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ricans from the adjoining wharfs and shore. Several lives were lost, and many were wounded. The inhabitants were much alarmned, and the militia were obliged to be under arms a great part of the night. Proper measures were afterwards taken to prevent a repetition of the like disorders; and both the president and assembly expressed their deep concern, that the slightest animosities should prevail between any citizen of America and the subjects of their illustrious and good ally.

In the evening of the 8th, there was a violent affray at Boston between certain unknown persons and a number of French. It is said, though not proved, to have been begun by seamen captured in British vessels, and some of Burgone's army, who had enlisted in privateers just ready to sail. A body of these fellows, we have been told, demanded bread of the French bakers employed for the supplying of the count d'Estaing's fleet; and being refused, fell upon and beat them in a most outrageous manner. Two of the count's officers, attempting to compose the fray, were wounded, the chevalier de Saint Sauveur so badly that he died on the 15th; and the nextday the Massachusetts house of assembly resolved to erect a nionumental stone to his memory. None of the offending persons having been discovered, notwithstanding the reward that was offered, it may be feared that Americans were concerned in the riot; while political prudence charged it upon others, that less umbrage might be taken at the event. The count was much grieved at what had happened; but had too inuch calmness and good sense to charge it upon the body of the inhabitants, who were no less concerned at it than himself; so that it created no dissentions between them. On the 22d, the general court received the compliments of the count and his officers; all of whom were invited to dine, three days after, at a public dinner. The fleet had been so far repaired, and so well secured by formidable works on George's-Island, in which the count had. mounted near a hundred heavy cannon, that they could with the utnost propriety be absent upon the occasion. For the greater security, the general court, under an apprehension that the British fleet and army might move to the northward, with a view of destroying the count's fleet, and repossessing themselves of Boston, had resolved on the 19th to raise a third of the militia. Three days before this resolve, admiral Byron arrived at New-York from Halifax. His squadron had suffered so in their voyage from Britain, that it was a full month before he could sail again, in order to observe d'Estaing's motions. The count lay at ease and, in safety; and on the 26th of October, entertained a large company of gentlemen and ladies. whom he had invited to dine with him on board the Languedoc.

• The

The entertainment was highly elegant. A full length picture of gen. Washington, presented to the count by Mr. Hancock, was placed in the center of the upper side of the rooin, and the frame of it was covered with laurels. The count having made this public return for the personal civilities he had received from numbers secured himself írom all{iableness to detention by points of honor : from a threated detention of another nature, he had been happily relieved in season. It was generally expected from the scarceness of provisions of all sorts at Boston and the nieghborhood, that he would have encountered great difficulties, if not actual distress. The impracticability of victualling his feet at that port was dreaded, even the subsisting of it was doubted.But he was freed from these apprehensions by a singular fortune. The New-England cruisers took such a number of provision ves. sels on their way fromy Europe to New York, as not only supplied the wants of the French, but furnished an overplus sufficicnt to reduce the rates of the markets at Boston. This seasonable supply occasioned great triumph among the inhabitants. The count being in hope of sailing within a few days, published a declaration to be spread among the French Canadians, and address. ed them in the name of their ancient master the French king.-The design of it was to recal their affection to the ancient govern. ment and to revive all the mutional attachments of that people, thereby to prepare them for an invasion either from France or America, and to raise their expectations of no distant change of masters. Admiral Byron having repaired his feet, appeared off Boston bay ; but had not cruised there long before he was overtaken by a violent storm, in which the ships again suffered so much, that they were glad to get into shelter at Rhode-Island, The Somerset of 64 guns not being able to clear Cape Cod, run ashore and fell into the hands of the Bay-men, who saved her guns and many valuable articles. When the storm ended, the wind settled in the north-west, and blew fair for carrying the French fieet to the West-Indies. Count d'Estaing seized the opportunity, and sailed from Boston (Nov. 3.) with his ships thoroughly repaired, clean, and well victualled, and with his foces in full health and vigor. · The behaviour of the French officers and sailors, the whole time that their fleet lay in port, was remarkably good, far beyond any thing of the kind ever before, when several men. of war were present. The count made a point of always lying on board at night. The officers conducted with the greatest regulatity and decorum ; but noticed a certain coolness in the gentle. inen and ladies toward them, was imputed to the want of so cordial an affection for France as what they had once enters

one at night of quarrels exceptin were peace

tained for Great Britain, and had not wholly laid aside ; but it was greatly owing to the successless expedition against Rhode-Is, land, and to what had been related concerning them respecting that affair. The common sailors were peaceably inclined ; and engaged in no quarrels excepting what has been related, and one at night of October the 5th, in no wise material; and in neither of these do they appear to have been the aggressors.-They neither abused nor injured the town's-people ; nor made themselves a nuisence by their excesses and disorderly conduct. An opportunity at length offers for mentioning some detached articles.

The Raleigh Frigate, capt. John Barry, sailed from Boston the 25th of September, and was taken on the 29th, after bravely engaging for some time, and then being run on an island with a view to escape falling into the hands of two British men of war.

The Pigot schooner, of eight twelve-pounders and forty-five men, laying near Howland's ferry on the eastern side of Rhode Island, a plan was laid for taking her. Major Talbot, with a number of troops, sailed on the 25th of October from Provi, , dence on board a small vessel. It was not till the 28th at night, that he ran down through Howland's ferry; when drifting af. ter that under bare poles, for fear that the fort on Rhode-Island should fire upon him and alarm the Pigot, he passed on undis, covered; and at half past one in the morning of the 29th got sight of the schooner. When but at a small distance from her, she hailed him; and receiving no satifactory answer, her marines fired upon him from her quarter deck. He reserved his fire till he had run his jib-boom through her fore shrouds, when he fired some cannon and threw in such a volley of musketry, loaded with bullets and buck-shot, that the men on deck immediately ran be. low begging for quarters, and they that were below never made their appearance on deck. The consequence was, his men ran out upon the jib-boom and boarded her, without the loss of a men. The captain of the Pigot behaved with the greatest reso, lution, and defended his vessel in his shirt and drawers for some time, without a single soul of his crew to assist him. Major Talbot's gunnel was eight feet lower than the nettings of the schooner. He carried her off with him, and ran to Stonnington. Congress as a reward of his merit, and for the encouragement of a spirit of enterprise, have presented him with the commission of lieutenant-colonel.

The Massachusetts general court passed an act in their first session to prevent the return to this state of certain persons there, in named, and others who have left the state, or either of the

United States, and joined the British. There are about 300 named in it. In case they return they are to be taken up and secured, till they can be transported to some place within the British dominions or in the possession of the British forces. Should they return after transportation, without liberty first obtained from the general court, they are to suffer death. Among the persons thus interdicted, it is to be supposed there are many whose greatest crime is that of having left the country and preferred Britain for their place of residence, that so they might be exempted from the ravages and terrors of war.

The state of Virginia has passed an act for sequestering Bri tish property, and enabling those indebted to British subjects to pay off such debts by placing the money for the discharge of the same, in the loan-office of the commonwealth.

(Nov. 5.] General Gates arrived at Boston, having been directed forthwith to repair thither and take the command of the continental forces in the eastern district.

The present narrative of American matters shall close with part of a letter, * written from Philadelphia, tlıc 27th of August, by a gentleman of eminence, to gov, Houston, of Georgia 5. Were I to unfold to you, Sir, the scenes of venality, pecula. tion and fraud which I have discovered, the disclosure would astonish you ; nor would you, Şir, be less astonished were I, by a detail which the occasion would require, to prove to you, that he inust be a pitiful rogue who, when detected or suspected, meets not with powerful advocates among those, who, in the present corrupt tine, ought to exert all their powers in defence and support of these friend-plundered, much injured, and, I was going to say, sinking states. Don't apprehend, Sir, that I colour too high, or that any part of these intimations are the effect of rash judgment or despondency; I am warranted to say they are not; my opinion, my sentiments, are supported every day by the declaration of individuals; the difficulty lies in bringing men collectively to attack with vigor a proper object."

* This was a private letter, but was afterward published in Rivington's Royal Gazelle, as written by the president of congress, Henry Laurens, cra, It was known by several to contain a ftrong roark of authcaticity-the truth.


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THE present letter shall begin with an expedition through in the remote and upper parts of Pennsylvania, on the 1st of October, under col. William Butler. It was directed not only against the Indians, but several considerable settlements belonging to the tories, becomie particularly obnoxious from the viotence of the past hostilities. The party, which consisted of a Pennsylvania regiment, covered by riflenen and rangers, took its departure from Schoharie, and having gained the head of the Delaware, marched down the river for two days; from whence turning off to the riglit, they struck across the mountains to the Susquehanna, which was the scene of action. They totally burnt and destroyed both the Indian castles and villages in that quarter and the other settlements; but the inhabitants, both tories and Indians, escaped. The destruction was extended for several miles on both sides the Susquehannah. The difficulties, distresses and dangers which the party encountered, required no smali share of that fortitude and hardiness of body and mind, which can scarcely be acquired by any considerable number of men without long habitude, under certain marked circumstances of situation. They were obliged to carry six days provision on their backs; and thus loaded, continually to wade through rivers and creeks scarcely passable without any incumbrance, to men unused to such service. In these circumstances, after the toil of a hard march, they were obliged to endure chilly nights and heavy rains, without any mean for kceping even their arms dry. But these were small matters compared withi the danger awaiting their return, and which they hardly escaped. This was the sudden risings of the creeks and the Susquehannah, occasioned by continual heavy rains, while they were still in the enemy's country, and with their provisions nearly ex. pended. The last circumstance rendered their case desperate, so that though, on any other occasion, the crossing of the Susque. hannah, when so high, would have been deemed impracticable, it was successfully attempted by mounting thie men on horses, which in some places were obliged to swim; and thus all the troops were safely transported, and by crossing the mountaios, evaded two other dangerous places. They returned to SchöhaTie on the 16th, after having, with the greatest fortitude, surmounted every difficulty, and were, by order of the colonel,


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