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outside of a dome, your eye half surrounds it; look statuary is the most natural, and shows us something upon the inside, and at gue glance you have all the likest the object that is represented. To make use prospect of it; the entire concavity falls into your of a common instance: let one who is born blind eye at once, the sight being as the centre that col- take an image in his hands, and trace out with his lects and gathers into it the lines of the whole cir. fingers the different furrows and impressions of the cumference: in a square pillar, the sight often takes chisel, and he will easily conceive how the shape of in but a fourth part of the surface; and in a square a man, or beast, may be represented by it; but concare must move up and down to the different should he draw his hand over a picture, where all is sides, before it is master of all the inward surface. smooth and uniform, he would never be able to ima. For this reason, the fancy is infinitely more struck gine how the several prominences and depressions with the view of the open air and skies, that passes of a human body should be shown on a plain piece through an arch, than what comes through a square, of canvass, that has in it no unevenness or irreguor any other figure. The figure of the rainbow does larity. Description runs yet further from the things not contribute less to its magnificence than the it represents than painting; for a picture bears a colours to its beauty, as it is very poetically described real resemblance to its original, which letters and by the son of Sirach : “ Look upon the rainbow, syllables are wholly void of. Colours speak all lanand praise Hion that made it; very beautiful is it in guages, but words are understood only by such a its brightness; it encompasses the heaveus with a people or nation. For this reason, though men's glorious circle, and the hands of the Most Iligh necessities quickly put them on finding out speech, have bended it."

writing is probably of a later invention than paintHaving thus spoken of that greatness which affects | ing; particularly we are told that in Ainerica, when the mind in architecture, I might next show the the Spaniards first arrived there, expresses were pleasure that arises in the imagination from what sent to the Emperor of Mexico in paint, and the appears new and beautiful in this art; but as every news of his country delineated by the strokes of a beholder has naturally a greater taste of these two pencil, which was a more natural way than that of perfections in every building which offers itself to writing, though at the same time much more imperhis view, than of that which I have hitherto con- fect, because it is impossible to draw the little considered, I shall not trouble my readers with any re- nexions of speech, or to give the picture of a conflections upon it. It is sufficient for my present junction or an adverb. It would be yet more strange purpose to observe, that there is nothing in this to represent visible objects by sounds that have no whole art which pleases the imagination, but as it ideas annexed to them, and to make something like is great, uncommon, or beautiful.-O.

description in music. Yet it is certain, there may be confused imperfect notions of this nature raised

in the imagination by an artificial composition of No. 416.] FRIDAY, JUNE 27, 1712.

notes; and we find that great masters iu the ait are able, sometimes to set their hearers in the heat and hurry of a battle, to overcast their minds with mclancholy scenes and apprehensions of deaths and

funerals, or to lull them into pleasing dreams of CONTENTS

groves and elysiums. The secondary pleasures of the imagination. The several In all these instances, this secondary pleasure of

sources of these pleasures (statuary, painting, description, the imagination proceeds from that action of the and music) compared together. The final cause of our re: mind which compares the ideas arising from the ori. in particular The power of words over the imagination. ginal objects with the ideas we receive from the Why one reader is more pleased with descriptions than statue, picture, description, or sound, that represents another.

them. "It is impossible for us to give the necessary, Quatenu' hoc simile est oculis, quod mente videmus. reason why this operation of the mind is attended

with so much pleasure, as I have before observed on So far as what we see with our minds, bears similitude to the same occasion; but we find a great variety of what we see with our eyes.

entertainments derived from this single principle; I at first divided the pleasures of the imagination for it is this that not only gives us a relish of stainto such as arise from objects that are actually be- tuary, painting, and description, but makes us defore our eyes, or that once entered in at our eyes, light in all the actions and arts of mimicry. It is and are afterward called up into the mind either this that makes the several kinds of wit pleasant, barely by its own operations, or on occasion of some which consists, as I have formerly shown, in the thing without us, as statues or descriptions. We affinity of ideas : and we may add, it is this also have already considered the first division, and shall that raises the little satisfaction we sometimes tind therefore enter on the other, which, for distinction in the different sorts of false wit; whether it consake, I have called " The Secondary Pleasures of sists in the affinity of letters, as an anagram, acrosthe Imagination." When I say the ideas we re- tic; or of syllables, as in doggrel rhymes, echoes; ceive from statues, descriptions, or such-like occa-or of words, as in puns, quibbles; or of a whole sious, are the same that were once actually in our sentence or poem, as wings and altars. The final view, it must not be understood that we had once cause, probably of annexing pleasure to this operaseen the very place, action, or person, that are tion of the mind, was to quicken and encourage us carred or described. It is sufficient that we have in our searches after truth, since the distinguishing seen places, persons, or actions in general, which one thing from another, and the right discerning be bear a resemblance, or at least some remote analogy, twixt our ideas, depend wholly upon our comparing with what we find represented; since it is in the them together, and observing the congruity or disa power of the imagination, when it is once stocked agreement that appears among the several works of with particular idcas, to enlarge, compound, and nature. vary them at her own pleasure.

But I shall here confine myself to those pleasures Among the different kinds of representation, of the imagination which proceed from ideas raised

PAPER VI.

ON THE PLEASURES OF THE IMAGINATION.

LUCR, ix. 754.

Non illum labor Isthmins

by words, because most of the observations that

Quem tu, Melpomene, semel

Nasceutem placido lumine videris, agree with descriptions are equally applicable to painting and statuary.

Clarabit pugilem, non equus impiger, &c Worris, when well chosen, have so great a force

Sed quæ "Tibur aquæ fertile perfluuul.. in them, that a description often gives us more lively

Et spissa nemorum come.

Fingent Æolio carmine nobilem.-Hor. 4 Od ji 1. ideas than the sight of things themselves. The reader

He on whose birth the lyric queen linds a scene drawn in stronger colours, and painted

of numbers snil'd, shall never grace more to the life in his imagination, by the help of The Isthmian gauntlet, or be seen words, thau by an actual survey of the scene which

First in the fam'd Olympic race. they describe. In this case, the poet seems to get

But him the streains that wurbling flow

Rich Tibur's fertile meads along, the beter of uature: he takes, indeed, the land

And shady groves, hts haguts shall know scape after her, but yives it more vigorous touches,

The master of th' tolian song.--ATTKRBERT. heigbteps its beauty, and so enlivens the whole piece, We may observe, that any single circumstance of that the images which flow from the objects them what we have formerly seen viteu raises up a whale selves appear weak and fuint, in comparison of those scene of imagery, and awakens mimberless ideas that come from the expressions. The reason, pro- that before slept in the imagination ; such a partibably, may be, because, in the survey of any object, cular smell or colour is able to fill the mind, ou a we have only so much of it painted on the imagina- sudden, with the picture of the fields or gardens tion as comes in at the eye; but in its description, where we first met with it, and to bring up into the poet gives us as free a view of it as he pleases, view all the variety of images that once attended it. and discovers to us several parts, that either we did Our imagination takes the kint, and leads us unexnot attend to, or that lay out of our sight when we pectedly into cities or theatres, plains or meadows. first beheld it. As we look on any object

, our idea We may further observe, when the fancy thus reof it is, perhaps, made up of two or three simple Aects on the scenes that have passed in it formerly, idcas; but when the poet represents it, he may those which were at first pleasant to behold appear either give us a more complex idea of it, or only more so upon reflection, and that the memory raise in us such ideas as are most apt to affect the heightens the delightfulness of the origioal. A imagination.

Cartesian would account for both these instavces in · It may be here worth our while to examine how the following manner :it cuines to pass that several readers, who are all ac- The set of ideas which we received from such a quainted with the same language, and know the prospect or garden, having entered the mind at the meaning of the words they read, should nevertheless same time, have a set of traces, belonging to them have a different relish of the same descriptions. We in the brain, bordering very near upon one another; find one transported with a passage, which another when, therefore, any one of these ideas arises in runs over with coldness and indifference; or finding the imagination, and consequently dispatehes a flow the representation extremely natural, where another or animal spirits to its proper trace, these spirits, iu can perceive nothing of likeness and conformity. the violence of their motion, run not only into the This different taste must proceed either from the trace to which they were more particularly directed, perfection of imagination in one more than in an. but into several of those that lie about it. By this other, or from the different ideas that several readers ineans, they awaken other ideas of the same set, affix to the same words. For, to have a true relish which immediately determine a new dispatch of and form a right judgment of a description, a man spirits, that in the same maoner open other beigbo should be born with a good imagination, and must bouring traces, till at last the whole set of them is have well weighed 'the force and energy that lie in blown up, and the whole prospect or garden flourishes the several words of a language, so as to be able to in the imagination. But because the pleasure we distinguish which are most significant and expressive receive from these places far surmounted, and overof their proper ideas, and what additional strength came the little disagreeableness we found in therti, and beauty they are capable of receiving from con- for this reason there was at first a wider passage junction with others. The fancy must be warm, to worn in the pleasure traces, and, on the contrary, retain the print of those images it hath received so narrow a one in those which belonged to the disfrom outward objects, and the judgment discerning, agreeable ideas, that they were quickly stopt up, to know what expressions are niost proper to clothe and rendered incapable of receiving any animal and adorn them to the best advantage. “A man who spirits, and consequently of exciting any unpleasant is deficient in either of these respects, though he ideas in the memory: may receive the general notion of a description, can It would be in vain to inquire whether the power never see distinctly all its particular beauties; as a of imagining things strongly proceeds from any person with a weak sight may have the coufused pros greater perfection in the soul, or from any nicer pect of a place that lies before him, without entering texture in the brain of one man than of another. into its several parts, or discerning the variety of its But this is certain, that a noble writer should be colours in their full glory and perfection.-O. born with this faculty in its full strength and vigour,

so as to be able to receive lively ideas from out want No. 417.) SATURDAY, JUNE 28, 1712.

objects, to retain them long, and tn range them together upon occasion, in such figures and represena tations, as are most likely to hit the fancy of the

reader. A poet should take as much pains in farml" CONTENTS.

ing his imagination, as a philosopher in cultivating How a whole set of ideas hang together, &c. A patural cause

his understanding. He must gain a due relishut assigned for it low to perfect te imagination of a writer. the works of nature, and be thoroughly cusversant Who among the ancient poets had this faculty in its greatest in the various wonery of a country life. perfection. Homer excelled in imagining what is great ; When he is stored with country images, if she Virgil in imagining what is beautiful : Ovid in imagining would go beyond pastoral, and the lower kiaus tot what is new. Our countryman, Milton, very perfect in all these three respects.

poetry, he ought to acquaint himself with the poinp

PAPER VII.

ON THE PLEASURES OF THE IMAGINATION,

and magnificence of courts. He should be very | the imagination may be affected by what is strange. well versed in every thing that is noble and stately He describes a miracle in every story, and always in the productions of art, whether it appear in paint-gives us the sight of some new creature at the end ing or statuary; in the great works of architecture of it. His art consists chiefly in well-timing his dewhich are in their present glory, or in the ruins of scription, before the first shape is quite worn off, and those which flourished in former ages.

the new one perfectly finished ; so that he everySuch advantages as these help to open a man's where entertains us with something we never saw thoughts, and to enlarge his imagination, and will before, and shows us monster after monster to the therefore have their influence on all kinds of writing, end of the Metamorphoses. if the author knows how to make right use of them. If I were to name a poet that is a perfect master And among those of the learned languages who excel in all these arts of working on the imagination, I in this talent, the most perfect in their several kinds think Milton may pass for one; and if his Paradise are perhaps Homer, Virgil, and Ovid. The first Lost falls short of the Æneid or Iliad in this restrikes the imagination wonderfully with what is spect, it proceeds rather from the fault of the langreat, the second with what is beautiful, and the last guage in which it is written, than froin any defect with what is strange. Reading the Iliad, is like of genius in the author. So divine a poem in Entravelling through a country uninhabited, where the glish is like a stately palace built of brick, where fancy is entertained with a thousand savage pros. one may see architecture in as great a perfection as pects of vast deserts, wide uncultivated marshes, one of marble, though the materials are of a coarser huge forests, misshapen rocks and precipices. On nature. But to consider it only as it regards our the contrary, the Æneid is like a well-ordered gar- present subject; What can be conceived greater dea, where it is impossible to find out any part un- than the battle of angels, the majesty of Messiah, adorned, or to cast our eyes upon a single spot that the stature and behaviour of Satan and his peers ? does not produce some beautiful plant or flower. What more beautiful than Pandæmonium, Paradise, But when we are in the Metamorphoses, we are Heaven, Angels, Adam, and Eve? What more walking on enchanted ground, and see nothing but strange than the creation of the world, the several scenes of magic lying around us.

metamorphoses of the fallen angels, and the sur · Homer is in his province, wher, he is describing prising adventures their leader meets with in his a battle or a multitude, a hero or a god. Virgil is search after Paradise ? No other subject could never better pleased than when he is in his elysium, have furnished a poet with scenes so proper to strike or copying out an entertaining picture. Homer's the imagination, as no other poet could have painted epithets generally mark out what is great; Virgil's those scenes in more strong and lively colours.-0 what is agreeable. Nothing can be more maguifi. cent than the figure Jupiter makes in the first Iliad, nor more charming than that of Venus in the first No. 418.] MONDAY, JUNE 30, 1712. Æneid.

He spoke, and awful bends his sable brows
Shakes his ambrosial curls, and gives the nod,
The stamp of fate, and sanction of the god :
High heav'n with trembling the dread signal took,

CONTENTS.
And all Olympus to the centre shook. - POPE.

Why any thing that is unpleasant to behold pleases the imagi. Dixit: et avertens rosea cervice refulsit,

nation when well described. Why the imagination reAmbrosiæque comæ divinum vertice odorem

ceives a more exquisite pleasure from the description of Spiravere : pedes vestis defluxit ad imos,

what is great, new, or beautiful. The pleasure still heightEt vera ineessa patuit dea-Virg. Æn. i. 406 ened if what is described raises passion in the mind. DisThus having said, she turn d and made appear

agreeable passions pleasing when raised by apt descriptions.

Why terror and grief are pleasing to the mind when excited Her neck refulgent, and disheveld hair:

by description. A particular advantage the writers in poetry Which, flowing from her shoulders, reach'd the ground, And widely spread ambrosial scents around :

and fiction have to please the imagination. What liberties lu length of train descends her sweeping gown,

are allowed them. And by her graceful walk the queen of love is known. -ferat et rubus asper amonum-Virg. Ecl. iii. 89.

The rugged thorn shall bear the fragrant rose. Homer's persons are most of them godlike and ter- The pleasures of these secondary views of the rible ; Virgil has scarce admitted any into his poem imagination are of a wider and more universal nawho are not beautiful, and has taken particular care ture than those it has when joined with sight; for to make bis hero so.

not only what is great, strange, or beautiful, but -Lumenque juventæ

any thing that is disagreeable when looked upon, Purpureum, et lætus oculis afflarat honores.

pleases us in an apt description. Here, therefore, VIRG. Æn. 1 594.

we must inquire after a new principle of pleasure, And gave his rolling eyes a sparkling grace, And breath'd a youthful vigour on his face.-DRYDEN.

which is nothing else but the action of the mind,

which compares the ideas that arise from words In a word, Homer fills his readers with sublime ideas, with the ideas that arise from the objects themand, I believe, has raised the imagination of all the selves; and why this operation of the mind is atgood poets that have come after him. I shall only tended with so much pleasure, we have before coninstance Horace, who immediately takes fire at the sidered. For this reason, therefore, the description first hint of any passage in the Iliad or Odyssey, of a dunghill is pleasing to the imagination, it the and always rises above himself when he has Homer image be represented to our minds by suitable exin his view. Virgil has drawn together, into his pressions ; though, perhaps, this may be more proÆneid, all the pleasing scenes his subject is capable perly called the pleasure of the understanding thao of admitting, and in his Georgics has given us a of the fancy, because we are not so much delighted collection of the most delightful landscapes that can with the image that is contained in the description, be made out of fields and woods, herds of cattle, and as with the aptness of the description to excite the warms of bees.

image, Ovid, in his Metamorphoses, has shown us how] But if the description of what is little, common, SPECTATO3-Nos. 61 & 62.

2 1

PAPER VIII.

ON THE PLEASURES OF THE IMAGINATION,

DRYDEN

or deformed, be acceptable to the imagination, the from the secret comparison which

we make between decription of what is great, surprising, or beautiful, ourselves and the person who suffers. Such repreis much more so; because here we are not only desentations teach us to set a just value upon our lighted with comparing the representation with the own condition, and make us prize our good fortune, original, but are highly pleased with the original which exempts us from the like calamities. This itself. Most readers, I believe, are more charmed is, however, such a kind of pleasure as we are not with Milton's description of paradise, than of hell: capable of receiving, when we see a person actually they are both, perhaps, equally perfect in their lying under the tortures that we meet with in a de kind; but in the one the brimstone and sulphur scription; because, in this case, the object presses are not so refreshing to the imagination, as the too close upon our senses, and bears so hard upon us, beds of tlowers and the wilderness of sweets in the that it does not give us time or leisure to reflect on other.

ourselves. Our thoughts are so intent upon the There is yet another circumstance which recom- miseries of the sufferer, that we cannot turn them mends a description more than all the rest; and upon our own happiness. Whereas, on the con: that is, if it represents to us such objects as are apt trary, we consider the misfortunes we read in histo raise a secret ferment in the mind of the reader, tory or poetry, either as past or as fictitious; so that and to work with violence upon his passions. For, the reflection upon ourselves rises in us insensibly, in this case, we are at once warned and enlightened, and overbears the sorrow we conceive for the suf. so that the pleasure becomes more universal, and feriogs of the aflicted. is several ways qualified to entertain us. Thus in But because the mind of man requires something painting, it is pleasant to look on the picture of any more perfect in matter than what it finds there, face where the resemblance is hit; but the pleasure and can never meet with any sight in nature which increases if it be the picture of a face that is beau- sufficiently answers its highest ideas of pleasanttiful; and is still greater, if the beauty be softened ness; or, in other words, because the imagination with an air of melancholy or sorrow. The two lead- can fancy to itself things more great, strange, or ing passions which the more serious parts of poetry beautiful, than the eye ever saw, and is still sensiendeavour to stir up in us are terror and pity. And ble of some defect in what it has seen; on this ac. here, by the way, one would wonder how it comes count it is the part of a poet to humour the innato pass that such passions as are very unpleasant gination in our own polions, by mending and perat all other times, are very agreeable when excited fecting nature where he describes a reality, and by by proper descriptions. It is not strange that we adding greater beauties than are put together in should take delight in such passages as are apt to nature, where he describes a fietion. produce hope, joy, admiration, love, or the like He is not obliged to attend her in the slow ademotions, in us, because they never rise in the mind vances which she makes from one season to another without an inward pleasure which attends them. or to observe her conduct in the successive proBut how comes it to pass, that we should take de- duction of plants and flowers. He may draw into light in being terrified or dejected by a description, his description all the beauties of the spring and when we find so much uneasiness in the fear or grief autumn, and make the whole year contribute somewhich we receive from any other occasion ? thing to render it the more agreeable. His rose-trees,

If we consider, therefore, the nature of this plea- woodbines, and jessamines, may flower together, sure, we shall find that it does not arise so properly and his beds be covered at the same time with Inies, from the description of what is terrible, as from the violets, and amaranths. His soil is not restrained reflection we make on ourselves at the time of read to any particular set of plants, but is proper either ing it. When we look on such hideous objects, we for oaks or myrtles, and adapts itself to the products are not a little pleased to think we are in no danger of every climate. Oranges may grow wild in it; of them. We consider them, at the same time, myrrh may be met with in every hedge; and if as dreadful and harmless ; so that, the more fright- he thinks it proper to have a grove of spices, he can ful appearance they make, the greater is the plea- quickly command sun enough to raise it. If all sure we receive from the sense of our own safety. this will not furnish out an agreeable scene, he In short, we look upon the terrors of a description can make several new species of flowers, with richer with the same curiosity and satisfaction that we scents and higher colours than any that grow in the survey a dead monster.

gardens of nature. His concerts of birds may be as

full and harmonious and his wonds as thick and Protratitur: nequeunt expleri corda tuendo

gloomy as he pleases. He is at no more expense Terribiles oculos, vultum, villosaque setis

in a long vista than a short one, and can as easily Pectori semiferi, atque extinctos saucibus ignes.

throw his cascades from a precipice of half a mile

high, as from one of twenty yards. He has his choice - They drag him from his den.

of the winds, and can turn the course of his rivers The wond'ring neighbourhood, with glad surprise, Behold his shagged breast, his giant size,

in all the variety of meanders that are most delightHis mouth that flam no more, and his extinguish'd eyes.

ful to the reader's imagination. In a word, he has

the modelling of Nature in his own hands, and may It is for the same reason toat we are delighted with give her what charms he pleases, provided he does the reflecting upon dangers that are past, or in pol reform her too much, and run into absurdities looking on a precipice at a distance, which would by endeavouring to excel.-0. fill us with a different kind of horror if we saw it hanging over our heads.

No. 419.1 TUESDAY, JULY 1, 1712. In the like manner, when we read of torments, wounds, deaths, and the like dismal accidents, our pleasure does not flow so properly from the grief

ON THE PLEASURES OF THE IMAGINATION. which such melancholy descriptions give us, as

CONTENTS,

Of that kind of poetry which Mr. Dryden calls the fairy way Suave mari magno turbantibus æquora ventis, &c.-LUCR. of writing." How a poet should be qualified for it the

Informe cadave

VIRG. An. viii. 264

DRYDEN.

PAPER IX.

peasures of the imagination, that arise from it. In this re- owes its original to the darkness and superstition of spect why the modems excel the ancients, Why the En later ages, when pious frauds were made use of lu siisti excel the moderns. Who the best among the Euglish. amuse mankind, and frighten them into a sense of Oi emblematical persons.

their duty. Our forefathers looked upon nature with - nentis gratissimus error.-HoR. 2 Ep. ii. 140,

more reverence and horror, before the world was The sweet delusion of a raptur'd mind.

enlightened by learning and philusophay; and loved THERE is a kind of writing, wherein the poet to astonish themselves with the apprehensions of quite loses sight of natire, and entertains his witchcraft, prodigies, charms, and enchantments. reader's imagination with the characters and actions There was not a village in England that had not a of such persons as have many of thein no existence ghost in it; the churchyards were all haunted; but what he bestows on them. Such are fairies, every large common bad a circle of fairies belong. witches, magicians, demons, and departed spirits. ing to it; and there was scarce a shepherd to be met

This Mr. Dryden calls “ the fairy way of writing,” with who had not seen a spirit. which is indeed more diflicult than any other that Among all the poets of ihis kind our English are depends on the poet's fancy, because he has no pat- much the best, by what I have yet seen ; whether it terg to follow in it, and must work altogether out of be that we abound with more stories of this nature, his own invention.

or that the genius of our country is fitter for this There is a very odd turn of thought required for sort of poetry. For the English are naturally fancie this sort of writing; and it is impossible for a poet ful, and very often disposed, by that gloominess and to succeed in it, who has not a particular cast of melancholy of temper, which is so frequent in our fancy, and an imagination naturally fruitful and su- nation, to many wild notions and visious, to which perstitious. Besides this, he ougbi to be very well others are not so liable. Fersed in legends and fables, antiquated romances, Among the English, Shakspeare has incom. and the traditions of nurses and old women, that he parably excelled all others. That noble extravamay fall in with our natural prejudices, and humour gance of fancy, wbich he had in so great perfection, thuise notions wbich we have imbibed in our infancy. thoroughly qualified him to touch this weak superFor otherwise he will be apt to make his fairies talk stitious part of his reader's imagination; and made like people of his own species, and not like other him capable of succeeding, where he had nothing sets of beings, who converse with different objects, to support him besides the strength of his own and think in a different manner from that of genius. There is something so wild, and yet so somankind.

lemn, in the speeches of his ghosts, fairies, witches, Sylvis deducti caveant, me judice, fauni,

and the like imaginary persons, that we cannot forNe velut isinati triviis, ac pene forenses,

bear thinking them natural, though we have no rule Aut inimium teneris javenentur versibus

by which to judge of them, and must confess, if Hor. Ars Poet. v. 244.

there are such beings in the world; it looks highly Let not the wood-horn satyr fondly sport

probable they should talk and act as he bac repreWith am'rous verses, as is bred ai court.-FRANCIS.

sented them. I do not say with Mr. Bays in the Rehearsal, that There is another sort of imaginary beings, that spirits must not be coufined to speak sense : but it we sometimes meet with among ihe poets, when the is certain their sense ought to be a little discoloured, author represents any passion, appetite, virtue, op that it may seem particular, and proper to the per-vice, under a visible shape, and makes it a person son and condition of the speaker.

or an actor in his poem. Of this nature are the de.. These descriptions raise a pleasing kind of horror scriptions of Hunger and Envy in Ovid, of Fame in in the mind of the reader, and amuse his imagina- Virgil, and of Sin and Death in Milton. We find tion with the strangeness and novelty of the persons a whole creation of the like shadowy persons in who are represented in them. They bring up into Spenser, who had an admirable talent in represenour memory the stories we have heard in our child- tations of this kind. I have discourse of these hood, and favour those secret terrors and apprehen- emblematical persons in former papers, and shall sions to which the mind of man is naturally subject. therefore only mention them in this place. Thus We are pleased with surveying the different habits we see how many ways poetry addresses itself to the and behaviours of foreign countries : how much imagination, as it has not only the whole circle of more must we be delighted and surprised when we nature for its province, but makes new worlds of its are led, as it were, into a new creation, and see the own, shows us persons who are not to be found in persons and manners of another species ! Men of being, and represents even the faculties of the soul, cold fancies, and philosophical dispositions, object with the several virtues and vices, in a sensible be this kind of poetry, that it has not probability shape and character. enough to effect the imagination. But to this it I shall, in my two following papers, consider, in may be answered, that we are sure in general, there general, how other kinds of writing are qualified to are many intellectual beings in the world besides please the inagination ; with which I intend to ourselves, and several species of spirits, who are conclude this essay-0. sabject to different laws and economies from those of mankind; wben we see, therefore, any of these represented naturally, we cannot look upon the representation as altogether impossible, nay, many

No. 420.) WEDNESDAY, JULY 2, 1712. are prepossessed with such false opinions, as dispose them to believe these particular delusions; at least we have all heard so many pleasing relations in favour of them, that we do not care for seeing through

CONTENTS. the falsehood, and willingly give ourselves up to 80 What authors please the imagination Who have nothing to agreeable an imposture.

do with fiction. How history pleases the imagination. fiow The ancients have not much of this poetry among

the authors of the new philosophy please the imagination.

The bounds and defects of the imagination. Whether these heta; for, indeed, almost the whole substance of it

desects are essential to the imagination.

PAPER X.

ON THE PLEASURES OF THE IMAGINATION.

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