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have been, after all, the overlooking By the mouth of Isaiah, XLIII, 10, the previous apostasy and revelation the Lord saith of the Jews, “ Ye of the man of sin, and supposing are my witnesses ;” and again, v. that the advent of Christ, instead of 12, “ Ye are my witnesses that I being nigh, and only "withheld"

am God;" and again, chap. XLVIII. by the necessity of the previous 8. “ Ye are my witnesses.". Thus revelation of the man of sin, had we have the authority of God himarrived, or at least was actually im- self for calling the Jewish church one pending-—EVEOTNKEV? Moreover verse of His Witnesses. But the Jewish 5 of chap. III, will hardly bear the church is considered as the type of interpretation given to it by our the Gentile church, and in Canticles translators-εισ την υπομονην το IV. 9, and visi. 8. they are called Xplote, is rather—" into the patience sisters ; therefore it may be said that of Christ,” than “ into the patient the Gentile church is the other Witwaiting for Christ.” It evinces how- ness. To this the words of our ever that our Translators thought Saviour himself agree, who says of with M. N. D. that the Thessalon- the Apostles--and, through them, ians were certainly not alarmed of the Gentile church-· Ye are at the thought of the advent; but Witnesses of these things.” (Luke needed to be exhorted “that it is xxiv. 48.) And Peter also," We good for a man both to hope and are his Witnesses of these things." quietly wait the salvation of the (Acts 1.32; and x. 39.) It is thereLord.”_EDITOR.]

fore in perfect accordance with the

word of God to call the Jewish and Dear Sir,

Gentile churches “ The Two WitI beg to submit, for your investigation, two or three disputed pas- But we have still further proof of sages in the book of Revelation this truth if we consider the explawhich appear to me, when inter- nation given of the two Witnesses : preted by the analogy of Scripture, “ these are the two olive trees and so plain and simple, as to create a the two candlesticks standing before surprise that there ever should have the God of the whole world.” In existed a doubt as to their meaning. Jeremiah xi. 16, the Jewish church I shall begin with

is called "

a green

olive tree;" and The Witnesses.

St. Paul, in Rom. XI. calls the Jew. “ And I will give power to my

ish and Gentile churches the good two Witnesses, and they shall pro

and the wild olive trees. As respects phesy 1260 days, clothed in sack- the two candelsticks, we know, from cloth. These are the two olive trees Rev. 1. 20, that they represent and the two candlesticks standing churches. before the God of the whole world.” This scriptural interprétation harRev. XI. 3, 4.

monises with what is written of the * We fear that the quotations of Nemo from Canticles in support of his view are too ambiguous to be taken as proven : and the words of the Apostle in Acts v and x, are spoken either directly to or of Jews exclusively. There are however some very able arguments in support of his view in an Essay on this subject contained in the Appendix to The Resurrection Revealed, by Dr. Homes. p. 316. (The work was revised and reprinted in the former series of the Investigator ; but being now published as a separate work, we fear it is not so well known as it deserves to be.) We give the remaining two heads on the Harvest and Vintage merely as the view of our Correspondept.-ED,


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two olive trees, and the candlestick God putteth in the sickle, and the in Zech. iv.

There we have the tares and the wheat are both cut candlestick all of gold, with the down together ; the former being

the top of it, represent first bound in bundles, to be aftering the purified general assembly of wards burnt at Armageddon; and the first born which are written in the latter undergoing a threshing, heaven, receiving the unction from to separate it from the chaff, (proabove. The seven lamps thereon fessors,) before it is gathered into may denote the seren Spirits of the garner. The field, as we shall God dispensing through the seven see presently, is the world of the pipes (the instruments of God's mystical Babylon, the Beast of the grace,) life and light in the sur- Revelation; the Harvest is the end rounding darkness of this evil world. of this age or dispensation, when The two olive trees by the candle. shall come to pass that which is stick, one upon the right side of the written in Isaiah and Jeremiah.bowl and one on the left side there. “ Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and of, may be the Jewish and Gentile all the graven images of her gods he churches; and the Prophet's question hath broken to the ground. O my rather confirms this, “ What are threshing and the corn of my floor.' these two olive trees ?” and “ What (Isaiah xxi. 9, 10.) Again, “ Thus be these two olive branches which saith the Lord, I will raise up against empty the golden oil out of them- Babylon-a destroying wind, and selves ?”—(Quere : the visible and will send fanners to fan her, that spiritual Jewish and Gentile church- shall fan her, (separate the chaff es.)— " These are the two anointed from the wheat,) and shall empty her ones that stand by the Lord of the land.-The daughter of Babylon is whole earth ;" or, as it is Rev. XI. like a threshing-floor, it is time to 4, “ standing before the God of the thresh her; yet a little while and the earth ;" which coincidence, I con- time of her Harvest shall come.ceive, identifies both passages toge- (Jeremiah 11. 1, 2, 33.) I shall not ther, viz. that in Zechariah with further occupy your few pages by that in the Revelation.

proving, from other Prophets, what I shall proceed further to notice appears so clear, that the Harvest first, the Harvest; and secondly, the has direct reference to the destrucVintage. Both are closely connect- tion of Babylon—the Mother of ed, for it is written, “Your thresh- Abominations.-I shall merely ob. ing shall reach to the Vintage, and serve, what is very remarkable in the Vintage shall reach to the sow- these our days, that “ her spoilers ing time.

shall come from the north.See The Harvest.

Jeremiah li. passim. “ And I looked, and behold a The threshing of Babylon shall white cloud, and upon the cloud one reach to sat like unto the Son of Man, having

The Vintage. on his head a golden crown, and in Continuing to take Scripture for his hand a sharp sickle,- for the my guide, I think it will not be difHarvest of the earth is come.” Rev. ficult to prove that the Vintage has xiv. 14, 15.

direct reference to the nation of the We read that when the Harvest Jews, when, after hearing the voice is ripe, that is, when the wickedness “ Come out of her my People," and infidelity of the Gentile church they shall be gathered for the last is come to the full, immediately time in Palestine, and when God

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will gather all nations against thing of the pros or cons of ChroJerusalem,” (Zech. xiv. 2,) where nological computation; but should “ the wine-press” is reserved for have concluded the 9 to be a mis• the day of trouble and treading print for 5, except that a deduction down.”

as to the sixth millenary is founded We know from Isaiah v. that upon it, &c. “the vineyard of the Lord of Hosts [The above date was hastily copied is the house of Israel, and the men from a paragraph which appeared of Judah his pleasant plant;" in this in the Record Newspaper of 24th, vineyard God built a tower, (Jeru- Sept. 1835, which was as follows, salem) and therein “ a wine-press.” Tomorrow will be new year's day With this key we may easily thus with the Jews, and will be celebratparaphrase Rev. xiv.19, 20:-"And ed by them as a festival, being the the Angel thrust in his sickle into commencement of the year 5996 the (Roman) earth, and gathered the according to the Jewish Éra.” Our (Jewish) vine thereof, and cast it object however was not to urge the into the great wine-press of the Jewish computation, but that of Mr. wrath of God, (at Jerusalem) and Clinton, which makes the present the wine-press was trodden down year to be 5974 of the world.-Ed.] without the city, (of Babylon) and The Angel of Rev. 1. 1, blood came out of the, P. 21, 1. 29,—"and lastly, as a even to the horses bridles, by the fellow servant of St. John and [one] space of 1600 furlongs, (the sup- of his brethren, &c.; (Rev. xix. 10) posed extentof Palestine :)—accord- or as he elsewhere calls himself [one] ing to Zech. xiv—“The city shall of his brethren, &c. (Rev. xx11. 9.) be taken, and the houses rifled, and Qr. Is not this insertion of Cone] the women ravished, and half the a mistranslation ?

Is not the true go

forth into captivity, and construction, that which our Transthe residue of the people shall not be lators appear to have intended : cut off from the city. Then shall the συνδουλος σου ειμι και [συνδουλος]των Lord


forth and fight against those αδελφων σου- I am a fellow sernations.—And his feet shall stand in vant of thee, and of thy brethren.” that day upon the Mount of Olives.” And so in the other passage, i. e. I am, dear Sir,

NEMO. “I am engaged jointly with thee,

and thy brethren, in the service of Dear Sir,

God.” Wishing upon every account that If of thy brethren” meant your valuable work should be as of”—would not the Greek have free from error as possible, I would been, either els twv (John xvi. 22, suggest to the respective Authors of et al. :) or, els EK twv (John xviii. two Articles in the first number, 26, et al :) or simply Ek twy? (John the subjoined queries.

xvi. 17 ; Luke xi. 49.) I am &c., “FUNGAR VICE COTIS, &c.” The (it would seem single) arguThe Jewish Era.

ment, therefore, for the angel emPage 6.

*The Jews reckon that ployed &c. “ being one of the spirits they commenced the year 5996, &c.' of the just made perfect,” falls to

Qr. On what authority does this the ground. Surely also it is an rest ? All the almanacks that I have assumption, and perhaps an been able to consult state that the founded one, but at any rate reJewish year 5596 ends Sept. 11, quiring to be proved ;) that the 1836. I do not myself know any one of the elders” (chap. VII, 13,)

city shall

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the “ one,


,” “ third” and mentioned chap. xix. 10; XXII, 9; fourth” living creatures (chap. vi. and 1. 1: for so Mr. F. would seem 1, 3, 5, 7,) the “ one of the seven to assert. The whole point would angels, &c.” (chap. xvii. 1 ; xx1.9,) not seem of much consequence, exare all one and the same individual, cept as far as correctness of interand also identical with the angel pretation of words is concerned.

Rebiew of Books.

(5) An Analytical Comment on the these seven churches selected more first part of The Revelation ; being than any others in Asia, as Colosse, an attempt to elucidate both the His. Tralles, Magnesia, Hierapolis, which toric and Prophetic sense of the Epis- were all flourishing congregations, tles to the Seven Churches of Asia. and were placed either within or upBy Henry GIRDLESTONE, A. B. on the circle described by the position Rector of Colton, Norfolk. [Now of of the seven ? Why again were these Landford, near Salisbury.]

churches of Asia preferred before

some of the more influential churches Lond. Hatchard, 1833, 8vo. pp. 212.

in otlier parts of the world ? And Much difference of opinion has more especially we may ask, Why existed among the interpreters of the were these epistles consigned for Apocalypse in regard to the char- preservation to churches whose early acter of the Epistles to the Seven doom is in some instances foretold Churches of Asia, which are prefix. in these very epistles, and the long ed to that Book. The first question degraded and ruined condition of discussed among them is, whether which evince that they were quite they are to be considered as prophet- incapable of such a charge ? ical, or merely historical,-i. e. only The more commonly received oso far prophetical as they contain pinion is that these epistles are prowarnings of evil and promises of phetical in the more extensive sense good, which were fulfilled in the of the term ; i. e. that these churches first ages of christianity on those are but types, in whose circumparticular churches, and which have stances is prefigured the condition now therefore become history. This of the whole church of God at some opinion however is compassed about future period or periods. The exwith insuperable objections. For hortation appended to each of the how are we in this case to account seven epistles—" He that hath an for the fact of their being prefixed ear let him hear what the Spirit saith as an introduction to the Book of unto the churches"-places beyond a Revelation ? To account for it as question, that those prophetical warnBishop Halifax, Dr. Johnson of ings, which they do avowedly conHolywood, and others writers of this tain, were not to be understood as of class do-by stating, that they were “private interpretation,” but were addressed by St. John to the seven intended for the church of God in churches only for the sake of their all ages. better preservation,-is any thing Another question however arises but satisfactory; for the question im- hence : Do these churches set forth mediately presents itself, Why were the characteristics of the professing


church of God—that portion of it at clusion is, that the typical churches least in which the truth is preserved, were all co-existing at the time -at one particular period more than when the messages were sent; and another? The great majority of that all the circumstances to which those who treat the epistles to them attention is invited, whether for as prophetical, consider that they blame or praise, were to be found describe the state of the church in within the radius of a hundred miles seven different ages, from the be- from Sardis.* Our second reason ginning to the end of the Christian is, that the promises given to these dispensation, which periods corres- churches have a special reference pond with the order of the epistles to the advent of the Lord and to the as contained in Rev. II. and . glory which is to be revealed in the Hence this class of interpreters have Millennium. To these reasons we been termed periodists. There is may add two others, which are inhowever a great want of una ity dependent of internal evidence ; viz. in regard to the periods fixed upon, thirdly, that the early christians (as though some are made out with may be seen in Cyprian ad Qui. considerable plausibility.

ren. ii. 19) were thus led to conOn the whole, though we consider

clude that these churches were emthat these Epistles may be accommo- blematical of the whole church in dated in the manner just stated to their age ;-an opinion which has the circumstances of the church in been extended by subsequent wrivarious successive ages, yet are we

ters, who consider that they are disposed to conclude that their main designed to describe the circumdesign is, to set forth the state of stances of the church in any age. the church at some one particular And our fourth reason is, that it period of its history, and that the would be no difficult task to point period of its great crisis, immediately out the parallels to the characterisbefore and in the hour of tempta- tics given in these epistles in the tion, which shall come upon all the church at the present day, either world to try them that dwell upon already manifested, or beginning to the earth.” At this time we con. develope themselves, in a very strikceive that there will be found, in ing manner. different sections or communities of The work of Mr. Girdlestone does the professing church, characteris. not fully coincide with our views tics answering to those which are in the particulars above named; but here described ; and that there will we nevertheless consider it a useful then be a special need of the exhor- publication :-—First, because there tations, warnings and promises given will be found condensed within its to these typical communities of Asia pages all that is valuable in the way Minor. Our first reason for this con- of research and erudition, bearing

* The figure described by the position of these churches, if it were outlined, would form an ellipsis rather than a circle ; and it is curious that they are placed in the shape of a candlestick and its branches, (of not an unusual figure, which is adopted as the symbol of them in the Apocalypse ; Sardis being the centre, Pergamos and Laodicea being at the two extreme verges of the oval, forming a long branch, and the other four at nearly regular distances within ;-thus



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