Imagens da página
PDF
ePub
[graphic]

A

AND THEOLOGICAL DICTIONARY.

VERTISEMENT.

us opinions : Those only, therefore, have ; is most necessary that the theological al acquaintance.

n those useful modern works which have manners and customs of the East will different heads, so far as it tends to ne; and many interesting extracts are gent of our modern Travellers in Palestries, pointing out the present condition cred geography, and especially when

renders remarkable the fulfilment of

e, a complete alphabetical list of proper ible, with their significations and right

AARON. "eddbram and Jochebed, image was dedicated to Jehovah the true In Auron was three years God; but the guilt consisted in an attempt arde Noses ; and when God to establish image-worship, which, when zaleting bush, Moses having even ultimately referring to God, he has in the mdertaking com forbidden. Neither are images to be wor. a lr zeing that he was elow shipped, nor the true God by images this uz to va an eloquent man, is the standing, unrepealed law of Heaven. be uzreter and spokesman; The calf was called a golden call

, as being hy le deirerance of the He- highly ornamented with gold. Having finish. zliet lind them constantly ed the idol, the people placed it on a pedesSabay the march of the child. tal

, and danced around it, saying, “These be samal the wilderness, Aaron thy gods, O Israel;" or, as it is expressed in se upisted by God to exer. Néherniah

, “This is thy God," the image
iz tez el priests in the taber. or symbol of thy God, which brought thee

up out of the land of Egypt.” Moses, having
nu staded the mountain to hastened from the mount by the command of
sim God, daron, his sons
, God, testified to the people

, by breaking the
kan

, followed him, Exod. tables of the law in their presence, that the <d; stindeed to the summit

, covenant between God and them was now t's and they saw the God of rendered of none effect through their offence. * the gøry in which he ap. He also indignantly reproved Aaron, whose i wae the pared work of a sin indeed bad kindled against him the anger tod as it were the body of of the Lord, so that he would have desta;'-2 clear and dazling stroyed him but that Moses prayed for him.”

After the tabernacle was built, Moses con2 And upon the nobles of secrated Aaron to the High Priesthood with seps

, and the seventy the holy oil, and invested him with his

[graphic]

uomingled splendour like that

det his hand”—they were not priestly robes, —his garments “ of glory and which must have over

. beauty;" but Aaron's weakness was again
le pakness of mortal men had manifested in concurring with Miriam, his
seregthened to bear it; " and sister, to censure and oppose Moses,
led drink," they joyfully and through envy. Aaron

, as being the elder
en elore the Lord, w a reli. brother, could not perhaps brook his superi-
set the sacrifices they offered. ority. What the motive of Miriam might be
Saleteand Notes remained does not appear ; but she being struck with

this punishment, as being imme

diately from God, opened Aaron's eyes; he period, the people, grown acknowledged his fault, and asked forgive

Aaron himself became also the object of Bear in, as for this Moses, the confirmed him in his office of High Priest,

the very pumanit of the mount leprosy,,

Ta kong tsence of Moses, ness of Moses both for himself and his sister.

altes to Aaron in a tumultu

eo, Make us gods which jealousy; but two miraculous interpositions

ne most of the land of as of divine appointment. The first was the tas become of him." destruction of Korah, who sought that office the midst to the importunities for himself, and of the two hundred and

thering ordered them to fifty Levites who supported his pretensions, at all the car-rings of their Num. xvi. The second was the blossoming kimited them down, of Aaron's rod, which was designed "to

[ocr errors]

s. In this instance the was chosen of God. Moses having, at the

B

against him to cease," by showing that he

[graphic]

- DICTIONARY.

edicated to Jehovah the true

guilt consisted in an attempt image-worship, which, when ely referring to God, he has either are images to be worthe true God by images :—this ng, unrepealed law of Heaven.

called a golden calf, as being ented with gold. Having finishhe people placed it on a pedesed around it, saying, “These be Israel;" or, as it is expressed in - This is thy God,” the image thy God, "which brought thee

land of Egypt.” Moses, having in the mount by the command of

to the people, by breaking the = law in their presence, that the tween God and them was now none effect through their offence. -gnantly reproved Aaron, whose d kindled against him the anger

so that he would “have debut that Moses prayed for him.” tabernacle was built, Moses conson to the High Priesthood with al, and invested him with his 28,-his garments “ of glory and ut Aaron's weakness was again in concurring with Miriam, his censure and oppose Moses, vy: Aaron, as being the elder ald not perhaps brook his superit the motive of Miriam might be -pear; but she being struck with nis punishment, as being immen God, opened Aaron's eyes; he ged his fault, and asked forgiveses both for himself and his sister. imself became also the object of but two miraculous interpositions

him in his office of High Priest, e appointment. The first was the m of Korah, who sought that office _f, and of the two hundred and es who supported his pretensions,

The second was the blossoming s rod, which was designed “to e murmurings of the Israelites um to cease," by showing that he n of God. Moses having, at the RON.

and rich va called able for Adrian's edict, which prohibited the
biz here the Hebrew Jews to continue in Judea, or to look towards
in bli grifes conse- Jerusalem and lament its desolation. The

eighteenth day is also kept as a fast, because
zida tice, the High the sacred lamp was extinguished on that
la t she priests in night, in the reign of Ahaz. On the twenty-
a telah Priest only, and first

, or, according to Scaliger, the twenty2.2, buat enter into the second day, was a feast called Xylophonia, tek to Prest might not from their laying up the necessary wood as elites, by uncover

. in the temple : and on the twenty-fourth, areng as part of his gar- a feast in commemoration of the abolishing u zidat

; pires the priest of a law by the Asmoneans, or Maccabees,
tenir des sit,-father

, which had been introduced by the Sadducces,
later
, trober

, and sister and which enacted, that both sons and daugh-
izabalLit mi. 2. 10, 11; ters should alike inherit the estate of their
ai te esperta : they both parents.
ai tind serices—they " ABADDON, Heb., corresponding to Apolo
betzea

, eter a an alarm lyon, Gr., that is, Destroyer, is represented,
Tant de pople and their Rev. ir. 11, as king of the locusts, and the
hatu grieces-both angel of the bottomless pit. Le Clerc and
layin-and both judged of Dr. Hammond understand by the locusts in

this

passage, the zealots and robbers who
i elitis parformance of infested and desolated Judea before Jerug.
skin het land is Sagan, lem was taken by the Romans ; and by Abad-
wie Be Prist's pollution, don, John of Gischala, who having treacher-
ab The Hish Priest and ously left that town before it was surrendered
stad va Palop and big to Titus, came to Jerusalem and headed
und bist, lot person as their king, and involved the Jews in many

those of the zealots who acknowledged him
per Pries of the Jewish grievous calamities. The learned Grotius
Cups, diena pilts and concurs in opinion, that the locusts are de.
mtandata of Christ; signed to represent the sect of the zealots,
the date High Priest. who appeared among the Jews during the
in the baly place on the siege, and at the time of the destruction of

and reconciling the Jerusalem. But Mr. Mede remarks, that the
Wikilenession for title Abaddon alludes to Obodas, the com-

essay wrather the bless. mon name of the ancient monarchs of that
the patination of solemn part of Arabia from which Mahomet carne;

ng pinted viththe holy and considers the passage as descriptive of
PARA Neigurise of the the inundation of the Saracens. Mr. Low.

the Lord was en- man adopts and confirms this interpretation. Want tame of all the He shows that the rise and progress of the

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

inferior priests, two things deserve notice, their consecration and their office. In some things they differed, and in others agreed. In their consecration they differed thus : the High Priest had the chrism, or sacred ointment, poured upon his head, so as to run down to his beard, and the skirts of his garment, Exod. xxx. 23. Levit. viii. 12. Psalm

cxxxiii. 2. But the second priests were - only sprinkled with this oil, mixed with the

blood of the sacrifice, Levit. viii. 30. They

differed also in their robes, which were a f necessary adjunct to consecration.

The High Priest wore at the ordinary times of f his ministration in the temple, eight gar

ments ;-linen drawers-a coat of fine linen

close to his skin-an embroidered girdle of t fine linen, blue and scarlet, to surround the

coat—a robe all of blue, with seventy-two 1 bells, and as many embroidered pomegra

nates upon the skirts of it; this was put over
the coat and girdle—an ephod of gold, and

of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine linen, curi- ously wrought, on the shoulders of which

were two stones engraved with the names
of the twelve tribes; this was put over the

robe, and girt with a curious girdle of the h same—a breast-plate, about a span square, et wrought with gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and

fine linen, and fastened upon the ephod by 7, golden chains and rings; in this breast-plate

were placed the urim and thummim, also

twelve several stones, containing the names 3, of the twelve tribes-a mitre of fine linen, ; sixteen cubits long, to wrap round his head

-and lastly, a plate of gold, or holy crown,

tivo fingers broad, whereon was engraved, LII “Holiness to the Lord;” this was tied with

blue lace upon the front of the mitre. Be. ch

side these garments, which he wore in his ad ordinary ministration, there were four others, 8. which he wore only upon extraordinary ocn- casions, viz., on the day of expiation, when LIS he went into the Holy of Holies, which was пу once a year. These were : Linen drawersse a linen coat—a linen girdle—a linen mitre, chall white, Exod. xxvii. Levit. xvi. 4. But the

inferior priests had only four garments : in Linen drawers-a linen coat-a linen girdle nis -a linen bonnet. The priest and High

Priest differed also in their marriage restricer tions ; for the High Priest might not marry

a widow, nor a divorced woman, nor a harby lot, but a virgin only; whereas the other he priests might lawfully marry a widow, Levit. nis xxi. 7. d;

In the following particulars the High Priest ob, and inferior priests agreed in their consecra

tion: both were to be void of bodily blemish

-both were to be presented to the Lord at on,

the door of the tabernacle-both were to be

washed with water-both were to be conseed crated by offering up certain sacrifices—both pod were to have the blood of a ram put upon

the tip of the right ear, the thumb of the im- right hand, and the great toe of the right ler. foot, Exod. xxix. 20.- In the time of conseI or cration, certain pieces of the sacrifice were

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

ne

A la brest and upon his Mahometan religion and empire exhibit a sigtesting them always be- nal accomplishment of this prophecy. All

prinse them to him. the circumstances here recited correspond to

hun d täringuring of the character of the Arabians, and the history tein; and of the com- of the period that extended from A.D. 568 to Vuslate. But though A.D. 675. In conformity to this opinion, e veebial, the prieste Abaddon may be understood to denote either

sident and higher Mahomet, who issued from the abyss, or the Ho fan, Im, EPHOD, revelations, or, more generally, the Saracen V MELCHIZE- cave of Hera, to propagate his pretended

C

below, and the fifth worship of whom prevailed very anciently

de los dervedegt, the ele este been the name of the Ophite deity, the sae, lich began with and very generally.

ABANĂ. Naaman, the leper, on being dipart of July and of rected to wash in the river Jordan, says,

2 Kings v. 12, “ Are not Abana and Pharpar,

cared to the moon

mter

[ocr errors]

nen

on;

awala is observed as rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters A war of Aaron's of Israel?” Probably the Abana is a branch neannemoration of of the Barrady, or Chrysorrhoas, which de

le by Nebuchad- rives its source from the foot of mount Vise lamet 537. Jose- Libanus, eastward ; runs round and through

termined the tem- Damascus, and continues its course till lost end on the same in the wilderness, four or five leagues south

wa afterwards of the city. Benjamin of Tudela will have shemales was remark. that part of Barrady which runs through

[graphic]

B 2

[graphic]

rian's edict, which probibited the tinue in Judea, or to look towards and lament its desolation. The lay is also kept as a fast, because lamp was extinguished on that e reign of Ahaz. On the twentycording to Scaliger, the twenty

was a feast called Xylophoria, laying up the necessary wood ple: and on the twenty-fourth, ommemoration of the abolishing the Asmoneang, or Maccabees, een introduced by the Sadducees, nacted, that both'sons and daugh

alike inherit the estate of their ON, Heb., corresponding to Apolhat is, Destroyer, is represented, as king of the locusts, and the

bottomless pit. Le Clerc and and understand by the locusts in 2, the zealots and robbers who

desolated Judea before Jerusaen by the Romans; and by Abadof Gischala, who having treacherat town before it was surrendered ame to Jerusalem and headed e zealots who acknowledged him , and involved the Jews in many alamities. The learned Grotius opinion, that the locusts are deepresent the sect of the zealots, red among the Jews during the Lt the time of the destruction of

But Mr. Mede remarks, that the on alludes to Obodas, the comof the ancient monarchs of that

bia from which Mahomet came ; -rs the passage as descriptive of ion of the Saracens. Mr. Low

and confirms this interpretation. that the rise and progress of the a religion and empire exhibit a sigblishment of this prophecy. All Etances here recited correspond to er of the Arabians, and the history od that extended from A.D. 568 to

In conformity to this opinion, nay be understood to denote either who issued from the abyss, or the ra, to propagate his pretended - or, more generally, the Saracen 1. Bryant supposes Abaddon to Che name of the Ophite deity, the

whom prevailed very anciently enerally - Naaman, the leper, on being divash in the river Jordan, says, 12, “Are not Abana and Pharpar, amascus, better than all the waters

Probably the Abana is a branch ady, or Chrysorrhoas, which deource from the foot of mount stward; runs round and through

and continues its course till lost erness, four or five leagues south 1. Benjamin of Tudela will have of Barrady which runs through ABE

ne es

[ocr errors]

es

is letea a almost righteous, are, according to his style of writ-
de efect of this upon ing, the same as " to be justified, pardoned,

before God, and dealt with as righteous." Thus he argues
ress brother; and, that Abraham believed God, and it was
in bisa
, or, as the old accounted to him for righteousness

, "-" that
gyda bin, " Let us faith was reckoned to Abraham for righte-

we mase up against ousness," –" that he received the sign of
alla kim;" and for circumcision, a seal," a visible confirmatory,

the
the first blod of man declaratory, and witnessing marks of
can be eati, –a murder righteousness which he had by faith." In
manip and the “righ- these cases we have a similarity so striking,
ziz sfere, and having that they can scarcely fail to explain each
zitama persecution, other. In both, sinful men are placed in the
hde Lord “ cursed condition of righteots men; the instrument,

in both cases, is faith ; and the transaction
sd is the first on is, in both cases also, publicly and sensibly
2 pa fie to some contro- witnessed, —as to Abraham, by the sign of
and attention

. It circumcision; as to Abel, by a visible accept-
2XL "a faith," and it ance of his sacrifice, and the rejection of that
de urice" than that of Cain.
na syrens intimate Abel had faith, and he expressed that faith
Band dancezative. by the kind of sacrifice he offered. It was
ziż stribe, it was an in this way that his faith “ pleased God;"
o * u krught of the fruit it pleased him as a principle

, and by the act
Lai laiko brought of to which it led, which act was the offering
la fict, and of the fat of a sacrifice to God different from that of
42 izzly

, the fat of Cain. Cain had not this faith, whatever

te at S8

on ws

ra

as religion. It is an instance also of those Eo gracious visitations to the old heathen world, ne by which it was loudly called from its idolof atries, and aroused to the acknowledgment

of the true and only Jehovah, who, in various ways,

“left not himself without witness' ng among them. A great temporary effect was ed produced by this and other miracles related

in the Book of Daniel; but the people
relapsed again into idolatry, and justly

brought upon themselves all those wasting 2- judgments which in succession swept over

the

mightiest and most ancient states. in ABEL. He was the second son of Adam ch and Eve, and born probably in the second or third

year of the world; though some will have it that he and Cain were twins. His

name signifies vapour, vanity, and might be ed given either because our first parents now in began so to feel the emptiness and vanity of of all earthly things, that the birth of another

son reminded them painfully of it, although

in itself a matter of joy; or it was imposed od under prophetic impulse, and obscurely reve ferred to his premature death. His employ, ny ment was that of a shepherd; Cain followed Fit. the occupation of his father, and was a tiller ord

of the ground. Whether they remained in Che their father's family at the time when they of brought their offerings to the Lord, or had to establishments separate from that of Adam, does not clearly appear.

Abel was probably ect unmarried, or had no children; but Cain's ar- wife is mentioned. “At the end of the days," und —which is a more literal rendering than in Leir process of time,” as in our translation, that

is, on the sabbath,-both brothers brought an the offering to the Lord. Cain“ brought of the the fruit of the ground ;” Abel “the firstlings pa, of his flock, and of the fat thereof." “And ore the Lord had respect to Abel and to his

offering; but unto Cain and his offering he by had not respect.” As Cain afterwards comone plains that he should be hid from the face

or presence of the Lord,” it is probable that ich the worship of the first family was performed ing before some visible manifestation of the glory ed- of God, which thus consecrated a particular

at place for their services. Some have thought ach that this was at the east gate of Eden, where tue

“ Cherubim and a flaming sword were zar. placed;" but this was a vengeful manifestathe tion, and could only have inspired a dread I to of God inconsistent with the confidence and s of hope with which men through the promise Eod, of redemption were now encouraged to draw 7 of nigh to him. The respect which God was the pleased to show to Abel's offering, appears the from the account to have been sensibly demes clared ; for Cain must have known by some eved token that the sacrifice of Abel was accepted, even the absence of which sign, as to his

own m.” offering, showed that it was rejected. Whecou- ther this was by fire going forth from “ the mom; presence of the Lord,” to consume the sacrigned fice, as in later instances recorded in the Old wity, Testament, or in some other way, it is in vain Eheir to inquire ;--that the token of acceptance

llary to the Hebrew might be its object; and Cain, accordingly,
le rest of his fioek ; and did not bring an offering to which God had
Sous cased its specific “respect.” That which vitiated the offering
nedjel. This is sup- of Cain was the want of this faith ; for his
Stendide phrase

, sheiora offering was not significant of faith : that
este result in the Epistle which“ pleased God," in the case of Abel,
alta speaking of the sacri- was his faith; and he had "respect" to his
i la residias Lere rendered offering, because it was the expression of that
liset erine" Wickliffe faith; and, upon his faith so espressing itself,
a blogy Mage observes, God witnessed to him " that he was righte-
lack fletne of the origi- ous.” So forcibly do the words of St. Paul,
se actie;" and the con- when commenting upon this transaction,
bet Euch more" or because of its immediate connexion with his

OW

.me

spany, a vel a quality; the result of his faith. So evident also is it

na ten co this point is, show, that Abel's sacrifice was accepted,
Sletter quality ; whe- faith, for by faith he is said to have offered
kesash in the sense of a it; and whatever it might be, which made

alde, a wore etcellent Abel's offering differ from that of Cain, whe-
act as it in the sense ther abundance, or kind, or both, this was

Se becaught a double from the apostle, that Abel was witnessed bebas di bin hoe's, and of to be "righteous," not with reference to any cred us. His criticism previous “habit of a religious life," as some kataris related by Arche say, but with reference to his faith; and to

The wize of Abel was this faith as expressing itself by his offering sta, i va indicative " a more excellent sacrifice." Wheth' a quality 4. If, then, the faith of Abel had an immeeta bi the quantity of diate connexion with his sacrifice, and both Vaba no relation to with his being accepted as “righteous," – ambil meat if we con--to what had his faith respect? The le wets of the apostle, ticular object of the faith of the elders, celeen in God a more brated in Hebrews xi., is to be deduced from

[graphic]

& LIGHTEOUS, illustrative of the existence and operation of Si cs; and by it, be, this great principle, and by which it mani.

A Mon what is the fested itself in them. Let us explain this, , then be says that it and then ascertain the object of Abel's faith

At All that he was also from the manner of its manifestation, th, lat men are sin from the acts in which it embodied and ren

at, need pardon; dered itself conspicuous.

tobused, and accounted Faith, in this chapter, is taken in the sense

« AnteriorContinuar »