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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.*
We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution of the United States of America. [See 1 Wheat., 324. 4 Wheat., 403.]
OF THE LEGISLATURE.
SECTION I. All legislative powers herein granted, shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
Sec. II. 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States; and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.
QUALIFICATIONS OF MEMBERS.
2. No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
*This Constitution went into operation on the first Wednesday in March, 1789. [5 Wheat., 420.)
APPORTIONMENT OF REPRESENTATIVES AND DIRECT TAXES
3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free
including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. [See 5 Wheat., 317.]
4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
OF THEIR OFFICERS-IMPEACHMENT.
5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker, and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
OF THE SENATE.
SEC. III. 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years, and each Senator shall have one vote. [See 6 Wheat., 390.]
2. Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class
shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year, so that onethird may be chosen every second year. And if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
QUALIFICATIONS OF SENATORS.
3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not when elected be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
OF THE VICE PRESIDENT.
4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.
OF THE OFFICERS OF THE SENATE. 5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.
6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside. And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the mem. bers present.
7. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend futher than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit, under the United States; but any party convicted shali, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.
MANNER OF ELECTING MEMBERS OF CONGRESS. SEC. IV. The times, places ar manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State, by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.
OF THE MEETINGS OF CONGRESS.
2. Congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and such meetings shall be on the first Monday of December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
POWERS OF EACH HOUSE.
SEC. V. 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections returns, and qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to com pel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide.
2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. [See 1 Hall's Am. Law Journal, 459.)
JOURNALS AND YEAS AND NAYS.
3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
COMPENSATION, PRIVILEGES AND INCAPACITIES OF MEMBERS.
SEC. VI. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be