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Mafterless paflion fways it to the mood Of what it likes, or loaths. Now for your answer : As there is no firm reason to be render'd, Why he cannot abide a gaping pig; Why he, a harmless necessary cat; Why he, a woollen bag-pipe; but of force reading, (on what authority, I am at a loss to know;) which Mr. Pope has fince copied. And tho'I have not disturb'd the text, yet, 1 muft obferve, I don't know what word there is to which this relative [ir

, in the zd line) is to be referr’d. The ingenious Dr. Tbirlby, therefore, would thus adjust the passage.

Cannot contain their urine; for affection,

* Master of passion, sways it &c. * Miftress. And then it is govern d of paffion: and the two old Quarto's and Folio's read, -Masters of paffion, &c. It

be objected, that affection and tafsion are synonomous torms, and mean the same thing. I agree, they do at this time. But I observe, the writers of our author's age made a sort of distinction: considering the one as the cause, the other as the offee7. And then, in this place, affection will Aand for that sympatby or antipa:by of soul, by which we are provok'd to sew a liking or difcuff in the working of our pullions. B. Jøbnfon, in his Sejanus, ieems to apply the terms thus:

He hath ftudied
Affection's pafsions, knows their springs, their ends,

Which way, and whither they will work. So much, in support of Dr. Thirlby's regulation of the passage. My ingenious friend Mr. Warburton is for pointing, and writing it, as in the old editions : but for giving it a different turn in the poet's drift and meaning. I come now to his reading and opinion.

Cannat contain their urine for affection,
Masters of paflion sway it to the mood

Of what it likes, or luarbs. Observe, he is here only speaking of the different power of sounds, and the influence they have upon the human mind: and then concludes, the masters of passion (for fo he finely calls musicians) fway the passions, or affections, as they please : Our poet then having, no doubt, in his mind the great effects that Timotheus, and other ancient musicians, are said to have wrought by the power of mufick. This puts me in mind of a paffage

of Cellier, in his essay on mufick ; who fupposes it possible by a righe chosen composition (not, concord) of Sounds to inspire affright, terror, cowardise, and consternation; in the same manner thar, now, chearfulness, and courage, is affifted by contrary compofitions'. Thus far Mr. Warburton. I thall submit the paffage, for the prefent, to the opinion and determination of the publick; upon which, I may hereafter venture with more safety to ascertain it. G 2


Muft yield to such inevitable shame,
As to offend, himself being offended ;
So can I give no reason, nor I will not,
More than a lodg’d hate and a certain loathing
I bear Anthonio, that I follow thus
A losing suit against him. Are you answer'd ?

Bal. This is no answer, thou unfeeling man,
T'excuse the current of thy cruelty.

Shy. I am not bound to please thee with my answer.
Bal: Do all men kill the thing they do not love !
Shy. Hates any man the thing he would not kill ?
Bol. Ev'ry offence is not a hate at first.
Shy. What, would'lt thou have a serpentfting thee twice?

Ant. I pray you, think you question with a Jew. You may as well


the beach,
And bid the main flood bate his usual height.
You may as well use question with the wolf,
Why he hath made the ewe bleat for the lamb.
You may as well forbid the mountain pines
To wag their high tops, and to make no noise,
When they are tretted with the gufts of heav'n.
You may as well do any thing moft hard,
As seek to soften that, (than which what's harder!
His Jewish heart. Therefore, I do beseech you,
Make no more offers, use no farther means;
But with all brief and plain conveniency
Let me have judgment, and the Jew his will.

Ball. For thy three thousand ducats here is six.

Shy. If ev'ry ducat in fix thousand ducats
Were in fix parts, and ev'ry part a ducat,
I would not draw them, I would have


bond. Duke. How shalt thou hope for mercy, rend'ring none!

Shy. What judgment shall I dread, doing no wrong? You have among you many a purchas'd llave, Which, like your asses, and your dogs, and mules, You use in abject and in flavish part, Because you bought them. Shall I say to you, Let them be free, marry them to your heirs ? Why sweat they under burdens ? let their beds Be made as soft as yours, and let their palaces


Be season'd with such viands ; you will answer,
The flaves are ours.

So do I answer you:
The pound of Aesh, which I demand of him,
Is dearly bought, 'tis mine, and I will have it.
If you deny me, fie, upon your law! -
There is no force in the decrees of Venice :
1 stand for judgment; answer; fhall I have it?

Duke. Upon my pow'r I may dismiss this Court,
Unless Bellario, a learned Doctor,
Whom I have sent for to determine this,
Come here to-day.

Sal. My Lord, here stays, without,
A messenger with letters from the Doctor,
New come from Padua.

Duke. Bring us the letters, call the mefienger.
Bas. Good cheer, Anthonio ; what, man, courage yet:
The Jew shall have my fesh, blood, bones, and all,
Ere thou shalt lole for me one drop of blood.

Ant. I am a tainted weather of the flock, Meetest for death: the weakest kind of fruit Drops earliest to the ground, and so let me. You cannot better be employ'd, Doljanio, Than to live still, and write mine epitaph.

Enter Neriffa, dress'd like a Lawyer's Clerk. Duke. Came you from Padua, from Bellario? (25) Ner. From both, my lord: Bellario greets your

Grace. Bal. Why doft thou whet thy knife so earnestly? Shy. To cut the forfeit from that bankrupt there. Gra. Not on thy foale, but on thy soul, hari Jew, (26)

Thou (25) From both : my lord Bellario greets your Grace.] Thus the two old Folio's, and Mr. Pope in his 4in, had inaccurately pointed this pafsage, by which a doctor of law's was at once rais's to the dignity of the peerage. I set it right in my SHAKESPEARE refter'd, as Mr. Pope has lince done from thence in his last edition. (26) Noe on thy foale, but on thy soul, barsh Jew,] I was obliged, from the authority of the old Folio's, to restore this conceit

, and jingle upon two words alike in found, but differing in sense. Gratiano thus Tates the Jew; · Tho'chou thinkest, that thou art whetting thy knife on the joale of thy shoe, yet it is upon thy foul, thy immortal part, *that thou do't it, thou inexorable man!' There is no room to doubt,

G 3


Thou mak'st thy knife keen; for no metal can,
No, not the hangman's ax, bear half the keenness
Of thy sharp envy. Can no prayers pierce thee?

Shy. No, none that thou hast 'wit enough to make.

Gra. O be thou damn'd, inexorable dog, And for thy life let justice be accus'd! 'Thou almost mak’ft me waver in my faith, To hold opinion with Pythagoras, That souls of animals infuse themselves Into the trunks of men. Thy currilh fpirit Govern'd a wolf, who, hang'd for human flaughter, Ev’n from the gallows did his fell foul fleet, And, whilst thou lay'it in thy unhallow'd dam, Infus’d itself in thee : for thy defires Are wolfish, bloody, starv'd, and ravenous. Shy. "Till thou canst rail the real from off


bond, Thou but offendit thy lungs to speak fo loud. Repair thy wit, good youth, or it will fall To cureless ruin, I ftand here for law. (27) but this was our author's antithesis; as it is so usual with him to play on words in this manner: and that from the mouth of his most serious characters, So in Romeo and Juliet ;

-You have dancing shoes,
With nimble suales; I have a soul of lead,

That stakes me to the ground; I cannot move.
And again, immediately after.

I am too fore enpierced with his shaft,

To foare with his light feathers. So in King Jobni

-0, lawful let it be, That I have room with Rome to curse awhile! And, in Julius Cæfar ;

Now is it Rome, indeed ; and room enough,

When there is in it but one only man. But this sort of jingle is too perpetual with our author to need any farther instances.

(27) To ca:eless ruin.] This, I am sure, is a fignal instance of Mr. Pope's carelessness, for both the old 4to's have it cureless. The players in their edition, for some particular whim, chang'd the word to endless; which Mr. Rowe has copied, because, 1 presume, he had never seen the old Quarto's. Our author has used this epithet, curto refs, again in his poem, callid, Tarquin and Lucrece. St. 111.

O, hateful, vaporous and foggy night!
Since thou art guilty of my cureless crime.



Duke. This letter from Bellario doth commend young

and learned Doctor to our Court. Where is he?

Ner. He attendeth here hard by
To know your answer, whether you'll admit him.

Duke. With all my heart. Some three or four of you
Go, give him courteous conduct to this place :
Mean time, the Court shall hear Bellario's letter.

OUR Grace small understand, that, at the receipt of

your letter, I am very fick: b:et at the inftant that your messenger came, in loving visitation was with me a young Doctor of Rome, his name is Balthazar: I acquainted him with the cause in controversy between the Jew and Anthonio the merchant. He turn'd o'er


books together: he is furnished with my opinion, which, bettered zvith his ozm learning, (the greatness whereof I canrot enough commend,) comes with him at my importunity, to fill up your Grace's request in my feat. I beseech you, let bis lack of years be no impediment to let him lack a reverend estimation: For I never knew fo young a body with fo old a bead. I leave him to your gracious acceptance, whose trial shall better publish his commendation.

Enter Portia, drefi'd like a Dolor of Laws. Duke. You hear the learn'd Bellario, what he writes, And here, I take it, is the Doctor come: Give me your hand. Came you

from old Bellario ?
Por. I did, my lord.

Duke. You're welcome : take your place,
Are you acquainted with the difference,
That holds this present question in the Court ?

Por. I am informed throughly of the case.
Which is the merchant here? and which thę Jezu?

Duke. Anthonio and old Sbylock, both stand forth.
Por. Is

your name Shylock ?
Shy. Shylock is my name.

Por. Of a strange nature is the suit you follow ; Yet in such rule, that the Venetian law Cannot impugn you, as you do proceed. You ftand within his danger, do you not? [To Anth.


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