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young Snakes do into the old ones, and he defends them with his Oratory as well as he is able; for all his Confidence depends upon his Tongue more than his Brain or Head, and if that fail the others Lurrender immediately; for though Dávid says it is a two-edged Sword, a wooden Dagger is a better Weapon to fight with. His Judgment is like a nice Ballance, that will turn with the twentieth Part of a Grain, but a little using renders it false, and it is not so good for use as one, that will not stir without a greater Weight.



Is his own Confident, that maintains more Opinions than he is able to support. They are all Bastards commonly, and unlawfully begotten; but being his own, he had rather, out of natural Affection, take any Pains, or beg, than they should want a Subhstence. The Eagerness and Violence Le uses to defend them, argues they are weak, for if they were true, they would not need it. How false foever they are to him, he is true toithem; and as all extraordinary Affections of Love or Friendfhip are usually upon the meanest Accounts, he is reSolved never to forsake them, how ridiculous foever they render themselves and him to tłe World. He is a kind of a Knight-Errant, that is bound by his Order to defend the weak and distrelled, and deliver enchant. ed Paradoxes, that are bewitched, and held by Magicians and Conjurers in invisible Castles. He affects to have his Opinions as unlike other Men's as he can, no, Matter whether better or worse, like those that wear


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fantastic Cloaths of their own devising. No Force of Argument can prevail upon him; for, like a Madman, the Strength of two Men in their Wits is not able to hold him down. His Obstinacy grows out of his Ignorance; for Probability has so many ways, that who; soever understands them will not be confident of any,

He holds his Opinions as Men do their Lands, and, though his Tenure be litigious, he will spend all he has to maintain it. He does not so much as know, what Opinion means, which always supposing Uncer. , tainty, is not capable of Confidence. The more im. plicit his Obstinacy is, the more stubborn it renders. him; for implicit Faith is always more pertinacious than that, which can give an Account of itself; and as Cowards, that are well backed, will appear boldest, he that believes as the Church believes is more, vioa lent, though he knows not what it is, than he that Gan give a Reason for his Faith. And as Men in the dark endeavour to tread firmer than when they are in the Light, the Darkness of his Understanding makes him careful to stand fast wheresoever he hap-, pens, though it be out of his Way,

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Dyes es an Author, like an old stuff, into a new Colour,

a but can never give it the Beauty and Lustre of the first Tincture; as Silks that are twice died, lose their Glof



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ses, and never receive a fair Colour. He is a linall Factor, that imports Books of the Growth of one Language into another, but it seldom turns to Accompt; for the Commodity is perishable, and the finer it is the worse it endures Transportation; as the most delicate of Indian Fruits are by no Art to be brought over. Nevertheless he seldom fails of his Purpose, which is to please himself, and give the World notice that he understands one Language more than it was aware of; and that done he makes a saving Return.

He is a Truch-Man, that interprets between learned Writers and gentle Readers, and uses both how he pleases; for he commonly mistakes the one, and misinforms the other. If he does not perfectly understand the full Meaning of his Author as well as he did himself, he is but a Copier, and therefore never comes near the Mastery of the Original; and his Labours are likye Dishes of Meat twice drest, that become insipid, and lose the pleasant Taste they had at first. He differs from an Author as a Fidler does from a Musician, that plays other Men's Compositions, but is not able to make any of his own. All his studies tend to the Ruin of the Interests of Linguists; for by making those Books common, that were understood but by few in the Original, he endeavours to make the Rabble as wise as himself without taking Pains, and prevents others from studying Languages, to understand that which they may know as well without them. The Ancients, who ne. ver writ any Thing but what they stole and borrowed from others (and who was the first Inventor nobody knows) never used this Way; but what they found for their Purposes in other Authors they disguised, so that it past.for their own: but to take whole Books and render them, as our Translators do, they always


forbore, out of more or less Ingenuity in a Question; for they fhewed more in making what they liked their own, and less in not acknowledging from whence they had it. And though the Romans by the Laws of War laid claim to all Things, both sacred and profane, of those Nations whom they conquered; yet they never extended that Privilege to their Wit, but made that their own by another Title of the same kind, and over.' came their Wit with Wit.

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S t e é le. S. B. VII, S. 264. Aus den bekannten klassischen Wos, denschriften der Engländer, dem Tatler, Guardian, Spectas tor, den Adventurer, Rambler, Connoisseur, und der Welt, laffen fich eine Menge trefflich gezeichneter moralischer Charaktere dusheben. Steele hat vornehmlich das Verdienft, dieses so gut gewählte und so wirksame Hülfsmittel der Sitteuverbesserung in Gang gebracht zu haben; und einer reiner besten Auff&te dieser Urt ist folgendes zweite Stück des Spectators, worin die Mita glieder der gleich im ersten Blatte beschriebenen literarischen Club's' darafterifirt werden.

The first of our society is a Gentleman of Worcestershire of ancient descent, a Baronet, his Name Sir Roger de Coverly.


great Grandfather was Inventor of that famous Countrydance, which is called after him. All who know that shire, are very wellacquainted with the starts and merits of Sir Roger.

He is a Gentleman, that is very fingular in his Behaviour, but his fingularities proceed from his good Sense, and are Contradictions to the Manners of the World, only as he thinks the World is in the Wrong. However, this Humour creates him no Enemies, for he does nothing with Sournels or Obstinacy; and his being unconfined to Modes and Forms makes him but the readier and more capable to please, and oblige all who know him, When he is in Town, he lives in Soho-Square. said he keeps himself a Batchelor by reason he was crossed in Love, by a perverse beautiful Widow of the next Country to him. Before this Disappointement, Sir Ro. ger was what you call a fine Gentleman, had often supped with my Lord Rochester and Sir George Etherege, fought a Duel upon his firti coming to Town, and kicked Bully Dawson in a publick Coffeehouse for calling him Youngster. But being ill used by the above men

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