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cluding some privateers and ships of force, were destroyed or taken by them; 17 prizes were brought away, beside 3000 hogs. heads of tobacco, which fell into their possession at Portsmouth, Except the house of a widow and the church, they burnt every house in Suffolk; and all the principal houses of gentlemen in their route, shared the same fate. The Virginia assembly resolved, “ that the governor be required to remonstrate to the British commander against such a cruel and unprecedented manner of waging war, not authorized by any civilized nation; but a sufficient military force to back it, was wanting. The fleet and army, with their prizes and booty, arrived safe at New. York before the expiration of the month. The troops were joined to others going up the North-River to attack the posts of Stony-point and Verplank, where the Americans had begun to construct strong works, for keeping the lower communication open between the eastern and southern states. Gen. Vaughan Janded with the greater part on the east side; while the remainder, accompanied by Sir H. Clinton, advanced further up, landed on the west side, and took possession of Stony-point with out opposition. Directly opposite, the Americans had com. pletely finished a strong fort, which was defended by four pieces of artillery and a garrison of about 70 men. But it was commanded by Stony-point, to the summit of whose rocks cannon and mortars were dragged up during the night. By five in the morning a battery was opened, which poured a storm of fire over on the fort; while Vaughan with his division, making a long circuit through the hills, arrived and closely invested it by land. The garrison finding themselves totally overpowered, surrendered prisoners of war. Sir H. Clinton moving his naia body up the North-River, occasioned the American army's moving from their encampment at Middle-Brouk, toward Wesipoint, for which they were in no small apprehension, the garrison being few, and the fort not completed. Sir H. Clinton gave immediate direction for perfecting the works of both posts, and particularly for putting Stony-point in the strongest state of defence; for their better support, and with a view to further. operations, he encamped his army at Philipsburgh, about half way down the river to New-York island. By the loss of these posts, the Jersey people were obliged to make a circuit of about ninety miles through the mountains, to communicate with the states east of Hudson's-River.
We must here suspend our account of the operations under the direction of Sir Henry, and attend to very different expea ditions.
. One was ordered to be set on foot by lieut. governor Hamilton of Detroit, who was to be joined in the spring of this year by two hundred Indians from Michilimainoi, and 500 Cherokces and Chickasaws, and other nations ; these were to penetrate up the Ohio to Fort Pitt, sweeping Kentucky on their way, having light brass cannon for the purpose. He was to be joined by. all the Indians that could be procured ; and had no doubt of. forcing all West Augusta: Destruction from every quarter seemed to hover over the Virginia back settlers. Col. Clarke hearing that Hamilton (who had taken post at St. Vincent on the 15th of last December, and had fortifiedthe same to be ready for and favor the expedition) had weakened himself by send. ing away his Indians against the frontiers, formed the desperate resolution of attacking hiin, as the only probable expedient for saving the country. After many difficulties he arrived (Feb. 23.] unexpectedly to the enemy, and made an assault. The town immediately surrendered, and assisted in the siege of the fort. The next day, Hamilton in the evening, agreed to surrend der the garrison prisoners of war, in all 79, with considerable stores. Clarke had marched across the country with only 130. men, being all he could raise. He was 16 days on his route, through the inclemency of the season, drowned lands, &c.While engaged with Hamilton, an Indian party, who had been to war, returned, knowing nothing of him and his men ; Clarke sent a number to give them battle, took nine of them, and released two prisoners. Hearing of a convoy of provisions and goods on their way from Detroit, he detached a party of 60 men in arıned boats, which met them before they got intelligence of their danger 40 leagues up the river, and made a prize of the whole, taking 40 prisoners, and about £.10,000 worth of goods and provisions. By Clarke's attacking Hamilton, the intended expedition of the enemy was ruined. The colonel on his return' transmitted to the Virginia council, letters and papers relating to: licut. gov. Hamilton, Philip Dejain, justice of peace for Detroit, and William Lamothe, capt. of volunteers, whom he had made prisoners of war in the Illinois country.
(June 16.] The board proceeded to consider them ; and found that Hamilton had incited the Indians to perpetrate their accustomed cruelties on the citizens of the United States-had at the time of his captivity, sent considerable detachments of 11aians against the frontiers, and had actually appointed a great Council of them to meet him, and concert the operations of the present campaign and that he gave standing rewards for scalps. It also appeared to them, that Dejain was, on all occasions, the Willing and cordial instrument of Hamilton; and that Laniothe
was a captain of the volunteer scalping parties of Indians and whites. They therefore, resolved to advise the governor, that they should be put in irons, contined in the dungeon of the public jail, debarred the use of pen, ink and paper, and excluded all converse, except with their keeper, being considered as fit subjects on which to begin the work of retaliation. The governor gave orders accordingly.
[April 19.]. Colonel Goose Van Schaick marched from Fort Scuyler toward Onondaga on lake Ontario, which he destroyed with a large quantity of grain, cattle, horses, arms and ammunition, except such as he could conveniently bring off. Twelve Indians, mostly warriors, were killed, and 34 made prisoners, the rest fled to the woods. This expedition was performed in about five days and a half, (the distance going and returning one hundred and eighty miles) and without the loss of a single man. · The British generals were divided upon the subject, whether or no to carry on a predatory war against the Americans. They, sent home, and submitted it to the ministry, who determined in fayor of waste and rapine. After which, Mr. Arthur Lee, forwarded to gov. Trumbull and the committee for foreign affairs, letters dated Paris, April 6, 1779, mentioning"I have re. ceived intelligence, that it is determined in the British cabinet, to send over immediate orders to New-York for an expedition through the Sound up Connecticut river. The enemy are to land at Weathersfield, and proceed by land to New-Haven bay, where they are to embark, after having plundered, burst, and destroyed all in their way.” A member of the committee wrote to his correspondent, on the 16th of July, “ Arthur Lee had intelligence, on the 6th of April, of the design upon Fairfield, but contrary winds and captures of his originals, have prevented our getting seasonable warning.” Sir H. Clinton, having received the ministerial instructions, proceeded in conformity to the spirit of them, only varying circumstances so far as that required. Sir George Collier, with the necessary ships of war and transports, and, gov. Tryon at the head of 2600 land forces, seconded by gen. Garth, were appointed to the predatory expedition. While in the Sound, the commanders joined in an address to the inhabitants of Connecticut, which they signed on tbe 4th of July. In that they invited and urged them to return to their duty and allegiance : and promised all, remaining peaceably in their usual place of residence, protection in person and property, excepting the civil and military officers of the government; but threatened those who stiglited the waruing. The address was merely farcical, for instead of leaving then to consult each othur'
upon the invention, as they stated it, they employed force before the people had time to consult each other after the invitation was received...
[July 5.) The troops were landed early on Monday morning, those under Tryon at East-Haven, and those under Gartly at West-Haven. The last inarched for New-Haven, which they entered between twelve and one, after being much harrassed and galled on their way by the militia, and others who joined them. The town was delivered up to promiscuous plunder, a few instances of protection excepted. Whigs and tories, indiscriminately, though not universally, had their moncy, plate, rings and other articles taken from thein ; and much of their furniture, which could not be carried off, was wantonly destroyed;
all the West-India goods and provisions were served the same. In such scenes of confusion, individuals could not escape personal abuse. The militia were collecting in such a manner, and "the soldiers had got so disordered by liquor, that the next moraing the troops made a sudden retreat, without tarrying to execaic the original design of burning the town, or even to fire a single house in it. When they had provided for their own safety, they ventured to burn some stores on the long wharf. At East-Ha. ven, where Tryon commanded in person, several houses were burnt, the cattle were also wantonly killed in the adjoining fields. By the afternoon, the inilitia became so numerous, and crowded so close upon him, that he retreated on board the fieet, which in the evening sailed for Fairtield [July 7.] There the troops, landed about three o'clock on Wednesday afternoon. As they archored off the town in the morning, the militia had some littic time for collecting. Gov. Tryon sent by a flag to col. Whiting, who commanded them, the address; and gave him an hour's time to consider and to answer, so as to save the town). The colonel replied in behalf of the Connecticut inhabitants, “The fames have now preceded their answer to your flag, and they will persist to oppose to the utmost, that power which is exerted against injured innocence ;” dated 7th July sun-sct. That night and the next morning, they plundered and laid the town in asses, burning the meeting-house, episcopal church, and the buildings in gencral, to the conipass of two miles round, so as to reach Green-farns, though not Greenfield. On the Thursday they retrcated to their shipping, the militia becoming more numerous than at New Haven.. They crossed the Sound to the shore of Long-Island ; and from thence saiied afierward to Norwalk, whose fate was similar to that of Fanticid. The numbers killed and wounded on each side during these ravages were in. considerabic. But the conilagration ist stands trus--burnt at
preblished, nesappearance", will not
Norwalk 2 houses of public worship, so dwelling houses, 87 barns, 22 stores, 17 shops, 4 mills and 5 vessels--at Fairfield 2 houses of public worship, 82 dwelling houses, 55 barns, 15 stores and 15 shops--at Green-farms I house of worship, 15 dwelling houses, ll barns and several stores-obeside the stores burnt at New Haven and the houses at East-Haven. The prevailing humanitý of my countryment, will not relish these depredations in their genuine appearance, the accounts therefore transmitted or. published, nust be dressed up so as to make then palatable with: the public, but be assured, that the burnings were designed, and without sufficient provocation, both as to private and public building3 ; some of the latter, and many of the former, were to my knowledge not near to, but even at a considerable distance from other edifices. That gen. Tryon was not averse to engaging in such a service as Lee mentioned the cabinet to have determined upon, is inferred from the ani gosity he has to those who are, attached to the American cause He was however stopped from all further progress, by an order from Sir H. Clinton for the rem turn of the fieet and troops. Some real or expected movement in the American army miglit produce such air order.
, No sooner did gen. Washington observe how Sir H. Clinton, had srengthened the posts of Stony-point and Verplank, than he. entertained the design of attacking them. Toward the end of : June, he ordered, that a trusty intelligent person should be em- : ployed to go into the works of the first; and on the 8th of July, he was informed by a deserter, that there was a sandy beach, on the south side of it running along the fank of the works, and one.' ly obstructed by a slight abatis, which might afford an easy and safe approach to a body of troops. He forned plans for attacking both posts at the same instant; the executions of which were intrusted with gen. Wayne and gen. Howe. All the Massachusetts light infantry marched from West-point under lieut. col. Huil, in the morning of the 15th, and joined Wavne at Sandy-beach, 14 miles from Stony-point. The general moved off the ground at twelve o'clock. The roads being exceedingly bad and narrow, and the troops having to pass over high mountains, through difficult defiles and deep morasses, were oblin' ged to move in single files the greatest part of the way. This, and the great heat of the day, occasioned much delay, that it was eight in thc evening before the van arrived within a mile and a half . of the enemy, where the nen formed into columns, and remained till several of the principal officers, with gen. Wayne, returns * ed from reconnoitring the works. At half after eleven o'clockr the whole moved forward, the van of the right consisting of 150 volunteers, under lieut. col. Fleury, the van of the left consist .