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complimented with the firing of thirtcen rounds of cannon, and a feu-de-joie.

Mr. Governeur Morris having acquainted congress, that he had received application from a person in New-York, to know whether he muy, with safety to his person and property, continue in that city upon the evacuation thereof; and having further informed them that the said person is in a capacity to give useful intelli. gence, and probably will do it, if he receives assurances that it will be recommeded to the state of New York to afford him protection, they resolved, that the said G. Morris be empowered to give him such assurances, on condition that he shall give intelligence of whatever may come to his knowledge relating to the numbers, movements and designs of the enemy. Henry Laurens, esq. having filled the station of president for one year on the 31st of October, made his resignation of the presidency, lest any example taken from his continuance might hereafter become inconvenient. He was replaced by a unanimous vote.

Accounts have been received, that commodore Evans, being. dispatched by adm. Montague, arrived on the 14th of Scptember in St. Peter's road, and sent to the governor of the small islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, acquainting him that the French had committed hostilities in America, and that therefore he demanded a surrender of the islands: which was complied with, as there was no force to make an effectual resistance. The governor and his suite, and the principle inhabitants, women and children amounting to 932, were embarked on board the vessels. found at St. Pierre's, and sent to France. · The French alliance has proved the occasion of the British ministry's having ordered away a considerable part of their force from New-York. The same day that count d'Estaing sailed from Boston, (Nov. 3.] commodore Hotham with two 64 gun ships, and three of 50, beside frigates and a bomb ketch, having under convoy transports containing 5000 British troops, commanded by gen. Grant, left Sandy-Hook and steered for the West-Indies. whither the count went.

The chevalier de Maduit du Plessis, lieut. col. of artillery in the continental army, having expressed an apprehension thai the war is near a conclusion in this country, and a desire of returning to France to offer his service to his prince, congress orders ed that a written testimonial of the high sense they entertained of his zeal, bravery and good conduct, should be given him. The committee upon the business, had resolved that a brevet coni, mission of colonel should be granted him, which the congress negatived two days before, as it was high time to cease lavishing away promotions on foreigners, The ambition of the Nin

tives of France and of foreigners, in common, was unbounded; and the singular instances of rank which had been conferred upon thein, in too many instances, occasioned general dissatisfaction and complaint. Fewer promotions in the foreign line would have been productive of more harmony among the continental officers. It is certain, that the army has a full proportion of fo. scign oíficers in their councils. · (Nov. 11.) Some hundreds of Indians, a large number of tories, and about 50 regulars, all under colonel Butler, entered Cherry-Valley within New-York state, by an old Indian patlı, wirich col. Alden, who contand the American troops there stationed had neglected. The colonel was shot in altempting to reach the fort, called after hiin, Alden ; on which the enemy commenced a heavy fire that lasted more than three hours, when they withdrew, having no further hope of carrying it. The next day they left the place after having killed, scalped and barbarously murdered 32 inhabitants, chietly women and child dren, beside col. Alden and ten soldiers. They took prisoners the lieut. col. two or three other officers, 13 privates, and a numberof inhabitants. The greatest inhumanities were practised on most of the dead.

[November 22.] John Roberts and Abraham Carli le, of the quaker persuasion, were executed at Philadelphia, being convicted of high treason against the commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The unaccountable operations of the war have been the occasion of a woefulmistake in the general politics of thatdenomination. Encouraged by the reasonable prospect, that coercive. measures properly planned and conducted would prove success. ful, the body of the American quakers have sided with the ininistry, in hope of establishing their civil power in the state. They have disowned several worthy inembers for being active in the cause of their country; but not others for opposing it. Instead of maintaining a strict neutrality in the present contest, their par: tiality has been such, that the British officers have extolled their alacrity as spies, guides and informers. They have suppressed letters of Dr. Furthergill upon the impropriety of their conduct, and because they were written decidedly in favor of libertyLet it be remembered however, that there are many deserving individuals among them, beside generals Greene and Mifflin, who by a uniform steady perseverance in measures friendly to the American cause, have justly conciliated the estcem of their countrymen.

[Nov. 27.) General Washington gave orders that no small parties should by any means be permitted to go upon Long-is. land. Under pretence of procuring intelligence, they became

mere plundering parties, and carried off clothes, linens, ribbons, cases of knives and forks, wine glasses, and whatever they could lay their hands upon, which they brought back and sold public, ly, making at the same time a distinction in the sale between hard money and paper. They pretended tirat the articles were the property of tories, new-levy officers, &c. which, if true, their conduct was unpardonable, as it was not the business of their incursions. Their capacity made no discrimination between the inhabitants, many of wh m, although obliged to remain on the island were well affected to the American cause.

The plan for reducing Canada was transmitted by congress to gen. Washington, with a request that he would make observations upon it. He communicated the same to theni in a letter of November the lith; which being referred to a committee, they reported on the 5th of December, that the reasons assigned by the general against the expedition to Canada appeared to be well founded, and to merit the approbation of congress. After that, a committee was appointed to confer with the commander in chief on the opperations of the next campaign: he therefore repaired to Philadelphia on the 22d. After the conference the committee reported, “That the plan, proposed by congress for the emancipation of Canada, in co-operation with an armament from France, was the principal subject of the conference; that impressed with the strong sense of the injury and disgrace which must attend an infraction of the proposed stipulation on the part of these states, your committee have taken a general review of our finances, of the circumstances of the army, of the magazines, &c. &c.—That upon the most mature deliberation, your committee cannot find room for a well grounded presumption, that these states will be able to perform their part of the proposed stipulation : That nothing less than the highest probability of success could justify congress in making the proposition-Your committee are therefore of opinion, that the negociation in question should be deferred till circuinstances shall render the co-operation of these states moie certain, practicable and effectual :-That the ininister of these states at the court of Versailles, the mic nister of France in Philadelphia, and the marquis de la Fayette, be respectively informed, that the opperations of the next canipaign must depend upon such a variety of contingencies, that time alone can mature and point out the plan which ought to be pursued :--Thatcongress therefore cannot decide on the practia cability of their co-operating the next campaign in an enterprise for the emancipation of Canada.” The report was accepted, and the Canada expedition laid aside after a full consideration of all circumstances, beside what appear in the report, which VOL. II.


wrought strongly in the minds of some shrewd members of congress. Such night. dread the introduction of a large body of French troops into Canada, and the putting of them into the possession of tlie capital of that province, attached to them by the ties of blood, habits, manners, language, religion, and former connection of government. They might arguc-“ France under the idea of 5000 troops, may introduce twice the number, and having entered Qucbec, may declare an intention of hoiding Canada as a pledge and surety for the debts due from the United States. Canada would be a solid acquisition to France on all accounts; and no pation is to be trusted further than it is bound by its interest. Canada would be too great a temptation to be resisted by any power actuated by the common maxims of national policy. France with that in her possession, may have it in her power to give laws to the United States: these will have less to fear from its remaining in the hands of the British.” The committee. subjoined to their report a draught of a letter to the marquis de la Fayette, which was also accepted. Gen. Wash. ington forwarded it to Boston, (Dec. 29.] where the marquis lay waiting for the determination of congress. It was accompanied with one from the general, expressing a concern for his having been so delayed. Upon the receipt of them, the marquis embarked on board the Alliance frigate, Jan. 7, 1779.

. The campaign in the norhern states having yielded no advantage to the British, and the winter being the proper season for southern expeditions, Sir Henry Clinton concluded upon turning his arms against Georgia. He might propose to himself the. reduction of all the southern states, and be strongly inciiged to it by reason that these states produced the most valuable commodi. ties in the European market, and carried on a considerable export trade, which seemed little otherwise affected by the war, than as ir suffered by the British cruisers : beside, their rice was devoted to the service of his enemics, while it was wanted for the support of his sovereign's feet and army in America. A plan of opperation was concerted with general Provost, who conmanded in East-Florida ; and it was intended, that Georgia should be invaded both on the north and south sides at the same time.

While the preparations for this conjunct expedition were carrying on, two armed bodies, consisting of regulars and refugees, made a sudden and rapid incursion into Georgia from East-Florida. One of them came in boats through the inland navigation, and the other marched over land by the way of the river Alata. maha. The first demanded the surrender of Sunbury ; but on receiving from lieut. col. Mackintosh the laconic refusal-coms


and take it they left the place. The latter pursued their march toward Savannah. Gen. Screven, with about a hundred militia repeatedly skirmished with the party in their advance through the country. In one of these engagements he received a wound from a musket ball, and fell froin his horse, when several of the British came up and discharged their pieces at him. He died of his wounds much regretted for his private virtues, and public exertions in behalf of his country. The invaders pursued their march till within three miles of Ogeechee ferry, where Mr. Sa. vage with his own slaves, had erected a breast work to prevent their passing. Col. Eibert, with about 200 continentals, took postin the works, and prepared to dispute the ressage of the river. These obstacles, together with information that the other parry had failed in their design upon Sunbury, determined them to retreat without attempting to cross. On their return, they laid waste the country for miles, burnt St. John's church, a number of houses, and all the rice and other grain within their reach, and also carried off all the negroes, horses, cattle, and plate they could remove either by land or water. When this desolating mode of carrying on war was complained of by the American officer to the British, the latter positively disclaimed any order or even approbation of such proceedings, but mentioned that the people under the immediate command of the former had given a precedent. The party rage which wrought on each side, led both into those cruelties, at which humanity shudders. .

The expedition against Georgia was committed to col. Campbell, who had been taken in Boston-bay after gen. Howe had evacuated the town. The force appointed to act under him, consisted of the 71st regiment of foot, two battalions of Hessians, for of provincials, and a detachment of the royal. artillery. The transpoits with the troops, amounting to full 2500, sailed trom Sandy-Hook, (Nov. 27.) being escorted by a small squadron under coininodore Hyde Parker. The feet arrived at the isle of Tybee near the mouth of the Savannah : (Dec. 29.) and 148 days after, the troops effected a landing. From the landingplace a nairo iv causeway of six hundred yards in length, with a dice on each side, led timrough a rice swamp. This causeway, liad it been in a proper state of defence, might have effectually resisted a vast superiority of force; but the small party under capt.

Smith, which was posted at it to impcde the passage of the Bri. tishi, was too inconsiderable to check their progress. They pushiad on with such vigor that the Americans were almost instantly Gispersed. The continental army, on which the defence of Geora gia chietly rested, had lately returned from a fruitless sunner's spedition against East-Florida, in which they had suffered


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