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eheerfulness, but very often see cheerfulness where them; us from the wildness of rocks and deserre, there is no great degree of health.
and the ike grotesque parts of nature. Those who Cheerfulness bears the same friendly regard to ara versed in philosophy may still carry this conthe mind as to the body. It banishes all anxious sideration higher, by observing, that matter had care and discontent, soothes and composes the pas- appeared to us endowed only with those real qualisions, and keeps the soul in a perpetual calm. But ties which it actually possesses, it would have made kaving already touched on his last consideration, I but a very joyless and uncomfortable figure: and sball here take notice, that the world in which we why has Providence given it a power of producing are placed is filled with innumerable objects that in us such imaginary qualities, as tastes and colours, are proper to raise and keep alive this happy tem-sounds and smells, heat and cold, but that man, per of mind.
while he is conversant in the lower stations of naIf we consider the world in its subserviency to ture, might have his mind cheered and delighted man, one would think it was made for our use ; but with agreeable sensations? In short, the whole uniif we consider it in its natural beauty and harmony, verse is a kind of theatre, filled with objects that one would be apt to conclude it was made for our either raise in us pleasure, amusement, or admiration. pleasure. The sun, which is as the great soul of the The reader's own thoughts will suggest to him universe, and produces all the necessaries of life, the vicissitude of day and night, the change of scahas a particular influence in cheering the mind of sons, with all that variety of scenes which diversify man, and making the heart glad.
the face of nature, and fill the mind with a perpetual · Those several living creatures which are made for succession of beautiful and pleasing images. our service or sustenance, at the same time either I shall not here mention the several entertain. Ell the woods with their music, furnish us with game, ments of art, with the pleasures of friendship, books, er raise pleasing ideas in us by the delightfulness of conversation, and other accidental diversions of life, their appearance. Fountains, lakes, and rivers, are because I would only take notice of such inciteas refreshing to the imagination, as to the soil ments to a cheerful iemper as offer themselves to through which they pass.
persons of all ranks and conditions, and which may There are writers of great distinction, who have sufficiently show us that Providence did not design made it an argument for Providence, that the whole this world should be filled with murmurs and reearth is covered with green rather than with any pinings, or that the heart of man should be involved other colour, as being such a right mixture of light in gloom and melancholy. and shade, that it comforts and strengthens the eye,
I the more inculcate this cheerfulness of temper, instead of weakening or grieving it. For this rea- as it is a virtue in which our countrymen are obsob several painters have a green cloth hanging served to be more deficient than any other nation. near them, to ease the eye upon, after too great an Melancholy is a kind of demon that haunts our application to their colouring. A famous modern island, and often conveys herself to us in an easterly philosopher accounts for it in the following man- wind.' A celebrated French novelist, in opposition ner. All colours that are more luminous, over to those who begin their romances with the flowers power and dissipate the animal spirits which are season of the year, enters on his story thus: In employed in sight; on the contrary, those that are the gloomy month of November, when the people of more obscure do not give the animal spirits a suffi- England hang and drown themselves, a disconsolate cient exercise; wbereas the rays that produce in us lover walked out into the fields,” &c. the idea of green, fall upon the eye in such a due Every one ought to fence against the tempor of proportion, that they give the animal spirits their bis climate or constitution, and frequently to indulge proper play, and, by keeping up the struggle in a in himself those considerations which may give hiin just balance, excite a very pleasing and agreeable a serenity of mind, and enable him to bear up cheersensation. Let the cause be what it will, the effect fully against those little evils and misfortunes which is certain ; for which reason, the poets ascribe to are common to human nature, and which, by a right this particular colour the epithet of cheerful. improvement of them, will produce a satiety of joy,
To consider further this double end in the works and an uninterrupted happiness. of nature, and how they are at the same time both At the same time that I would engage my reader useful and entertaining, we find that the most im- to consider the world in its most agreeable lights, I portant parts in the vegetable world are those which must own there are many evils which naturally are the most beautiful. These are the seeds by spring up amidst the entertainments that are pro. which the several races of plants are propagated vided for us ; but these, if rightly considered, should and continued, and which are always lodged in be far from overcasting the mind with sorrow, or flowers or blossoms. Nature seems to hide her destroying that cheerfulness of temper which I have principal design, and to be industrious in making been recommending. This interspersion of evil the earth gay and delightful, while she is carrying with good, and pain with pleasure, in the works of sa her great work, and intent upon her own preger- nature, is very truly ascribed by Mr. Locke in his ration. The husbandman, after the same manner, Essay on Human Understandi to a moral reason, is employed in laying out the whole country into a in the following words :kind of garden or landscape, and making every
** Beyond all this we may find another reason thing smile about him, whilst in reality he thinks of why God hath scattered up and down several de tothing but of the harvest, and the increase which grees of pleasure and pain. in ail the things that is to arise from it.
environ and affect us, and blended them together, in We may further observe how Providence has almost all that our thoughts and senses have to do taken care to keep up this cheerfulness in the mind with ; that we, finding imperfection, dissatisfaction, of man, by having formed it after such a manner, as and want of complete happiness, in all the enjoya make it capable of conceiving delight from sevements which the creatures can afford us, might be mal svjects which seem to have very little use in led to seek it in the enjoyment of Him with won
there is fulness of joy, and at whose right hzod are SPECTATOR-Nos. 37 & 58
pleasures for evermore.' "-L.
Sir Isaac Newton.
Let sacred silence dwell around,
To keep off each intruding sound: And when the balny slunber leaves his eyes, May he to joys, unknown till theo, arise !
No. 388.] MONDAY, MAY 26, 1712.
-Tibi res antiquæ laudis et artis
VIRG. Georg. ii. 174.
And arts disclos'd hy ancient sages sing" MR. SPECTATOR, " It is my custom, when I read your papers, to read over the quotations in the authors from whence you take them. As you mentioned a passage lately out of the second chapter of Solomon's Song, it occasioned my looking into it; and, upon reading it, I thougbt the ideas so exquisitely soft and tender, that I could not help making this paraphrase of it; wbich, now it is done, I can as little forbear sending to you. Some marks of your approbation which I have already received, have given me so sensible a taste of them, that I cannot forbear endeavouring after then as often as I can with any appearance of success.
But see! he comes! with what majestic gait
Now through the lattice he appears,
The dews, and soft-descending show'rs,
Where no intruding hateful noise
Remove the shades of night away!
Glad to behold the light again
No. 389.1 TUESDAY, MAY 27, 1712.
-Meliora pii docuere parentes.-HOR. Their pious sires a better lesson taught. Nothing has more surprised the learned in Eng. land, than the price which a small book, entitled Spaccio della Bestia triomfante, bore in a late autetion. This book was sold for thirty pounds. As
“ I am, Sir,
THE SECOND CHAPTER OF SOLOMON'S SONG.
The fragrant odours through the air ;
My feeble soul forsakes its place,
And paleness dwells upon my face:
Be only gentle Zephyrs there,
* The book here mentioned was bought by Walter Clarel. Esq. at the auction of the library of Charles Barnard, Eq, ia 1711, for twenty-eight pounds. The same copy became sue cessively the property of Mr. John Nichols, of Mr. Joseph Ames, of Sir Peter Thomson, and of M. C. Tutet, Esq. among whose books it was lately sold by auction, at Mr. Gerrard's in Litchfield-street. The author of this book, Giordano Brun, was a native of Nola in the kingdom of Naples, and burnt at Rome by the order of the Inquisition in 1600. Moghoff, speuting of Atheists, says, “ Jordanum tamen Brunumi huie clasi non annumerarem, manifesta in illo atheismi vestigia non deprehendo." Polybist. i. 1. &. 22. Bruco published many other wntings said to be atheistical. The book spoken of here was printed, not at Paris, as is said in the title-page, der in 1544, but at London, and in 1584, 12no dedicated to Sir Philip Sydney. It was for some time so little regarded, that it was sold with five other books of the same author, for twentylive pence French, at the sale or Mr. Bigor's library in 1706; but it is now very scarce, and has been sold at tbe eserbilan! price of £50. Niceron. Hommes illust. tom. xvi. A There was an edition of it in English in 1713
it was written by one Jordanus Brunus, a professed Atheists have gloried in these their gooit friends Atbeist, with a design to depreciate religion, every and allies. one was apt to fancy, from the extravagant price it If we boast of a Socrates or a Seneca, they may bore, that there must be something in it very for- now confront them with these great philosophers the midable.
Hottentots. I must confess that, happening to get a sight of Though even this point has, not without reason, one of them myself, I could not forbear perusing it been several times controverted, I see no manner of with this apprehension ; but found there was so very harm it could do to religion, if we should entirely little danger in it, that I shall venture to give my give them up this elegant part of mankind. readers a fair account of the whole plan upon which Methinks nothing more shows the weakness of this wonderful treatise is built.
their cause, than that no division of their fellowThe author pretends that Jupiter, once upon a creatures join with them, but those among whom time, resolved on a reformation of the constellations: they themselves own reason is almost defaced, and for which purpose, having summoned the stars to who have little else but their shape which can engether, he complains to them of the great decay of title them to any place in the species. the worship of the gods, which he thought so much Besides these poor creatures, there have now and the harder, baving called several of those celestial then been instances of a few crazy people in several bodies by the names of the beathen deities, and by nations, who have denied the existence of a Deity. that means inade the heavens as it were a book of The catalogue of these is, however, very short; the pagan theology. Momus tells him that this is even Vanini, the most celebrated champion for the not to be wondered at, since there were so many cause, professed before his judges that he believed scandalous stories of the deities. Upon which the the existence of a God; and, taking up a straw author takes occasion to cast reflections upon all which lay before him on the ground, assured them, other religions, concluding that Jupiter, after a full that alone was sufficient to convince him of it; alhearing, discarded the deities out of heaven, and leging several arguments to prove that it was imcalied the stars by the names of the moral virtues. possible nature alone could create any thing.
This short fable, which has no pretence in it to I was the other day reading an account of Casireason or argument, and but a very small share of mir Lyszynski, a gentleman of Poland, who was wit, has however recommended itself, wholly by its convicted and executed for this crime. The manner impiety, to those weak men who would distinguish of his punishment was very particular. As soon as themselves by the singularity of their opinions. his body was burnt, his ashes were put into a cannon,
There are two considerations which have been and shot into the air towards Tartary. often urged against Atheists, and which they never I am apt to believe, that if something like this yet couid get over. The first is, that the greatest method of punishment should prevail in Eogland and most eminent persons of all ages have been (such is the natural good sense of the British naagainst them, and always complied with the public tion), that whether we rammed an Atheist whole into forms of worship established in their respective coun- a great gun, or pulverized our infidels, as they do in tries, when there was nothing in them either deroga. Poland, we should not have many charges. tory to the honour of the Supreme Being, or preju- I should however propose, while our ammunition dicial to the good of mankind.
lasted, that, instead of Tartary, we should always The Platos and Ciceros among the ancients ; the keep iwo or three cannons ready pointed towards the Bacons, the Boyles, and the Lockes, among our own Cape of Good Hope, in order to shoot our unbelievers countrymen; are all instances of what I have been into the country of the Hottentots. saying; not to mention any of the divines, however In my opinion, a solemn judicial death is too great celebrated, since our adversaries challenge all those, an honour for an Atheist; though I must allow the as men who have too much interest in this case to method of esploding him, as it is practised in this be impartial evidences.
ludicrous kind of martyrdom, has something in it Bu: what has been often urged as a consideration proper enough to the nature of his offence. of much more weight, is not only the opinion of the There is indeed a great objection against this better sort, but the general consent of mankind to manner of treating them. Zeal for religion is of so this great truth; which I think could not possibly active a nature, that it seldom knows where to rest; have come to pass, but from one of the three fol. for which reason I am afraid, after having discharged lowing reasons: either that the idea of a God is in our Atheists, we might possibly think of shooting off nate and co-existent with the mind itself; or that our sectaries; and as one does not foresee the vicisthis truth is so very obvious, that it is discovered by situde of human affairs, it might one time or other the first exertion of reason in persons of the most come to a man's own turn to tly out of the mouth of apdinary capacities; or, lastly, that it has been de-a demiculverin. livered down to us through all ages by a tradition If any of my readers imagine that I have treated from the first man.
these gentlemen in too ludicrous a manner, I must The Atheists are equally confounded, to which confess, for my own part, I think reasoning against ever of these three causes we assign it; they have such unbelievers, upon a point that shocks the combeen so pressed by this last argument from the ge- mon sense of mankind, is doing them too great an neral coosent of mankind, that after great search honour, giving them a figure in the eye of the world, and pains they pretend to have found out a nation and making people fancy that they have more in of Atheists, I mean that polite people the Hottentots. them than they really have.
I dare not shock my readers with a description of As for those persons who have any scheme of rethe customs and manners of these barbarians, who ligious worship, I am for treating such, with the utare in every respect scarce one degree above brutes, most tenderness, and should endeavour io show them having no language among them but a confused their errors with the greatest temper and humanity; gabble, which is neither well understood by them- but as these miscreants are for throwing down reliselves bor others.
gion in general, for stripping mankind of what leis aut however, to be imagined, how much the lihemselves own is of excellent use in all great so cieties, without once offering to establish any thing evil tongues, are so harmless, that they are every in the room of it, I think the best way of dealing day they live asleep till twelve at noon: concera with them, is to retort their owu weapons upon then, themselves with nothing but their own persons tili wbich are those of scorn and mockery.-X. two; take their necessary food between that time
and four; visit, go to the play, and sit up at cards
till towards the cnsuing morn ; and the malicious No. 390.7 WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1712. world shall draw conclusions from innocent ylances, Non pudendo, sed non faciendo id quod non decet, impudentiæ fashionable men, that these fair ones are pot as
short whispers, or pretty familiar railleries with pomen effugere debemus-TuLL It is not by blushing. but by not doing what is unbecoming, creatures very well, that virtue does not consist in
rigid as vestals. It is certain, say these "gondest" that we ought to guard against the imputation of impudence constrained behaviour and wry faces : that must be
Many are the epistles I receive from ladies ex- allowed: but there is a decency in the aspect and tremely afflicted that they lie under the observation manner of ladies, contracted from a habit of virtue, of scandalous people, who love to defame their and from general reilections that regard a modest peighbours, and make the unjustest interpretation conduct,-all which may be understood, though of innocent and indifferent actions. They describe they cannot be described.' A young woman of this their own behaviour so unhappily, that there indeed sori claims an essecm mixed with affection and lies soine cause of suspicion upon them. It is cer- henour, and meets with no defamation; or, if she tain, that there is no authority for persons who have does, the wild malice is overcome with an undisnothing else to do, to pass away hours of converza- turbed perseverance in her innocence. To speak tion upon the miscarriages of other people ; but freely, there are such coveys of cogurites about this since they will do so, they who value their reputa- town, that if the peace were not kept by some lilltion should be cautious of appearances to their dis- pertinent tongues of their own sex, which keer advantage ; but very often our young women, as ihem under some restraint, we should have no well as the middle-aged, and the gay part of those manner of engagement upon cheni to keep them in growing old, without entering into a formal leaguc any tolerable order. for that purpose, to a woman agree upon a short As I am a Spectator, and behold how plainly me way to preserve their characters, and go on in a part of woman-kind balance the behaviour of the way that at best is only not vicious. The method other, whatever I may think of tale-bearers or sjális, when an ill-natured or talkative girl has said derers, I cannot wholly suppress them, no more anything that bears hard upon some part of an than a general would discourage spies. The enetes other's carriage, this creature, if not in any of their would casily surprise him who they knew had no little cabals, is run down for the most censorious intelligence of their motions. It is so far otherwise dangerous body in the world. Thus they guard with me, that I acknowledge I permit a she-slantheir reputation rather than their modesty; as if derer or two in every quarter of the town, to live guilt lay in being under the imputation of a fault, in the characters of coquettes, and take all the and not in the commission of ii. Orbicilla is the innocent freedoms of the rest, in order to send me kindest poor thing in town, but the most blushing information of the behaviour of their respective creature living. It is true, she has not lost the sense sisterhoods. of shame, but she has lost the sense of innocence, But as the matter of respect to the word which If she had more confidence, and never did anything looks on, is carried on, methinks it is so very easy which ought to stain her cheeks, would she not be to be what is in the general called virtuous, that it much more modest, without that ambiguous suffusion need not cost one hour's reflection in a month to which is the livery both of guilt and innocence ? preserve that appellation. It is pleasant to hear Modesty consists in being conscious of no ill, and the pretty rogues talk of virtue and vice among not in being ashamed of having done it. When each other. " She is the laziest creature in the peopie go upon any other foundation than the truth world, but, I must confess, strictly virtuous ; the of their own hearts for the conduct of their actions, peevishest hussy breathing, but as to her virtue, it lies in the power of scandalous tongues to carry she is without blemish. She has not the least the world before them, and make the rest of man- charity for any of her acquaintance, but I must kind fall in with the ill for fear of reproach. On allow her rigidly virtuous.” As the unthinking the other hand, to do what you ought, is the ready parts of the male world call every man a man of way to make calumny either silent, or ineffectually hopour, who is not a coward; so the crowd of the malicious. Spenser, in his Fairy Queen, says ad- other sex terms every woman who will not be a mirably to young ladies under the distress of being wench, virtuous.-T. defamed : ** The best," said he ; " that I can you advise,
No. 391.] THURSDAY, MAY 29, 1712. For when the cause. whence evil doth arise, Removed is, th' effect surceaseth still.
-Non tu prece poscis emaci,
Quæ nisi seductis uequcas committere divis.
At bona pars procerum tacita libabit acerra,
Haud cuivis promptum est, murmurque humilesque susurra Suun secrecy, and talk in open sight :
Tollere de templis; et aperto vivere voto. So shall you soon repair your present evil plight."
Mens bona, fama, fides; bæc clare, et ut audiat hospes.
Ila sibi introrsum, et sub lingua immurmurat: 0 s Instead of this care over their words and actions,
Ebullit patrui pra clarum funus ? ET, O si recommended by a poet in Old Queen Bess's days, Sub rastro crepet argenti mihi seria dextro the modern way is to do and say what you please,
Hercule' pupillum ve utinam, quem proximus hæres and yet be the prettiest sort of woman in the world.
Impello, expungam -Pers. Sai. ii v. 3. If fathers and brothers will defend a lady's honour,
Thou know'st to join she is quite as sate as in her own innocence. Many
No bribe unhallow'd to a prayer of thinte ;
Thine, which can ev'ry ear's sull test abide, of the distressed, who suffer under the malice of Ner ued be mutter'd to the gods aside!
Is to avoid th' occasion of the ill:
No, thou aloud may'st thy petitions trust!
the prayer of his friend Licander the philosopher Thou need'st not whisper; other great ones must;
This was succeeded by the petition of one who had For few, my friend, few dare like thee be plaini, and pray'r's low artifice at shrines disdain.
just laden a ship, and promised Jupiter, if he took Few from, their picus mumblings dare depart,
care of it, and returned it home again full of riches, And make profession of their inmost heart,
he would make him an offering of a silver cup. Keep me, indulgent Heaven, through life sincere,
Jupiter thanked him for nothing; and, bending Keep my mind sound, my reputation clear. These wishes they can speak, and we can hear. down his ear more attentively than ordinary, heard Thus far their wants are audibly exprest;
a voice complaining to him of the cruelty of an Thro sinks the voice, and muttering groans the rest
Ephesian widow, and begged him to breed com“ Hear, hear at leugh. good Hercules, my vow! O chink some pot of gold beneath my plough'
passion in her heart. This,' says Jupiter, is a Could I, O could I. to my ravished eyes
very honest fellow. I have received a great deal See my rich uncle's pompous funeral rise ;
of incense from him: I will not be so cruel to him Or could I once my ward's cold corpse attend : Then all were mine!"
as to hear his prayers. He was then interrupted
with a whole volley of vows which were made for WHERE Homer represents Phenix, the tutor of the health of a tyrannical prince by his subjects who Achilles, as persuading his pupil to lay aside his prayed for him in his presence. Menippus was resentments, and give himself up to the entreaties surprised, after having listened to prayers offered of his countrymen, the poet, in order to make him up with so much ardour and devotion, to hear low speak in character, ascribes to him a speech full of whispers from the same assembly, expostulating those fables and allegories, which old nien take de with Jove for suffering such a tyrant to live, and light in relating, and which are very proper for asking him how his thunder could'lie idle ? Jupiter instruction. "The gods," says he, "suffer them. was so offended with these prevaricating rascals, selves to be prevailed upon by entreaties. When that he took down the first vows, and puffed away mortals have offended them by their tranegressions, the last. The philosopher seeing a great cioud they appease them hy vows and sacrifices. You mounting upwards, and making its way directly to must know, Achilles, that prayers are the daughters the trap-voor, inquired of Jupiter what it meant. of Jupiter. They are crippled by frequent kneel. This,' says Jupiter,' is the smoke of a whole heing, hare their faces full of cares and wrinkles, and catomb that is offered me by the general of an army, their eyes always cast towards heaven. They are who is very importunate with me to let him cut off constaut attendants on the goddess Aiè, and maich a hundred thousand men that are drawn up in behind her. This goddess walks forward with a array against him. What does the impudent wretch bold and haughty air; and, being very light of foot, think I see in him, to believe that I will make a runs through the whole earth grieving and amict- sacrifice of so many mortals as good as himself, ing the sons of men. She gets the start of Prayers, and all this to his glory forsooth ? But hark!' says who always follow her, in order to heal those per. Jupiter, 'tbere is a voice I never heard but in sons whom she wounds. He who honours these time of danger : 'tis a rogue that is shipwrecked in caughters of Jupiter, when they draw near to him, the Ionian sea. I saved him on a plank but three receives great benefit from them; but as for him days ago, upon his promise to mend his manners; who rejects them, they entreat their father to give the scoundrel is not worth a groat, and yet has the his orders to the goddess Atè, to punish him for impudence to offer me a temple, if I will keep him bis hardness of heait.” This noble allegory needs from sinking.–But yonder,' says he is a special but little explanation ; for, whether the goddess youth for you; he desires me to take his father, Atè signifies injury, as some have explained it; or who keeps a great estate from him, out of the guilt in general, as others; or divine justice, as I miseries of human life. The old fellow shall live arn more apt to think; the interpretation is ob- till he makes his heart.ache, I can tell him that for vious enough.
his pains. This was followed by the sofl voice of a I shall produce another heathen fable, relating to pious lady, desiring Jupiter that she might appear prayers, which is of a more diverting kind. One amiable and charming in the sight of her emperor. would think, by some passages in it, that it was As the philosopher was reflecting on this extraorcomposed by Lucian, or at least by some author dinary petition, there blew a gentle wind through who bas endeavoured to imitate his way of writing; the trap-door, which he at first mistook for a gale hut as dissertations of this nature are more curious of Zephyrs, but afterward found it to be a breeze than useful, I shall give my reader the fable, with of sighs. They smelt strong of flowers and incense, out any further inquiries after the author.
and were succeeded by most passionate complaints Menippus the philosopher was a second time of wounds and torments, fires and arrows, cruelty, taken up into beaven by Jupiter, when, for his en- despair, and death. Menippus fancied that such tertainment, he lifted up a trap-door that was placed lamentable cries arose from some general execution, by his footstool. At its rising, there issued through or from wretches lying under the Corture; but it such a din of cries as astonished the philosopher. Jupiter told him that they came up to him from l'pon bis asking what they meant, Jupiter told him the isle of Paphos, and that he every day received they were the prayers that were sent up to him complaints of ihe samne nature from that whimsical from the earth." Menippus, amidst the confusion of tribe of mortals who are called lovers. 'I am so voices, which was so great that nothing less than trifled with,' says he, by this generation of both the ear of Jove could distinguish them, heard the sexes, and find it so impossible to please them, Words, "riches, honour,' and long life,' repeated whether I grant or refuse their petitions, that I in several different tones and languages. When shall order a western wind for the future to inthe first bubbub of sounds was over, the trap-door tercepi them in their passage, and blow them at being left open, the voices came up more separate random upon the earth. The last petition I heard and distinct. The first prayer was a very odd one; was from a very aged man, of near a hundred years it came from Athens, and desired Jupiter to in- old, begging but for one year more life, and then crease the wisdom and the beard of his huinble promising to die contented. This is the rarest supplicant. Menippus knew it by the voice to be old fellow!' says Jupiter ; 'be has made this prayer