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of Cincinnati threw up strong and extensive intrenchments on the hills of Newport and Covington. No city was better prepared to meet an attack. But the enemy never came; he measured the preparations and determination which he would have to overcome, and wisely retreated, after having been before it eight days. General Wallace, upon withdrawing from the city, issued the following address : To the People of Cincinnati, Newport and Covington:

For the present, at least, the enemy have fallen back, and your cities are safe. It is the time for acknowledgments, and I beg leave to make you mine. When I assumed command there was nothing to defend you with, except a few half-finished works and some dismounted guns; yet I was confident. The energies of a great city are boundless; they have only to be aroused, united and directed. You were appealed to. The answer will never be forgotten.

Paris may have seen something like it in her revolutionary days, but the cities of America never did. Be proud that you have given them an example so splendid. The most commercial of people, you submitted to a total suspension of business, and without a murmur adopted my principle — Citizens for labor, soldiers for battle.

In coming time, strangers, viewing the works on the hills of Newport and Covington, will ask, “Who built these intrenchments ?! You can answer, “We built them.' If they ask, “Who guarded them ?! you can reply, We helped in thousands. If they inquire the result, your answer will be, "The enemy came and looked at them, and stole away in the night.

You have won much honor; keep your organizations ready to win more. Hereafter be always prepared to defend yourselves.


Major-General Commanding.” Thus ended the “Siege of Cincinnati," and thus was a great and important metropolis saved by the vigorous measures of its commander and the patriotism of its citizens.

Mr. Vallandigham continued to harass and poison public sentiment in Ohio with his peace views in the same manner that he did the Democratic members of the first War Legislature in 1861. He was a man beloved by his party, of boundless influence therein, fearless in his convictions, and with all these qualities he possessed a winning eloquence graced with all the ornaments of oratory. He was, therefore, a more than ordinarily dangerous man to become the sower of seeds of disloyalty. The result of his treasonable speeches on the stump, every one of which gave fresh courage to the enemy in the field, was his arrest by order of Major General Ambrose E. Burnside, the Commander of the Department. The arrest was made at Mr. Vallandigham's residence at Dayton; it aroused among his friends so fierce a spirit of resistance that it resulted in the burning of the office of the Dayton Journal, the Republican newspaper of that place. Mr. Vallandigham was tried before a military court, found guilty of disobedience of military orders and sentenced to imprisonment during the war, President Lincoln modified

the sentence by sending Mr. Vallandigham through the lines into the Southern Confederacy. Efforts were made to secure his liberty through the writ of habeas corpus in the United States Circuit Court, but they were unavailing. Passing through the Confederacy he reached Wilmington, North Carolina, June 17, 1863. From here he ran the blockade and reached Niagara Falls, Canada, July 15. He afterwards established himself at Windsor, opposite Detroit.

General John Morgan again presented himself at the borders of Ohio in July, 1863. This time he entered, and furnished to the people of the southern part of the State the most anxious period of the war. On the 14th of July he was within thirty miles of Cincinnati, but knowing that they were well prepared for him there, he wisely avoided the city. He was on a raid, not a march; he came to steal, loot, worry, destroy, not to fight or attack. With daredevil methods he rushed through Southern Ohio. He passed through Washington C. H., and reached Jackson July 16, burned the Republican newspaper and railroad depot, pillaged the town and sped on his way. Opposite Buffington's Island in the Ohio river his band was cut to pieces by Generals Judah and Hobson. The rebel chieftain himself, with twelve hundred men escaped, but seven hundred prisoners with Colonel Basil Duke and other officers were taken. Morgan in desperation rallied his remaining men, and with a daring that commands admiration, commenced a flight pursued by General Shakelford, who had arrived with a fresh brigade. After two days of pursuit, John Morgan surrendered

at Salineville, Ohio, on July 26th, to Major Way, of the Ninth Michigan Cavalry.

General Halleck ordered Morgan to be imprisoned in the Ohio Penitentiary; accordingly the rebel raider, with about seventy others of his command, were confined there on the ist of October, 1863. On the night of November 27th, Morgan and six companions escaped. It appears that by patient underground work a passage way from beneath the cells to the prison yard had been made. When everything was ready, Morgan and captains having prepared dummies and placing them in their beds so as to deceive the officers on watch, made their egress to the prison yard, and by a rope of bed-ticking they drew themselves to the top of the great wall, and thus regained their liberty. A polite note to the Warden, notifying him that their work was accomplished with two small knives by working three hours a day for sixteen days, and reminding him that “Patience may be bitter, but its fruit is sweet," was all that was left of Morgan in Ohio.

To meet and suppress Morgan the state paid $250,ooo to fifty-five thousand militia. The enemy damaged property in the amount of $495,000, and the necessary damage by the Union troops was $152,000; thus Morgan's summer raid cost the people of Ohio $897,000.

Vallandigham from his Canadian refuge continued to cast, like an evil genius, the shadow of his treason over his party in Ohio. His trial and banishment had made him a martyr in the hearts of his political associates. From the centre of the Southern Confederacy came the cry that he should lead his party

in the coming contest for Governor. The conservative and far-seeing Democrats opposed this, but with resistless enthusiasm he was unanimously nominated as their standard bearer at the State Convention, June 11th. At the same time a committee of leading Democrats was appointed to communicate with President Lincoln and respectfully request him to restore Mr. Vallandigham to his home in Ohio. Mr. Lincoln replied to this committee that if they, or a majority of them, would, in writing, subscribe to the following propositions, he would revoke the order in relation to Vallandigham:

I. That there is now a rebellion in the United States, the object and tendency of which is to destroy the National Union; and that, in your opinion, an army and navy are constitutional means for suppressing that rebellion.

2. That no one of you will do anything which, in his own judgment, will tend to hinder the increase or favor the decrease, or lessen the efficiency of the army and navy while engaged in the effort to suppress that rebellion.

3. That each of you will, in his sphere, do all he can to have the officers, soldiers and seamen of the army and navy, while engaged in the effort to suppress the rebellion, paid, fed, clad, and otherwise well provided and supported.

To these conditions Mr. Vallandigham's friends refused to assent to subscribe. From his refuge in Canada the Democratic nominee addressed a message to his supporters in Ohio, in which he accepted the nomination for Governor.

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