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ral introduction to his being elected one of the commissioners, Mfr. Jefferson having declined through a present incapacity for going, Mr. Arthur Lee has been chosen in his room.
Congress may have been encouraged to this measure, by a letter of last June to Dr. Franklin, wherein his correspendent writes, “ I have been at Versailles to see the ministers, and every thing which approaches them. I havcobtained anong other things, under the name of Mr. de la Thuillerie, the undertaker of a manufactory of arins, that there shall be delivered to him immediately, from the kings arsenel, fifteen thousand muskets for: the use of infantry, to be employed in his commerce, on condition that he replaces them in the run of a year. I hope your brave soldiers will be pleased with them ; but you must caution not to trust to the ordinary muskets of connerce, which are called muskets for exportation, that are almost as dangerous to friends as to enemies." But without such or any other direct encouragement, they must have adopted the measure through the urgency of their affairs. The commissioners are to arm and fit for var any number of vessels not exceeding six, at the expence of the United States, to war upon British property, provided it will not be disagreeable to the court of France. There has been approved in congress a plan of a treaty with his most christian majesty, which has been delivered to the commissioners with instructions to the following purport :
“ You are to use every means in your power for concluding a treaty conformable to the plan you have received. If you shall find that to be impracticable, you are hereby authorised to relax the demands of the United States, and to enlarge the offers agreeable to the subsequent directions. The eighth article will probably be attended with some difficulty. If you find his most christian majesty determined not to agree to it, you are empowered to add to it as follows : “ That the United States will never be subject, or acknowledge allegiance, or obedience to the king, or crown, or parliament of Great Britain, nor grant to that nauon any exclusive trade, or any advantages, or privileges in trade, more than to his most christian majesty, acither shall any treaty for terminating the present war between the king of Great-Britain and the United States, or any war which may be declared by the king of Great-Britain, against his most christian majesty, in consequence of this treaty, take effect until the expiration of six ca. lendar months after the negociation for that purpose shall have been duly notified, in the former instance by the United States to his most christian majesty, and in the other instance by his most christian majesty to the United States, to the end that both these parties may be included in the peace if tirey think proper.". If
his majesty should be unwilling to agree to the 16th and 26th acticles, you are directed to consent, that the goods and effects of the enemy on board the ships and vessels of either party, shall be: liable to seizure and confiscation. You will solicit the court of France for an immediate supply to twenty or thirty thousand muskets and bayonets, and a large supply of ammunition, and brass field-pieces to be sent under convoy by France. The United States engage for the payment of the arıns, artillery and anmunition, and to endemnify France for the expence of the convoy. It is highly probable that France means not to let the United States sink in the present contest; but as the difficulty of obtaining true accounts of our condition, may cause an opinion to be entertained, that we are liable to support the war on our own strength and resources longer in fact than we can do, it will be . proper for you to press for the immediate and explicit declara. tivn of France in our favor, upon a suggestion that a re-union with Great-Britain may be the consequence of a delay. Should Spain be disinclined to our cause, from an apprehension of dan. gen to her dominions in South-America, you are empowered to give the strongest assurances, that that crown will receive na mojestation from the United States in the possession of these territories."
“You will transmit to us, the most speedy and full intelli gence of your progress in the business, and of any other trans.. actions that it may import us to know. You are desired to get the best and earliest information that you possibly can, of any negociation that the court of London may be carrying on for obtaining foreign mercenaries to be sent against these states the next campaign : and if any such design is in agitation, you will endeavor to prevail with the court of France to exert its influ- , ence, in the most effectual manner, to prevent the execution of such designs. You are desired to obtain as early as possible, a public acknowledgment of the independency of these states on the crown and parliament of Great-Britain by the court of France.",
“In conducting this important business, the congress have the greatest confidence in your address, abilities, vigilence, and attachment to the interests of the United States, and wish you eve- . ry success.”
Though it has not been already mentioned, yet as far back as . July, the congress refused to ratify the cartel settled between gen. Arnold and capt. Forster, at the Cedars. They declared gen. Arnold's agreement to be no more than a sponsion, subject to be ratified or annulled, at their discretion, he not being investe, ed with powers for the disposal of prisoners not in his possession, .
jor under his direction ; and refuse to deliverthe prisoners to be returned on their part, till the British commander in Canada de livered into their hands the authors and abettors of the murders committed on the American prisoners, and made indemnification for the plunder at the Cedars, taken contrary to the faith of the capitulation. Thus the hostages have been left in Canada unredeemed. Capt. Sullivan has written to his biother the general, from Montreal, August the 14th, and expressed his sur. . prise at hearing that congress, instead of redeeming him and the other hostages according to the cartel, had demanded capt. Forster to be delivered up; and declared in the most solemn manner, that not a man living could have used more humanity than capt. Forster did, after the surrender of the party to which he belonged. Such gentlemen of the army as speak of it at head-quarters, seem to wish the treaty had been ratified rather than disallowed; and the commander in chief appears to be like minded.
(Oct. 1.] General Mifflin was requested to resume the office of quarter-master-general, and it was resolved that his rank and pay as a brigadier should be continued. Congress determined upon borrowing five millions of continental dollars for the use of the United States, and the faith of the states is pledged for the payment of principal and interest. To encourage gentlemen of abilities to engage as commission-officers in the battalions to be raised, the pay, from the colonel to the ensign is to be increased. It has also been recommended to the respective states, to use thcir utnost endeavors, that all the officers to be appointed, be men of honor and known abilities, without a particular regard to their having before been in the service.
[Oct. 17.) Mr. Duche having by letter informed the president that the state of his health (probably influenced by the bad v aspect of the American cause) and his parochial duties were such as obliged him to decline the honor of continuing chaplain to congress, they resolved that the president return the thanks of the house, for the devout and acceptable manner in which he discharged his duty during the time he officiated ; and that 150 dollars be presented to him as an acknowledgment of his services. In about a fortnight he expressed his obligations to congress, in a polite letter, and requested, as he accepted their appointment from motives perfectly disinterested, that the money voted him, might be applied to the relief of the widows and children of such of the Pennsylvania officers as have fallen in the service of their country. Several French officers have been conimissioned; the chevalier Matthias Alexis Roche de Fermoy, upon applying to be employed, was appointed a brigadier general. Dr. Franklin bailed for France on the twenty-seventh.
Nov. 18.] Congress agreed upon the scheme of a lottery, by which they mean to raise a sum of money for defraying the - expences of the next campaign. The recuiting service proving
very unsuccessful, they resolved, (Nov. 21.) that each state be at liberty to direct their recruiting officers to enlist their men either for the war, or three years. The reduced state of the army, together with the successes and superiority of the enemy, put congress upon ordering the president to write to the four New-England governments, and request them to use their utmost influence in raising their respective quotas, and to hasten their marches with all possible diligence to the places of rendezvous. The Massachusetts assembly have ordered a fourth of the inilitia to be raised for the reinforcement of the army to the southward, and proposed paying a bounty of 151. sterling a man to those of their state who will enlist for three years or during the war. This proposal however congress could not assent to, as it tended to excite an expectation of the same bounty in the vest of the troops.
[Dec 10.] The probability of the enemy's advancing ta Philadelphia, induced congress to direct gen. Putnam, who was stationed in the city, inimediately to parade the several recruits and other continental troops in it, and to proceed without delay to make tlie proper defences for its security. The next day, they recommended to all the United States as soon as possible to appoint a day of fasting and humiliation. It is left to each state to issue out proclamations, fixing the day that appears most proper within its own bounds. On the 12th, generals Putnam and Mifflin being called to a conference, and having by strong arguments urged the necessity of the congress's retiring, it was thereupon resolved to adjourn to Baltimore in Maryland, to meet on the 20th inst. inasmuch as the movements of the enemy had rendered the neighbourhood of Philadelphia the seat of war. Till congress should otherwise order gen. Washington was to possess full power to direct all things relative to the department, and the operations of war. ;
It remains, that we take a survey of what has been doing to the northward, and under gen. Gates.
Toward the latter end of July, one lieutenant Whitcomb, a green mountain boy, who was out with a scouting party, was guilty of a most base, and villainous action, from no other principle, than a desire of plunder. He wanted a sword and a watch ; and in order to supply himself shot general Gordon as he was riding unarmed from St. John's toward Chamblec, The general died a few days after. This, as was natural, raised the resentment of Sir Guy Carleton's army. It is a pity, that he could not have been delivered up instantly to Sir Guy; but through the weakness of government and military discipline, he will escapa deserved pupishment. Colonel bсedle and major Butterfield, instead of being shot for their cowardly conduct in the business of the Cedars, are only cashiered, and rendered incapable of bearing any commission in the army of the United States. The, new articles of war, agreed upon in September, will subject men to deserved punishment for the future.
When general Arnold had rcaclied Crown-Point with the army and the goods he had brought from Montreal (which he was careful to keep with, all he could) persons soon followed with invoices, and claimed pay for them. Silks and other valuable articles were missing. General Arnold upon this brought col. Hazens before a court-martial. He was tried on a charge, that the packages had been pillaged, and the goods lost, through his refusing to take care of them. The colonel was honorably ac, quitted; but such was the behavior of the general before the court, in challenging every man of them, and abusing them all, that they demanded of general Gates his being put under arrest; the moment the demand was made, general Gates thought himself obliged to act dictatorially, and to dissolve the court; that so the United States might not be deprived of the services of one whom he viewed as an excellent officer, atan important period, when they were much wanted. The court however, did not dissolve till they had finished their other business, and given judgment; and had prepared the account of the trial, and put it in the way to be forwarded to general Washington or the CORgress. Gates had fixed upon Arnold to command the American fieet to be opposed to the British, on Lake Champlain, and therefore would pay no attention to any charges brought against him. Colonel Brown complained of him, for accusing him of plundering the officers baggage taken at Sorel, contrary to the articles of capitulation, and praying that he might be put under arrest and brought to trial; but it was to no purpose. The command for which Arnold was destined, superseded all other conşiderations for the present.
The utmost efforts were made on the side of Canada by the British, for obtaining a superiority on the lake, and for the re. duction of Tyconderoga and Mount Independence. A feet of above thirty fighting vessels, of different kinds and sizes, had been little less tban created; though a few of the largest were re-cunstructions, having been first trained in Great-Britain, then takeid to pieces and sent over. Add to this, thata gondolawciching thirty tons, with above four hundred batteaux, had been dragged up the rapids near Chamblee. The objects in view Wule answer:bie