application of the sciences to its practice, ninety-five per cent. of pure phosphate of lime; until it may now be truly said, in its present still when this is ground to a powder it will not status, to compose a science in itself
, embracing be assimilated by the roots of plants in contact the operation of the natural laws in their most with it; and many soils formed in part of the extended sense, and covering, as part of its chlor-apatite rock require additions of more accessories, much of geology, chemistry, etc. progressed phosphate before their cultivation
We shall aim rather to demonstrate that can be rendered profitable. which experimental theories have culminated The same may be said of lime, for although during the last few years into exact knowledge, primitive limestone when burnt so as to render than to give descriptions of the leading and it caustic, is valuable to the farmer as a means more prominent improvements in agriculture as of disintegrating other materials in the soil an art. It is now well understood that all known from its chemical effects, yet lime so furnished primaries are to be found in the soil, itself be- will not form direct food for plants, while lime ing chiefly composed of the debris of rocks, arising from organic decomposition is readily whence have arisen all of the primaries, except assimilated by them. those which have existed in more dilate form, Two thousand bushels of lime, made by burnas in the atmosphere.
ing limestone rock of Westchester Co., N. Y., For a long time it was supposed by chemists applied to a single acre, will render the land that the analyses of plants and soils would fur- sterile for many years, itself forming less than nish a sure guide to the farmer in his selection two per cent. of the weight of this soil to a of the amendments requisite to the production depth of fifteen inches. of crops. Recent investigations, however, prove There are many chalk farms, however, in that these primaries, as found in the ashes of England, containing forty per cent. of carbona plant, differ materially in their functions, from ate of lime, (which is the form which the the same primaries existing in the rock or in Westchester lime assumes before the farmer the soil, unless they have been redeposited in uses it;) but this latter (chalk) has its origin in the soil by the decay of organisms; that each organic decay, and therefore is readily assimiprimary, when taken up and appropriated by a lated by plants to the extent they require lime plant, and then restored again to the soil by to form part of their ash when burned ; and the decay of the plant, possesses functions which the quantity in excess is not unfriendly to surare entirely distinct from those belonging to a rounding vegetable growth. primary before its entrance into organic life: Indeed this principle is true of each and all and thus arable soils are composed in part of the primaries in nature; thus, old soils which inorganic matter which belonged originally to have been fairly and properly treated, are more the rocks, then to the soil, then forined a part fertile than new ones. As a general principle, of organic life, and on being restored to the therefore, it should be understood that, in the soil, became ready to act as pabulum to a higher selection of fertilizers, those taken from the organism; and that each time a primary so en- refuse of factories, etc., or at least from the ters into organic life, it takes new functions and highest organic sources, should be preferred. qualities not belonging to its original condition, Many of the ingredients in the soil have the
power of absorbing and retaining ammonia and droughts oven at midsummer, will be speedily other gases consequent upon organic decay, covered on its outer surface with drops of wawhich are brought down with rains and dews ter, which of course are condensed from the from the atmosphere, and these give to water atmosphere; for if the soil be dry the atmosthe power of dissolving much larger quantities phere must contain moisture, however dilate, of inorganic matter than can be taken up by as there are but two places in which it can positively pure water. Of the ingredients hav- exist, viz., the earth and the atmosphere-its ing such power, the chief are carbon and alu- quantity at all times must be constant. In the mina: were it not for the presence of which in same way, then, the surfaces of particles of soil the surface soils, the decay of organic life would colder than the atmosphere, are capable of renot be retained for the use of forthcoming crops, ceiving a proper degree of humidity, which in but would filter downward and render every turn is capable of absorbing all the gases from well and spring a cesspool.
the atmosphere requisite to render the moisture So perfect is the action of these materials a more perfect solvent of the inorganic food rethat one per cent. of either or both, disseminated quired to sustain plants: in this state, and in through a soil to a depth of 12 inches, is quite this only, can plants receive it--they cannot capable of abstracting from fluids, during their take up inorganic matter unless in solution, and downward course, most of those substances re- no plant can grow without its reception. All quired to sustain plant life; and recent discov- these necessary conditions may be secured by eries are quite sufficient to assure the agricul- Underdraining and Subsoil-ploughing. turist that he need not fear the loss of ma- Underdraining.–This consists in burying bcnures by downward filtration. A pure gravel neath the soil, in a proper manner, a series of or positively pure sand are the only exceptions tubes or pipes, so made as to be capable of rewhich are practically to be met with, and these, ceiving from the soil any excess or surplus of overtopped by a loam to an ordinary depth, will water it may contain, and leading it to lower never receive from the upper soil any solutions points whence it may be discharged and find which would be valuable to plant life, unless its way to outlets. For the method of consuch solutions be added in quantities far be- structing underdrains, we would refer the yond what would ever be applied in practice. reader to the recent works of Judge French, Were it not for this law, all the progressed and Klippart, and others. The best specimen of more solable portions of organic life would have practical underdraining with which we are acpassed towards the earth's centre, leaving the quainted, may be found at the Central Park, surface sterile and incapable of sustaining man. New York. The full understanding and appreciation of this Millions of acres of apparently valueless soils fact may be fairly registered as belonging to have been rendered capable of profitable culthe year 1861; for, although before suggested, tivation by underdraining. Drains have been it has not been generally admitted and under- made of stones, porous pipe, tile, wooden tubes stood until this time.
of various kinds, etc.; but practice has proved In the mechanical operations upon the soil, that the ordinary draining tile, made of unwhile agriculture was pursued simply as an art, glazed burnt clay, forms the safest and most the farmer merely knew that a disturbance of efficient and durable underdrain, It is also the surface produced increased results—but he ascertained that the tiles laid at a depth of five now understands the laws on which such in- feet, in soils where underdrains may be so crease depends.
deeply constructed, produce results better than Rains and dews may be viewed as the natu- those attainable by drains of less depth. These ral means of cleansing the atmosphere, taking drains should be at such distance apart as to therefrom all the volatile exudations of organic thoroughly remove all excess of water from life and restoring these to the soil for reassimi- the soil, and in so doing, they insure full aëralation. We find the atmosphere at all times bion. Both ends of each drain should be open containing certain proportions of these gases, to and at the surface, producing a continuous and during droughts the quantity held in at- draft of air always passing through them, and mospheric suspension is materially increased. as the atmosphere is warmer than the soil, the
The first half-pint of rain, falling on the roof heat rising during its borizontal travel passes of a house, during a shower, will be found so into and through the soil, materially elevating highly charged with ammonia, sulphuretted its temperature—it also secures motion to the hydrogen, etc., as to emit a peculiar odor; con- air in the soil, which, in passing between the sequently the water from dews and the early particles, supplies the necessary amount of huparts of showers is more valuable to farmers midity, and with it those gases which guaranthan that furnished by coutinuous rains. To tee all the chemical changes required to furnish fully avail of this effect, the soil should be the inorganic food to plants. deeply disintegrated so as to permit the atmos- The chief advantages of underdraining may phere permeating the soil to deposit its mois- be summed up as follows: ture upon the surface of the colder particles be- “ Underdrained soils never suffer from neath the surface of the soil. We all know drought," provided that the subsoil be disin. that a glass vessel containing ice or cold water, tegrated as in the process known as subsoilif placed in the sun's rays at midday, during ploughing. Leșs manure will suffice for crops. The after disintegration of the soil is more that, in after ploughings, the depth of the surface readily and cheaply performed. Its tempera- furrow may be increased. Grass lands previously ture is increased, and therefore a longer season underdrained and subsoil-ploughed, never run of growth is secured. The best proof of the out, and the full ratio of crops may be mainusefulness of underdraining, however, is to be tained for any length of time, by slight topfound in the fact that the English Government, dressings, of such amendments as have not yet and many chartered companies and individual been progressed from the soil itself. capitalists, have freely loaned money on mort- Where subsoiling and underdraining are not gage to English farmers for the purpose of un- practised, mowing-lands and pastures are conderdraining their soils, and that these mort- tinually lessening in their products, so that the gages are only active after a valuation-in farmer is compelled every few years to take his other words, the mortgages only bear upon the land out of grass, and carry it through a series increased value of the soil consequent upon of rotation of crops, before he can reěstablish underdraining. After the expenditure of mil- a grass crop. The foregoing may be considered lions of pounds sterling in this way, scarcely as an epitome of the greater improvements conan instance can be found where the income of nected with the proper mechanical preparation the farmer has not been increased sufficiently to of the soil, together with the necessary rationale enable him to pay his underdrainage mortgage, for coinprehending the causes of the benefits leaving him an increase of profit ever after, to be derived therefrom; and all other and after while the nation at large is permanently ren- manipulations are but the presentation of the dered wealthier by the system. Indeed it is same desirable conditions to the surface soil, doubtful if England could at this time sustain in a more minute and extended manner, so as her population, were it not for the increase of to avail of the same laws more rapidly and crops consequent upon the underdraining of the effectively. No farmer can reasonably expect land.
to avail of the largest amount of profit, who has Subsoil-ploughing. It is only within a few not prepared his surface and subsoil in the years that the process of subsoil-ploughing has manner we have indicated; for, be his surface been rendered practicable, for although known cultivation what it may, and the use of fertilfor many years as a needed improvement in the izers ever so liberal, his profit will not be as culture of soils, the tools presented for such use great as that of his neighbor whose farm is unwere inadequate until the invention of the lift- derdrained and subsoil-ploughed. ing subsoil-plough, by the writer of this article. Fertilizers.-In old times, farmers sometimes This implement is known as Mapes' lifting sub- suffered their land to remain without crops for soil-plough, and is formed of a lozenge-shaped the purpose of enabling it to gain in fertility. wedge of steel, point forward, like a spear-head This was accomplished by the slow reception laid horizontally, and forming a series of in- from the atmosphere of gases capable of enaclined planes, gradually rising from the point to bling the moisture in the soil to dissolve new its bridge or highest part, being an elevation of quantities of the inorganic constituents, storing only five-eighths of an inch. This horizontal them up until, by their accumulation, the soil was wedge is sustained to a beam by two curved again capable of bearing crops. This was called knives placed vertically, and by these means, falloring. The modern improvements, howas with other plough-beams, the instrument is ever, of underdraining and subsoil-ploughing, propelled in the usual manner. In practice, the will secure all the advantages of the fallowing surface-plough precedes the subsoil-plongh, mov- system, and in a much shorter time; for it is ed by a separate team. The subsoil-plouglı fol- now adınitted that “the true rest of the soil is lows with its beam in the bottom of the furrow, a judicious succession of crops.” This result thus disintegrating to a depth of 12 inches or is farther accelerated by presenting to the soil more, beneath the bottom of the surface fur- the necessary food for plants in a progressed row, raising the soil five-eighths of an inch, and shape, of organic origin, so that the growing in so doing, causing the separation of particle crop is fed independently of the soil in place; from particle, as in the soilover an ordinary mole- therefore permitting it, as in the following protrack, but to a width, at the surface, of twenty cess, to augment the quantity of plant food rapinches, an this disintegration is more perfect idly; for it must be understood that moisture than between the particles of a soil turned over is enabled to dissolve increased quantities of in a furrow-slice, as with the surface-plough. each of the inorganic constituents, when the
The subsoil-plongh insures to the subsoil full roots of a growing crop are present. In the depth for the travel of roots, also permitting use of fertilizers, the farmer should not inquire, the entrance of atmosphere; the surface loam " with how small a quantity can I create a crop.?" is consequently gradually deepened to any re- but rather, “how large a quantity may I use quired depth ; for while the loam as a new soil, with increased profit?" for, with an increased may have a depth of but 6 inches, and the quantity, not only does he increase the amount farmer is constrained to that depth of surface- and quality of a current crop, but he leaves the ploughing; still, by the use of a subsoil-plough, he soil increased in productiveness for the future. may disintegrate without elevating the sub- Manures of the farm.-These are of the first soil
, which will gradually change by utmos- importance, and require the greatest amount of pheric and other influences into a loamy soil, so care for their proper manipulation, admixture, and use. The value of farm-yard and stable into sulphates which are non-volatile, thus manures consists mainly in the progressed in. preventing evaporation, malaria, etc. organic matter they contain, and in the state of Special fertilizers which are soluble may be division in which that matter exists, and not, thrown into the cisteru, and so find their way as many suppose, in the amount of nitrogen through the mass, and, with it, to the fields. or ammonia they contain; for the value of am- When the drainage is insufficient to supply monia consists, not in being a food for plants, but the necessary amount of moisture, water may in its ability to give to water the power of dis- be passed into the cistern, and when fluid masolving new portions of the soil itself, passing it nures are called for to be used on the farm, they through the proper chemical changes to fit it may be taken from this reservoir, and distribfor plants. It is doubtful if any plant ever re- uted by a sprinkling-cart. ceived, through its roots, any of the constitu- With such an arrangement all kinds of farm ents of ammonia; and it is only to this func- manures may be thoroughly combined, securtion of ammonia that the farmer need look for ing such chemical changes as will do away with any advantage from its use.
the disadvantages consequent upon their sepaİf his soil be fairly arable, from former use, rate use, such as the unfavorable influence of and be thoroughly underdrained, and subsoil- hogmanure, when used alone upon the brassica ploughed, containing a full share of progressed tribe of plants, clump-rooting cabbages, giving inorganic food for plants, he will find no bene- ambury, or fingers and toes, to turnips, eto. fit from the application of ammonia in any The manure of the hen-house should frequently form; for soils so prepared will receive all be added to the compost heap, so as to be more they require of nitrogenous matters from the evenly divided through it. atmosphere, as they will be continuously con- The pump with which the cistern is supplied densing from that source moisture charged may be moved by a small wind-mill, placed with gases. We, freely admit that on badly- above the shed, causing the changes to be conprepared soils, merely surface-ploughed, and pre- tinuous by the downward filtration through the senting so slight a depth of soil to atmospheric mass followed by the atmosphere. influences that the necessary quantity of nitro- The value of manure so prepared, diluted gen cannot be received, it is necessary to in- with many times its bulk of waste organic crease the solvent power of the moisture they matter, such as muck, leaves from the woods, contain so as to secure the solution of a suffi- woods-earth, etc., is greater per cord after fercient amount of inorganic pabulum to sustain mentation than that of the pure manure kept crops; but the real value of every manure, in an open barn-yard, while the quantity will so far as furnishing the constituents of plants is be materially greater, no loss by washing or concerned, is due not only to the amount of in- evaporation having occurred. When potash is organic food which it contains, but toits condition required by the soil, it may be added in the or state of progression, and not to the amount form of wood-ashes, and other special amendof nitrogen combined therewith in any form. ments, in solution or otherwise. These will
The best cultivators do not use open barn- not only find their way to the field, but while yards as the receptacle of manures, but the in the compost heap will furnish chemical acmanures of the farm are removed daily to ad- tion for the decomposition of all other portions, jacent manure-sheds, where the compost is securing at the same time their own disseminaplaced on and above the surface of the ground, tion throughout the mass. So much for farmwith a drainage cistern at the lower end of the yard manures; but who can produce so large a shed, furnished with a pump, so that the fluid quantity of such manures (whatever may be drainage of the manure heap may be thrown the extent of his stables) as may be used on from the cistern on top of the mass, and by its his land with increased profit? We claim that downward filtration through the compost sup- no farmer or stock-breeder can do so, and when, ply moisture and convey the soluble portions under these circumstances, the farmer has the to the inert parts, causing continuous ferment- means of farming more profitably, he must of ation without excessive heat, preventing fire- necessity become the buyer of fertilizers; there fanging, and insuring entire disintegration, de- are but few localities where farm and stable stroying weed seeds, and breaking up organic manures can be purchased; those mandres forms of all kinds, so that the mass may be- made upon the farm itself may be used with come homogeneous without the labor or ex- profit, but if they are to be carted from a dispense of turning by forking, etc. All the fluids tance, the transportation will generally render of the stables, house, etc., may be carried by them more costly than other fertilizers. Facgutters to this cistern, the compost heap may tory wastes of various kinds frequently may be be supplied with muok, meadow mud, head- purchased at less cost near towns and cities. lands, weeds, and all waste materials of the Night-soil, also, may be used with advantage. farm, and by the continued and repeated infil- Peruvian guano contains many of the constitutration of the soluble portion through all other ents required by crops, and when properly parts, the admixture will become more perfect treated before use is an admirable manure ; it than by any other method; the occasional ad- should be finely ground and mixed with some dition of sulphuric acid to this cistern will con- divider, such as charcoal dust, woods-earth, or fert all the volatile products of decomposition even the ordinary soil of the farm, and should