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a complete account of religious opinions : Those only, therefore, have been inserted with which it is most necessary that the theological student should have a general acquaintance.
All that is important in those useful modern works which have been published upon the manners and customs of the East will be found embodied under different heads, so far as it tends to elucidate the sacred volume ; and many interesting extracts are given from the most intelligent of our modern Travellers in Palestine, and neighbouring countries, pointing out the present condition of places celebrated in sacred geography, and especially when the account illustrates and renders remarkable the fulfilment of prophecy.
At the close of the whole, a complete alphabetical list of proper names occurring in the Bible, with their significations and right pronunciation, is appended.
LONDON, August 20, 1831.
newal of the promise, that God am the whole land for a possesreparation of Abraham and Lot secured the unmingled descent amitic family. The territories
of the cities of the plain years afterwards invaded by a of the petty kings of the Euthe neighbouring countries, and
family were taken prisoners. nce being brought to Abraham, he men of his tribe, three hunghteen, and falling upon the t, near the fountains of Jericho, them, retook the spoil, and t. On his return, passing supposed to be the city after
Jerusalem, he was blessed Telchizedec, who was priest of in God; so that the knowledge of Jehovah had not quite deat time from the Canaanitish
him Abraham gave a tithe of The rest he generously restored of Sodom, refusing, in a noble pendence, to retain so much as net," except the portion which, war, fell to the young native Eschal, and Mamre, who had the expedition. his he had another encouraging 1, Gen. xv. 1; and to his come was still childless, and that his roperty would descend to the ezer, who held the next rank in promise was given, that he him. mave a son, and that his seed untless as the stars of heaven. hatically added, “He believed
and he counted it to him for s." He was then fully assured, d before God, a pardoned and n, “whose iniquities were forto whom “the Lord did not imtill the fulfilment of the promise s delayed; and Sarah, perhaps hat it would be accomplisherson, and the revelation which ade merely stating that this son
fruit of Abraham's body, withrence to her, she gave to him, the custom of those times, one maids, an Egyptian, to be his rife, who brought forth IshAren born in this manner had es of legitimacy; but fourteen ard, when Abraham was a hunold, and Sarah ninety, the Lord him again, established his coveim and with his seed, changed Abraham, “the father of many omised that Sarah herself should the son to whom the preceding ign of the covenant; and changed his wife from Sarai, my princess, princess, that is, of many people
ud referred; instituted circumci
command of God, taken twelve rods of an inferior priests, two things deserve notice, almond tree from the princes of the twelve their consecration and their office. In some tribes, and Aaron's separately, he placed things they differed, and in others agreed. them in the tabernacle before the sanctuary, In their consecration they differed thus : the after having written upon each the name of High Priest had the chrism, or sacred ointthe tribe which it represented, and upon the ment, poured upon his head, so as to run rod of Aaron the name of Aaron. The day down to his beard, and the skirts of his following, when the rods were taken out, garment, Exod. xxx. 23. Levit. viii. 12. Psalm that of Aaron “ was budded, and brought cxxxiii. 2. But the second priests were forth buds, and bloomed blossoms, and yield- only sprinkled with this oil, mixed with the ed almonds.". This rod therefore was laid blood of the sacrifice, Levit
. viii. 30. They up by the ark, to perpetuate the remem- differed also in their robes, which were a brance of the miracle, and to be a token of necessary adjunct to consecration. Aaron's right to his office.
High Priest wore at the ordinary times of Aaron married Elisheba, the daughter of his ministration in the temple, eight garAmminadab, of the tribe of Judah, by whom ments ;-linen drawers—a coat of fine linen he had four sons, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar, close to his skin—an embroidered girdle of and Ithamar, Exod. vi. 23. The two first fine linen, blue and scarlet, to surround the were killed by fire from heaven, as a punish- coat-a robe all of blue, with seventy-two ment for presuming to offer incense with bells, and as many embroidered pomegra. strange fire in their censers, Lev. x. 1, 2. nates upon the skirts of it; this was put over From the two others the succession of High the coat and girdle-an ephod of gold, and Priests was continued in Israel.
of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine linen, curiThe account of the death of Aaron is pecu- ously wrought, on the shoulders of which liarly solemn and affecting. As he and were two stones engraved with the names Moses, in striking the rock at Meribah, of the twelve tribes; this was put over the Num. xvi., had not honoured God by a per- robe, and girt with a curious girdle of the fect obedience and faith, He in his wrath same—a breast-plate, about a span square, declared unto them that they should not wrought with gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and enter into the promised land. Soon after, fine linen, and fastened upon the ephod by the Lord commanded Moses, "Take Aaron, golden chains and rings; in this breast-plate and Eleazer his son, and bring them up to were placed the urim and thummim, also mount Hor; and strip Aaron of his gar- twelve several stones, containing the names ments,”-his splendid pontifical vestments, of the twelve tribes-a mitre of fine linen, -"and put them upon Eleazar, his son; sixteen cubits long, to wrap round his head and Aaron shall be gathered unto his people, and lastly, a plate of gold, or holy crown, and shall die there.” This command was two fingers broad, whereon was engraved, carried into effect in the presence of all “Holiness to the Lord;" this was tied with Israel, who were encamped at the foot of the blue lace upon the front of the mitre. Bemountain ; and his son being invested with side these garments, which he wore in his the father's priestly dress, Aaron died, and ordinary ministration, there were four others, all the people mourned for him thirty days. which he wore only upon extraordinary ocHis sepulchre was left unmarked and un- casions, viz., on the day of expiation, when known, perhaps to prevent the superstitious he went into the Holy of Holies, which was reverence of future ages. In Deuteronomy once a year. These were: Linen drawersit is said that Aaron died at Mosera ; because a linen coat-a linen girdle-a linen mitre, that was the name of the district in which all white, Exod. xxviii. Levit. xvi. 4. But the mount Hor was situated.
inferior priests had only four garments : 2. The PRIESTHOOD being established in Linen drawers-a linen coatma linen girdle Aaron and his family, the nature of this -a linen bonnet. The priest and High office among the Israelites, and the distinc- Priest differed also in their marriage restriction between the High Priest and the other tions ; for the High Priest might not marry priests, require here to be pointed out. a widow, nor a divorced woman, nor a har
Before the promulgation of the law by lot, but a virgin only; whereas the other Moses, the fathers of every family, and the priests might lawfully marry a widow, Levit. princes of every tribe, were priests. This xxi. 7. was the case both before and after the flood; In the following particulars the High Priest for Cain and Abel, Noah, Abraham, Job, and inferior priests agreed in their consecraAbimelech, Laban, Isaac, and Jacob them- tion: both were to be void of bodily blemish selves offered their own sacrifices. But after --both were to be presented to the Lord at the Lord had chosen the family of Aaron, the door of the tabernacle—both were to be and annexed the priesthood to that line, then washed with water-both were to be consethe right of sacrificing to God was reserved crated by offering up certain sacrifices—both to that family only. The High Priesthood were to have the blood of a ram put upon was confined to the first-born in succession; the tip of the right ear, the thumb of the and the rest of his posterity were priests sim- right hand, and the great toe of the right ply so called, or priests of the second order.foot, Exod. xxix. 20. - In the time of conseBoth in the High Priest and the second or cration, certain pieces of the sacrifice were put into the priest's hand, which was called able for Adrian's edict, which prohibited the ** filling his hand;" hence the Hebrew Jews to continue in Judea, or to look towards phrase, “to fill the hand,” signifies conse- Jerusalem and lament its desolation. The cration.
eighteenth day is also kept as a fast, because In the discharge of their offices, the High the sacred lamp was extinguished on that Priest differed from the other priests in night, in the reign of Ahaz. On the twentythese particulars : the High Priest only, and first, or, according to Scaliger, the twentythat but once a year, might enter into the second day, was a feast called Xylophoria, Holy of Holies—the High Priest might not from their laying up the necessary wood mourn for his nearest relations, by uncover- in the temple : and on the twenty-fourth, ing his head, or tearing any part of his gar- a feast in commemoration of the abolishing ments, except the skirt; whereas the priest of a law by the Asmoneans, or Maccabees, was allowed to mourn for these six,-father, which had been introduced by the Sadducees, mother, son, daughter, brother, and sister and which enacted, that both sons and daughif she had no husband, Levit. xxi. 2. 10, 11; ters should alike inherit the estate of their but they agreed in these respects : they both parents. burnt incense and offered sacrifices—they ABADDON, Heb., corresponding to Apolboth sounded the trumpet, either as an alarm lyon, Gr., that is, Destroyer, is represented, in war, or to assemble the people and their Rev. ix. 11, as king of the locusts, and the rulers—they both slew the sacrifices—both angel of the bottomless pit. Le Clerc and instructed the people—and both judged of Dr. Hammond understand by the locusts in leprosy.
this passage, the zealots and robbers who For the more orderly performance of infested and desolated Judea before Jerusathese offices, the High Priest had his Sagan, lem was taken by the Romans; and by Abadwho, in case of the High Priest's pollution, don, John of Gischala, who having treacher, performed his duty. The High Priest and ously left that town before it was surrendered his Sagan resembled our Bishop and his to Titus, came to Jerusalem and headed Suffragan.
those of the zealots who acknowledged him 3. Aaron was a type of Christ, not person- as their king, and involved the Jews in many ally, but as the High Priest of the Jewish grievous calamities. The learned Grotius church. All the priests, as offering gifts and concurs in opinion, that the locusts are de- . sacrifices, were in their office types of Christ; signed to represent the sect of the zealots, but Aaron especially, 1. As the High Priest. who appeared among the Jews during the 2. In entering into the holy place on the siege, and at the time of the destruction of great day of atonement, and reconciling the Jerusalem. But Mr. Mede remarks, that the people to God; in making intercession for title Abaddon alludes to Obodas, the comthem, and pronouncing upon them the bless- mon name of the ancient monarchs of that ng of Jehovah, at the termination of solemn part of Arabia from which Mahomet came; services. 3. In being anointed with the holy and considers the passage as descriptive of oil by effusion, which was prefigurative of the the inundation of the Saracens. Mr. LowHoly Spirit with which our Lord was en- man adopts and confirms this interpretation. dowed." 4. In bearing the names of all the He shows that the rise and progress of the tribes of Israel upon his breast and upon his Mahometan religion and empire exhibit a sigshoulders, thus presenting them always be- nal accomplishment of this prophecy. All fore God, and representing them to him. the circumstances here recited correspond to 1. In being the medium of their inquiring of the character of the Arabians, and the history God by urim and thummim; and of the com- of the period that extended from A.D. 568 to munication of his will to them. But though A.D. 675. In conformity to this opinion, toe offices of Aaron were typical, the priest- Abaddon may be understood to denote either bood of Christ is of a different and higher Mahomet, who issued from the abyss, or the O5ER than his, namely, that of Melchize- cave of Hera, to propagate his pretended
See Calf, PRIEST, Type, EPHOD, revelations, or, more generally, the Saracen BREASTPLATE, CRIM.
power. Mr. Bryant supposes Abaddon to AB, in the Hebrew chronology, the ele- have been the name of the Ophite deity, the Tenth month of the civil year, and the fifth worship of whom prevailed very anciently of the ecclesiastical year, which began with and very generally. Nisan. This month answered to the moon ABANĂ. Naaman, the leper, on being diof July, comprehending part of July and of rected to wash in the river Jordan, says, August, and contained thirty days.
2 Kings v. 12, “Are not Abana and Pharpar, The first day of this month is observed as rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters & fast by the Jews, in memory of Aaron's of Israel?” Probably the Abana is a branch death; and the ninth, in commemoration of of the Barrady, or Chrysorrhoas, which dethe destruction of the temple by Nebuchad- rives its source from the foot of mount Dezzar, in the year before Christ 587. Jose- Libanus, eastward ; runs round and through plus observes, that the burning of the tem- Damascus, and continues its course till lost ple by Nebuchadnezzar happened on the same in the wilderness, four or five leagues south day of the year on which it was afterwards of the city. Benjamin of Tudela will have burned by Titus. The same day was remark- that part of Barrady which runs through
Damascus to be the Abana, and the streams religion. It is an instance also of those which water the gardens without the city, to gracious visitations to the old heathen world, be Pharpar; but perhaps the Pharpar is the by which it was loudly called from its idolsame with Orontes, the most noted river of atries, and aroused to the acknowledgment Syria, which, taking its rise a little to the of the true and only Jehovah, who, in various north or north-east of Damascus, glides ways, “ left not himself without witness” through a delightful plain, till, after passing among them. A great temporary effect was Antioch, and running about two hundred produced by this and other miracles related miles to the north-west, it loses itself in the in the Book of Daniel ; but the people Mediterranean sea, 2 Kings v. 12.
relapsed again into idolatry, and justly ABBA, a Syriac word, which signifies fa- brought upon themselves all those wasting ther. The learned Mr. Selden, from the Ba- judgments which in succession swept over bylonian Gemara, has proved that slaves the mightiest and most ancient states. were not allowed to use the title Abba in ABEL. He was the second son of Adam addressing the master of the family to which and Eve, and born probably in the second or they belonged. This may serve to illustrate third year of the world; though some will Rom. viii. 15, and Gal. iv. 6, as it shows that have it that he and Cain were twins. His through faith in Christ all true Christians pass name signifies vapour, vanity, and might be into the relation of sons; are permitted given either because our first parents now to address God with filial confidence in began so to feel the emptiness and vanity prayer; and to regard themselves as heirs of of all earthly things, that the birth of another the heavenly inheritance. This adoption son reminded them painfully of it, although into the family of God inseparably follows in itself a matter of joy; or' it was imposed our justification; and the power to call God under prophetic impulse, and obscurely reour Father, in this special and appropriative ferred to his premature death. His employsense, results from the inward testimony ment was that of a shepherd; Cain followed given to our forgiveness by the Holy Spirit. the occupation of his father, and was a tiller St. Paul and St. Mark use the Syriac word of the ground. Whether they remained in Abba, a term which was understood in the their father's family at the time when they synagogues and primitive assemblies of brought their offerings to the Lord, or had Christians; but added to it when writing to establishments separate from that of Adam, foreigners the explanation, father. Figura- does not clearly appear. Abel was probably tively, Abba means also a superior, in respect unmarried, or had no children; but Cain's of age, dignity, or affection. It is more par- wife is mentioned. “At the end of the days," ticularly used in the Syriac, Coptic, and —which is a more literal rendering than “in Ethiopic churches as a title given to their process of time," as in our translation, that bishops. The bishops themselves bestow is, on the sabbath, both brothers brought an the title Abba more eminently upon the offering to the Lord. Cain “ brought of the bishop of Alexandria, which occasioned the fruit of the ground ;” Abel “the firstlings people to give him the title of Baba, or Papa, of his flock, and of the fat thereof." that is, grandfather; a title which he bore the Lord had respect to Abel and to his before the bishop of Rome.
offering; but unto Cain and his offering he ABEDNEGO, the Chaldee name given by had not respect.” As Cain afterwards comthe king of Babylon's officer to Azariah, one plains that “ he should be hid from the face of Daniel's companions, Dan. i. 7. This name or presence of the Lord,” it is probable that imports the servant of Nago, or Nego, which the worship of the first family was performed is supposed to signify the sun, or morning before some visible manifestation of the glory star, so called fron. its brightness. Abed- of God, which thus consecrated a particular nego was thrown into a fiery furnace, at place for their services. Some have thought Babylon, with his two companions, Shadrach that this was at the east gate of Eden, where and Meshach, for refusing to adore the statue “ Cherubim and a flaming sword were erected by the command of Nebuchadnezzar. placed;" but this was a vengeful manifestaGod suffered them not to be injured by the tion, and could only have inspired a dread flames; but made the whole to redound to of God inconsistent with the confidence and his own glory, and the shame of the idols of hope with which men through the promise Babylon. One like unto the Son of God, of redemption were now encouraged to draw or a Divine person, probably the Angel of nigh to him. The respect which God was the Divine presence himself, appeared in the pleased to show to Abel's offering, appears midst of them; and they came out of the from the account to have been sensibly defurnace, which had been heated seven times clared ; for Cain must have known by some hotter than usual, so completely preserved token that the sacrifice of Abel was accepted, from the power of the flames, that not even the absence of which sign, as to his own “the smell of fire had passed upon them.” offering, showed that it was rejected. WheThis was an illustrious instance of the cou- ther this was by fire going forth from “ the rageous and hallowed spirit of martyrdom; presence of the Lord,” to consume the sacriand the interposition was no doubt designed fice, as in later instances recorded in the Old to encourage the Jews while in captivity, Testament, or in some other way, it is in vain Hiving among idolaters, to hold fast their to inquire ;--that the token of acceptance