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be found on board the ships belonging to the citizens of either of the contracting parties, although the whole lading, or any part thereof, should appertain to the enemies of either, contraband goods being always excepted. It is also agreed, in like manner, that the same liberty be extended to persons who are on board a free ship, with this effect, that although they be enemies to either party, they are not to be taken out of that free ship, unless they are soldiers and in actual service of the enemy.
ARTICLE XV. On the contrary, it is agreed, that whatever shall be found to be laden by the citizens of either party on any ship belonging to the enemies of the other, or their citizens, shall be confiscated without distinction of goods, contraband or not contraband, in the same manner as if it be. longed to the enemy, except such goods and merchandises as were put on board such ship before the declaration of war, or even after such declaration, if so be it were done without knowledge of such declaration ; so that the goods of the citizens of either party, whether they be of the nature of such as are prohibited, or otherwise, which, as is afore, said, were put on board any ship belonging to an enemy, before the war, or after the declaration of the same, without the knowledge of it, shall no ways be liable to confiscation, but shall well and truly be restored without delay to the proprietors demanding the same ; but so as that if the said merchandises be contraband, it shall not be any ways lawful to carry them afterwards to any ports belonging to the enemy.
The two contracting parties agree, that the terın of two months be ing passed after the declaration of war, their respective citizens, from whatever part of the world they come, shall not plead the ignorance mentioned in this article.
ARTICLE XVI. The merchant ships belonging to the citizens of either of the contracting parties, which shall be bound to a port of the enemy of one of the parties, and concerning whose voyage, and the articles of their cars go, there shall be just grounds of suspicion, shall be obliged to exhibit, as well upon the high seas as in the ports or roads, not only their passa ports, but likewise their certificates, shewing that their goods are not of the quality of those which are specified to be contraband in the thirteenth article of the present convention.
ARTICLE XVII. And that captures on light suspicions may be avoided, and injuries thence arising prevented, it is agreed, that when one party shall be engaged in war, and the other party be neuter, the ships of the neutral party shall be furnished with passports similar to that described in the fourth article, that it may appear thereby that the ships really beJong to the citizens of the neutral party; they shall be valid for any number of voyages, but shall be renewed every year, that is, if the ship happens to return home in the space of a year. If the ships are laden, they shall be provided not only with the passports above mentioned, but also with certificates similar to those described in the same ar ticle,so that it may be known whether they carry any contraband goods. No other paper shall be required, any usage or ordinance to the contrary notwithstanding. And if it shall not appear froin the said cer,
tificates that there are contraband goods on board, the ships shall be permitted to proceed on their voyage. If it shall appear from the cer. tificates, that there are contraband goods on board any such ship, and the commander of the same shall offer to deliver them up, the offer shall be accepted, and the ship shall be at liberty to pursue its voyage, unless the quantity of the contraband goods be greater than can conveniently be received on board the ship of war or privateer, in which case the ship may be carried into port for the delivery of the same. .
If any ship shall not be furnished with such passport or certificates as are above required for the same, such case may be examined by a proper judge or tribunal, and if it shall appear from other documents or proofs, admissible by the usage of nations, that the ship belongs to the citizens of the neutral party, it shall not be confiscated, but shall be released with her cargo (contraband goods excepted) and be permitted to proceed on her voyage.
If the master of a ship, named in the passport, should happen to die or be removed by any other cause, and another put in his place, the ship and cargo shall nevertheless be equally secure, and the passport remain in full force.
ARTICLE XVIII. If the ships of the citizens of either of the parties shall be met with, either sailing along the coasts, or on the high seas, by any ship of war or privateer of the other; for the avoiding of any disorder,the said ships of war or privateers shall remain out of cannon-shot, and may send their boats on board the merchant ship which they shall so meet with, and may enter her to the number of two or three men only, to whom the master or commander of such ship shall exhibit his passport concerning the property of the ship, made out according to the form prescribed in the fourth article. And it is expressly agreed, that the neutral party shall in no case be required to go on board the examining vessel for the purpose of exhibiting his papers, or for any other examination what. ever.
ARTICLE XIX. It is expressly agreed by the contracting parties, that the stipulations above mentioned, relative to the conduct to be observed on the sea by the cruisers of the belligerant party towards the ships of the neutral party, shall be applied only to ships sailing without convoy ; and when the said ships shall be convoyed, it being the intention of the parties to observe all the regard due to the protection of the flag displayed by public ships, it shall not be lawful to visit them : but the verbal declaration of the commander of the convoy, that the ships he convoys belong to the nation whose flag he carries, and that they have no contraband goods on board, shall be considered by the respective cruisers as fully sufficient : the two parties reciprocally engaging not to admit under the protection of their convoys, ships which shall carry contraband goods destined to an enemy.
ARTICLE XX. In all cases where vessels shall be captured or detained under pretence of carrying to the enemy contraband goods, the captor shall give a receipt for such of the papers of the vessel as he shall retain, which receipt shall be annexed to a descriptive list of the said papers : And it shall be unlawful to break up or open the hatches, chests,trunks,
casks, bales, or vessels, found on board, or remove the smallest part of the goods, unless the lading be brought on shore in presence of the competent officers, and an inventory be made by them of the said goods. Nor shall it be lawful to sell, exchange or alienate the same in any manner, unless there shall have been lawful process, and the competent judge or judges shall have pronounced against such goods sentence of confiscation, saving always the ship and the other goods which it contains.
ARTICLE XXI. And that proper care may be taken of the vessel and cargo, and émbezzlement prevented, it is agreed that it shall not be lawful to remove the master, commander or supercargo of any captured ship from on board thereof, either during the time the ship may be at sea after her capture, or pending the proceedings against her, or her cargo, or any thing relative thereto. And in all cases where a vessel of the citizens of either party shall be captured, or seized, and held for adjudication, her officers, passengers and crew shall be hospitably treated. They shall not be imprisoned or deprived of any part of their wearing apparel, nor of the possession and use of their money, not exceeding for the captain, supercargo and mate five hundred dollars each, and for the sai. lors and passengers, one hundred dollars each.
ARTICLE XXII. It is further agreed, that in all cases, the established courts for prize causes, in the country to which the prizes may be conducted, shall alone take cognizance of them. And whenever such tribunal of either of the parties shall pronounce judgment against any vessel or goods, or property claimed by the citizens of the other party, the sentence or decree shall mention the reasons or motives on which the same shall have been founded, and an authenticated copy of the sentence or decree, and of all the proceedings in the case, shall if demanded be delivered to the commander or agent of the said vessel, without any delay, he paying the legal fees for the same.
ARTICLE XXIII. And that more abundant care may be taken for the security of the respective citizens of the contracting parties, and to prevent their suffering injuries by the men of war or privateers of either party, all commanders of ships of war and privateers, and all others the said citizens, shall forbear doing any damage to those of the other party, or committing any outrage against them, and if they act to the contrary they shall be punishell, and snall also be bound in thcir persons and estates to make satisfaction and reparation for all damages and the interest thereof, of whatever nature the said damages may be.
For this cause all commanders of privateers, before they receive their commissions, shall hereafter be obliged to give before a competent judge, sufficient security by at least two responsible sureties, who have no interest in the said privateer, each of whom, together with the said commander, shall be jointly and severally bound in the sum of seven thousand dollats or thirty-six thousand eight hundred and twenty francs, or if such snips be provided with above one hundred and fifty seamen or soldiers, in the sum of fourteen thousand dollars or seventy-three thousand six hundred and forty francs, to satisfy all damages and inju
ries, which the said privateer, or her officers, or men, or any of them, may do or commit during their cruise, contrary to the tenor of this convention or to the laws and instructions for regulating their conduct; and further, that in all cases of aggressions the said commission shall be revoked and annulled.
ARTICLE XXIV. When the ships of war of the two contracting parties, or those ben longing to their citizens which are armed in war, shall be admitted to enter with their prizes the ports of either of the two parties, the said public or private ships, as well as their prizes, shall not be obliged to pay any duty either to the officers of the place, the judges or any others ; nor shall such prizes, when they come to and enter the ports of either party, be arrested or seized, nor shall the officers of the place make examination concerning the lawfulness of such prizes ; but they may hoist sail at any time and depart and carry their prizes to the places expressed in their commissions, which the commanders of such ships of war shall be obliged to shew. It is always understood that the stie pulations of this article shall not extend beyond the privileges of the most favored nation.
ARTICLE XXV. It shall not be lawful for any foreign privateers who have commis. sions from any prince or state in enmity with either nation, to fit their ships in the ports of either nation, to sell their prizes, or in any manner to exchange them ; neither shall they be allowed to purchase provisions, except such as shall be necessary for their going to the next port of that prince or state, from which they have received their commis. sions.
ARTICLE XXVI. It is further agreed, that both the said contracting parties shall not only refuse to receive any pirates into any of their ports, havens or towns, or permit any of their inhabitants to receive, protect, harbor, conceal or assist them in any manner, but will bring to condign punishment all such inhabitants as shall be guilty of such acts or offences.
And all their ships, with the goods or merchandises taken by them and brought into the port of either of the said parties, shall be seized as far as they can be discovered, and shall be restored to the owners or their factors or agents duly authorized by them (proper evidence being first given before competent judges for proving the property) even in case such effects should have passed into other hands by sale, if it be proved that the buyers knew or had good reason to believe, or suspect that they had been piratically taken.
ARTICLE XXVII. Neither party will intermeddle in the fisheries of the other on its coasts, nor disturb the other in the exercise of the rights which it now holds or may acquire on the coast of Newfoundland, in the Gulph of St. Lawrence, or elsewhere, on the American coast, northward of the United States. But the whale and seal-fisheries shall be free to both in every quarter of the world.
This convention shall be ratified on both sides in due form, and the ratifications exchanged in the space of six months or sooner if possible.
In faith whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the above articles both in the French and English languages, and they have thereto affixed their seals; declaring nevertheless that the signing in the two languages shall not be brought into precedent, nor in any way operate to the prejudice of either party.
Done at Paris, the thirtieth day of September, anno Domini eighteen
WHEREAŞ the Senate of the United States did by their resolution, on the third day of this present month of February, two thiras of the Senators then present concurring, consent to and advise the ratification of the said convention : Provided the second article be expunged, and that the following article be added or inserted : “ It is agreed that the present convention shall be in force for the term of eight years from the time of the exchange of the ratifications."
Now THEREFORE, I John Adams, President of the United States of America, having seen and considered the convention and additional article above recited, do, in pursuance of the aforesaid advice and consent of the Senate of the said United States, by these presents accept, rati. fy and confirm the said Convention and additional article and every clause and article thereof, as the same are herein before set forth, saring and excepting the second article of the said Convention, which I hereby declare to be expunged and of no force or validity : And I do moreover hereby declare, that the said Convention, saving the second article as aforesaid, and the said additional article form together one instrument, and are a Convention between the United States of America, and the French Republic, made by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof. At the City of Washington, this eighteenth day of February, in the year of var
Lord one thousand eight hundred and one.
AND WHEREAS the said Convention was on the other part ratified and confirmed by the first Consul of France in the form of which the following is a translation from the French language, to wit:
« Bonaparte, First Consul, in the name of the French people the Consuls of the Republic, having seen and examined the Convention concluded, agreed to, and signed at Paris, the 30th of September, 1800, by the citizens Joseph Bonaparte, Fleurieu and Ræderer, counsellors of state, in virtue of the full powers which have been given to them to this effect, . with Messieurs Ellsworth, Davie, and Murray, ministers plenipotentiary of the United States, equally furnished with full powers, the tenor of which convention follows :" [Here follows a copy of the Convention in the French language.]
“ Approves the above Convention in all and each of the articles which are therein contained ; declares that it is accepted, ratified and cor firmed, and promises that it shall be inviolably observed.
“The government of the United States having added in its ratification, that the Convention should be in force for the space of eight years, and having omitted the second article, the government of the French republic consents to accept, ratify and confirm the above conYention, with the addition importing that the Convention shall be in force for the space of eight years, and with the retrenchment of the se.