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Thus they endeavored to cultivate peace and the arts of peace, and did so until the massacre. There is a sadness in their short and tragic career, which has the tinge of a fearful romance.

But the war against the red man waged on, and the frightful event of March only seemed to whet the appetite of the whites for Indian blood. In May, 1782, Colonel William Crawford assembled five hundred men at Mingo Bottoms, near where Steubenville now stands, and started for the Wyandot Indians on the Sandusky River, from which it got the name of the "Sandusky Campaign.” Colonel Crawford was a brave officer, and he led his men to conflict at Upper Sandusky, in Wyandot County. A rout and defeat followed, with a loss of over a hundred of his men, and the capture of Colonel Crawford himself. And here can be recorded another of those terrible events which formed the horrors of border and pioneer history. Colonel Crawford was burned at the stake by the Delawares in retaliation for the massacre of some of their own tribe by Williamson's men at the Moravian towns. The heartrending story of Colonel Crawford's death makes the blood curdle to think of it. Upon his capture he was stripped naked, and with his hands fastened behind him, he was tied to a post. His torturers then fired powder into his body at least seventy times, from his feet to his head. Then they cut off his ears, and, amid the railing jeers of an Indian mob, he was burned to a crisp. The infamous renegade, Simon Girty, stood by and treated Crawford's appeal for a soldier's death by a friendly rifle shot, with laughter and derision. Thus ended the life of one of Ohio's bravest pioneers.

Other expeditions were afterwards organized against the tribes in Ohio, the most notable being those of General Clark and Colonel Logan. The result of retaliatory campaigns was very disastrous to the Indians.

It was amid such trials and dangerous campaigns as these hardy backwoodsmen endured, that the conditions were established which afterward enabled the early settlers of Ohio to lay the foundations of the State in peace. The magnificent empire of progress and civilization, which a century later supplanted the pathless forest through which the border warriors of Clark and Broadhead and Crawford made their marches, owes to them a patriotic remembrance. Many of their campaigns, judged at the firesides of our modern homes, and in a condition of profound safety, may seem to have been but cruel and marauding expeditions, having solely bloodshed in view. But it must be remembered that it was the only way to deal with a savage and treacherous foe. At times the revengeful nature of the pioneers may have carried them beyond the pale of proper punishment, but the recollections of murders and atrocities committed by the Indians on the whites, and in some instances upon their own families, dimmed all sight of mercy in the frontiersman's heart. At any rate, just or not, the resistless hand of fate, that stays neither for time nor man, pointed to the extermination of the red man. The destiny of the Great West had to be fought out, and the first step was to put the vast territory in shape so that the plowshare, the mill and the schoolhouse should take the place of the rifle, the stockade and the camp. The Indian stood in the way, and he had to go.

While the warfare on the border was being prosecuted with imminent danger, at the same time with vigor by the frontiersmen, the colonies in the East were establishing by their arms a great nation. Their entire energies were directed towards independence, and consequently but little attention was, or could be given, to Indian warfare. As a result, the expeditions occurring up to 1782 were mainly the outgrowth of a spirit of adventure, and, of course, for protection of the early Pennsylvanians and Virginians. Most of the campaigns were without warrant either of the Continental Congress or the colonial governments. It was the pressure for the new and rich land of the west that forced the fighting.

The entire territory of what is now Ohio, was, during this period, in the possession of the Indian tribes. The famous Wyandots—the bravest of all the Ohio Indians — occupied the fertile and level region of the Sandusky River, while the rich valleys of the Tuscarawas and Muskingum were the homes of the Delawares. Along the Scioto River, within its beautiful valley, the Shawanese lived in populous towns, and their warriors were famed far and near for their bravery and numbers. The Miamis were confined to the territory between the two rivers to which they gave the names of Great and Little Miami, while along the Ohio was scattered Logan's Tribe, the Mingoes. In the northern part of the State, along the banks of Lake Erie, were the settlements of the Chippewas and Ottawas.

There were no white men permanently within this Indian land, and the tribes knew them only as enemies whose visits always meant war. They saw with wonder the ministering angels of the Prince of Peace that came to preach about a new Great Father, but the wicked ways of the whites often led them to

with death.

Such was Ohio when the Independence of the United States was recognized by the mother country -a great and expansive territory of danger and death to the white man.




The Treaty of Paris, which was signed at Fontainebleau, on the third day of September, 1783, brought peace to Great Britain and independence to the United States. In addition it gave the latter the territory east of the Mississippi River, for by the terms of the treaty, Great Britain relinquished her right and interest in the Northwest Territory to the United States. The next thing to be accomplished before the newly acquired national domain could be thrown open to settlement, was to quiet all claims of the different states that had, or asserted, an interest therein. Congress maintained that the vast area should be national land, and so declared as early as 1780. The only difficulty in the way of carrying out the declaration of Congress, was the fact that New York, Connecticut and other states claimed positive title to various parts of the new territory, and some of the Indian tribes had undoubted rights which in justice had to be recognized. But with that seeming providential wisdom which characterized the declarations and plans of the founders of the Republic, this source of contention was gradually and quietly removed. For a while this land dispute over the new national acquisition was a continual subject of anxiety to the patriotic statesmen of post-revolutionary days.

On the first day of March, 1781, the State of New York made a cession of all her claims to the Northwest Territory. Exactly three years afterwards, Virginia ceded all of her lands, excepting the tract known as the Virginia Military District, between the Little Miami and the Scioto Rivers, which she reserved as a bounty for her brave sons who fought in the Revolution. On the 18th of April, 1785, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts ceded all its claims to the United States, and on the 14th of September, 1786, the State of Connecticut executed an act of cession of all its title to the territory in question, reserving, however, from the grant, what is known as the “Western Reserve of Connecticut,” which she held until May 30, 1800, when she surrendered that also.

In addition to these quitclaims of the States, it was further necessary, in order to open the Northwest

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