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certain degree, under its influence, that their faculties are alive. In the houses devoted to their ruin, these infatuated people may be seen, at nine o'clock in the evening, in all the different stages : some entering, half distracted, to feed the craving appetite they have been obliged to subdue during the day; others laughing and talking wildly under the effects of a first pipe, whilst the couches around are filled with their different occupants, whó lie languid, with an idiot smile upon their countenance, too much under the influence of the drug to care for passing events, and fast verging to the wished-forconsummation. The last scene in this tragic play is generally a room in the rear of the building, a species of dead-house, where lie stretched those who have passed into the state of bliss the opium-smoker madly seeks—an emblem of the sleep to which he is blindly hurrying. »
On the arrival of the expedition in Macao Roads, a gloom was diffused throughout the fleet, by the announcement, after a conference with Captain Elliot, that the Bogue forts were not to be attacked. The fleet (except the blockading squadron) was ordered to Chusan, and two or three interpreters were procured at Macao, « among whom,” says our author, « was Mr. Gutzlaff, the missionary, better known as the author of a voluminous work, entitled China Opened, but whose lengthened labours require an appetite for the marvellous to digest. » This voluminous work consists of two small volumes. Of the • errors, ” of which Lord Jocelyn accuses its author, we say nothing
The harbour of Chusan is described as beautiful, - and when the fleet entered, the beach and heights were covered with a dense population. On boarding the admiral's junk, the English officers were received with great civility, and whilst they waited for the admiral, who was on shore, tea was handed about.
The account of the attack and capture of the town of Tinghae is very meagre, and contains no incident unnoticed in the newspapers. The evacuation of the town seems to have been very sudden. Upon entering the house of the admiral, (who lost his leg in the action), the half-smoked pipes were
found on the couches, and little cups filled with untasted tea; whilst cloaks, caps, and swords, lay about in confusion. The ladies' apartments, which the invaders unscrupulously entered, were strewed with clothes of all descriptions ; silks, fans, china, little shoes, crutches to support their toltering frames), paintpots, and other articles of a Chinese belle's toilette, were tossed about in a sad melée. The interiors of some of the houses were beautifully decorated and furnished; one, in particular, excited admiration :
« The different apartments open round the centre court, which is neatly tiled; the doors, window-frames, and pillars that support the pent-roof, are carved in the most chaste and delicate style, and the interior of the ceiling and wainscot are lined with fret-work, which it must have required the greatest nicely and care to have executed. The furniture was in the same keeping, denoting a degree of taste the Chinese have not in general credit for with us. The bed-places in the sleeping apartments of the ladies were large dormitories, for they can hardly be called beds : at one corner of the room is a separate chamber, about eight feet square, and the same in height; the exterior of this is usually painted red, carved, and gilt; the entrance is through a circular aperture, three feet in diameter, with sliding pannels; in the interior is a couch of large proportions, covered with a soft mat, and thick curtains of mandarin silk: the inside of the bed is polished and painted, and a little chair and table are the remaining furniture of this extraordinary dormitory.”
Lord Jocelyn remarks that great astonishment was excited amongst those of the Europeans who had fancied that China was a semi-barbarous country. Not only were the edifices of a superior character, but the public arsenals were stocked with weapons of every description, carefully arranged, and to each arsenal a fire-engine was attached, similar to those used in this country. In the great temple, which is far superior to that at Macao, are statues upwards of fifteen feet high, handsomely wrought. The silks taken in the houses of the principal mandarins were of the finest texture, and covered with magnificent embroideries.
A Chinese comprador (or purveyor), attached to the commissary-general's department, having been carried off by banditti in the island, a parly was sent into the interior to endeavour to recover him. Lord Jocelyn accompanied this expedition, and had thus an opportunity of seeing somewhat of the country, at the expense of much suffering from the heat, under which many of the soldiers sank. At one place, where they seized some hostages, they ran a great hazard of being overwhelmed by the indignant people. And here it may be proper to observe, that Lord Jocelyn has distinctly shown how false is the idea that they had come amongst a people who only waited for the standard of the foreigner to throw off a detested and tyrant yoke. This is one of the Canton ideas that have imposed upon our Government, which, dishonourably, in our opinion, directed the commander of the expedition to tell the people that they did not come to make war upon them, but upon their rulers, in the hope of exciting a rebellion amongst the former. But they evinced by their gestures, that they hated the invading barbarians more bitterly than their Tartar rulers » Indeed, Lord Jocelyn pronounces the statement, so industriously circulated throughout India, of the hatred and dislike of the natives in China to their Tartar rulers, - a fiction » : « as far as we had an opportunity of judging," he says, « it appeared to be without the slightest foundation.
SAGACITY OF DOGS.
A short time since, in an adjoining street to HanoverSquare, an exhibition of a highly interesting nature took place, which is worthy, to be put on record. The writer having learned that a French gentleman (M. Léonard), who had for some time been engaged in instructing two dogs in various performances, which required the exercise not merely of the natural instincts of the animal, and the power of imitation, but of a higher degree of judgment and reflection than is commonly developed in the dog, was residing in London, obtained an introduction, and was obligingly favoured by M. Léonard with permission to hold some conversation with his extraor-' dinary pupils. Two fine dogs of the Spanish race were introduced by M. L — with customary French politeness; the largest by the name of M. Philax, the other as M. Brac (or Spot); the former had been in training three, the latter two years. They were in vigorous health, and having bowed very gracefully, seated themselves side by side on the hearth-rug. M. Léonard then gave a lively description of the means he had employed to develope the cerebral system in these animals—how, from having been very fond of the chase, and ambitious of having the best-trained dogs, he had employed the usual course of
training, -how the conviction had been impressed on his mind that by gentle usage, and steady perseverance in inducing the animal to repeat again and again what was required, not only would the dog be capable of performing that specific act, but that that part of the brain which was brought into activity by the mental effort would become more largely developed; and hence a permanent increase of mental power be obtained. This reasoning is in accordance with the known laws of the physiology of the nervous system, and is fraught with the most important results--but we must not digressand can only refer the reader interested in the subject to the masterly little work of Dr. Verity (w changes produced in the nervous System by Civilisation »). After this introduction M. Léonard spoke to his dogs in French, in his usual tone, and ordered the one to walk, the other to lie down, to run, gallop, halt, crouch, &c.; which they performed as promptly and correctly as the most docile children. Then he directed them to go through the usual exercises of the manege, which they performed as well as the best trained ponies at Astley's. He then placed six cards of different colours on the floor; and, sitting with his back to the dogs, directed one to pick up the blue card, the other the white, &c., varying his orders rapidly, and speaking in such a manner that it was impossible the dogs could have performed if they had not had a perfect knowledge of the words. For instance, M. Léonard said, Philax, take the red card, and give it to Brac; and Brac, take the white card and give it to Philax; » and the dogs instantly did this; and exchanged the cards with each other. He then said, « Philax, put your card on the green, and Brac, put yours on the blue, and this was instantly performed. Pieces of bread and meat were placed on the floor, with figured cards, and a variety of directions were given to the dogs, so as to put their intelligence and obedience to the severest test. They brought the meat, bread, or cards, as commanded, and never attempted to eat or to touch the bread or meat , dered. Yet more, Philax was ordered to bring a piece of meat and give it to Brac, and then Brac was to give bac to Philax, who was to return it to its place. Philax was next