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Each under each.
country by night, that he might the better signalize some time afterward unravelling the whole track she himself in their destruction the next day. His hunt had made, and following her through all her doubles. ing horses were the finest and best managed in all I was at the same time delighted in observing that these parts.
His tenants are still full of the praises deference which the rest of the pack paid to each of a grey stone-horse that unhappily staked himselt particular hound, according to the character ke bad several years since, and was buried with great so-acquired among them. If they were at fault, and lemnity in the orchard.
an old hound of reputation opened but once, he was Sir Roger being at present too old for fox-hunting, immediately followed by the whole cry; while a raw o keep himself in action, has disposed of his beagles dog, or one who was a noted liar, might have yelped and got a pack of stop-hounds. What these want his heart out, without being taken notice of. in speed, he endeavours to make amends for by the The hare pow, after having squatted two or three deepness of their mouths, and the variety of their times, and being pnt ap again as often, came still notes, which are suited in such a manner to each nearer to the place where she was at first started. other, that the whole cry makes up a complete con- The dogs pursued her, and these were followed by cert. He is so nice in this particular, that a gentle- the jolly knight, who rode upon a white gelding, man having made him a present of a very fine hound encompassed by his tenants and servants, and cheerthe other day, the knight returned it by the servanting his hounds with all the gaiety of five-and-twenty. with a great many expressions of civility; but de- One of the sportsmen rode up to me, and told me, sired him to tell his master that the dog he had sent that he was sure the chase was almost at an end, was indeed a most excellent bass, but that at present because the old dogs, which had hitherto lain behind, he only wanted a counter-tenor. Could I believe my now headed the pack. The fellow was in the right. friend had ever read Shakspeare, I should certainly Our hare took a large field just under us, followed conclude he had taken the hint from Theseus in the by the full cry in view. I must confess the brightMidsummer Night's Dream :
ness of the weather, the cheerfulness of every thing My hounds are bred out of the Spartan kind,
around me, the chiding of the hounds, which was So flud," so sanded it and their heads are hung
returned upon us in a double echo from two neighWith ears that sweep away the morning dew. Crook'd-kneed and dew-lap'd like Thessalian bulls,
bouring hills, with the hallooing of the sportsmen, Slow in pursuit, but match'd in mouths like bells,
and the sounding of the horn, lifted my spirits into A cry more tuneable
a most lively pleasure, which I freely indulged beWas never hallood to, nor cheer'd with horn.
cause I was sure it was innocent. If I was under Sir Roger is so keen at this sport, that he has been any concern, it was on account of the poor hare, that out almost every day since I came down; and upon was now quite spent, and almost within the reach of the chaplain's offering to lend me his easy pad, 1 her enemies; when the huntsman getting forward, was prevailed on yesterday morning to make one of threw down his pole before the dogs. They were the company. I was extremely pleased, as we rid now within eight yards of that game which they had along, to observe the general benevolence of all the been pursuing for almost as many hours; yet on the ueighbourhood towards my friend. The farmers' sigoal before-mentioned they all made a suddea sons thought themselves hapry if they could open a stand, and though they continued opening as much gate for the good old knighi as he passed by; which as before, durst not once attempt to pass beyond the he generally requited with a nod or a smile, and a pole. At the same time Sir Roger rode forward, kind inquiry after their fathers or uncles.
and alighting, took up the hare in his arms; which After we had rid about a mile from home, we came he soon after deliverered up to one of bis servants upon a large heath, and the sportsmen began to with an order if she could be kept alive, to let her beat. They had done so for some time, when, as I go in his great orchard ; where it seems he has seve was at a little distance from the rest of the company, ral of these prisoners of war, who live together in a I saw a bare pop out from a small furze-brake almost very comfortable captivity. I was highly pleased under my horse's feet. I marked the way she took, to see the discipline of the pack, and the good-nawhich I endeavoured to make the company sensible ture of the knight, who could not find in his heart of by extending my arm; but to no purpose, till to murder a creature that had given him so much Sir Roger, who knows that none of my extraordinary diversion. motions are insignificant, rode up to me and asked As we were returning home, I remembered that me if puss was gone that way? 'Upon my answer. Monsieur Paschal, in his most excellent discourse ing yes, he immediately called in the dogs, and put on the Misery of Man, tells us, that all our endeathem upon the scent. As they were going off
, Ivours after greatness proceed from nothing but a heard one of the country fellows muttering to his desire of being surrounded by a multitude of persons companion, " that 'twas a wonder they had not lost and affairs that may hinder us from looking into all their sport, for want of the silent gentleman's ourselves, which is a view we cannot bear. He aftercrying, Stole away."
wards goes on to shew that our love of sports comes This, with my averson to leaping hedges, made from the same reason, and is particularly severe me withdraw to a rising ground, from whence I upon hunting. “What,” says he, “ unless it be to could have the pleasure of the whole chase, without drown thought, can make them throw away so much the fatigue of keeping in with the hounds. The hare time and pains upon a silly animal, which they might immediately threw them above a mile behind her; buy cheaper in the market ?" The foregoing reflecbut I was pleased to find that, instead of running tion is certainly just, when a man suffers his whole straight forwards, or, in hunter's language, “ flying mind to be drawn into his sports, and altogether the country," as I was afraid she might have done, loses himself in the woods; but does not affect those she wheeled about, and described a sort of circle who propose a far more laudable end from this exerround the hill where I had taken my station, in such cise, I mean the preservation of health, and keeping a manner as gave me a very distinct view of the all the organs of the soul in a condition to execute sport. I could see her first pass by, and the dogs her orders. Had that incomparable person whom
I last quoted been a little more indulgent to him. • Mouthed, chapped. † Marked with small spots. self in this point, the world might probably have en.
joyed him much longer; whereas, through too great Picking dry sticks, and mumbling to herself. an application to his studies in his youth, be con.
Her eyes with scading rheum were gallid and red ;
Cold palsy shook her head : her hands seemd wither'd; tracted that ill habit of body, which, after a tedious And on her crooked shoulders had she wrapt sickness, carried him off in the fortieth year of his The tatter'd rempant of an old siriped hanging, age ; and the whole history we have of his life till Which serred to keep her carcass from the cold: that time, is but one continued account of the beha
So there was nothing of a piece about her.
Her lower weeds were all o'er coarsely patch'd viour of a noble soul struggling under innumerable With different colour'd rags, black, red, white, yellow, pains and distempers.
And seemd to speak variety of wretchedness. For my own part, I intend to hunt twice a week As I was musing on this description, and comparduring my stay with Sir Roger; and shall prescribe ing it with the object before me, the knight told the moderate use of this exercise to all my country me, that this very old woman had the reputation of friends, as the best kind of physic for mending a bad a witch all over the country; that her lips were obconstitution, and preserving a good one.
served to be always in motion; and that there was I cannot do this better, than in the following lines not a switch about her house which her neighbours out of Mr. Dryden :
did not believe had carried her seyeral hundreds The first physicians by debauch were made ;
of miles. If she chanced to stumble, they always Eseess began, and Sloth sustains the trade.
found sticks or straws that lay in the figure of a cross By chase our long-lived fathers earn'd their food; Toil strung the nerves, and purify d the blood ; .
before ber. If she made any mistake at church, But we their sons, a pamper'd race of men,
and cried amen in a wrong place, they never failed Are dwindled down to three-score years and ten. to conclude that she was saying her prayers backBetter to hunt in fields for health unbought, Than fee the doctor for a nauseous draught
wards. There was not a maid in the parish that The wise for cure on exercise depend :
would take a pin of her, though she should offer a God never made his work for man to mend.
bag of money with it. She goes by the name of Moll White, and has made the country ring with
several imaginary exploits which are palmed upon No. 117.] SATURDAY, JULY 14, 1711.
ber. If the dairy-maid does not make her butter
come so soon as she would have it, Moll White is at Ipsi sibi somnia fingunt-Viro. Ecl. viii. 108.
the bottom of the churn. If a horse sweats in the With voluntary dreams they cheat their minds.
stable, Moll White has been upon his back. If a THERE are some opinions in which a man should hare makes an unexpected escape from the hounds, stand neuter, without engaging bis assent to one side the huntsman curses Moll White. “Nay," says or the other. Such a hovering faith as this, which Sir Roger, “I have known the master of the pack, refuses to settle upon his determination, is absolutely upon such an occasion, send one of his servants to necessary in a mind that is careful to avoid errors see if Moll White had been out that morning." and prepossessions. When the arguments press This account raised my curiosity so far, that I equally on both sides in matters that are indifferent begged my friend Sir Roger to go with me into her to us the safest method is to give up ourselves to hovel, which stood in a solitary corner under the side neither.
of the wood. Upon our first entering, Sir Roger It is with this temper of mind that I consider the winked to me, and pointed to something that stood subject of witchcraft. When I hear the relations behind the door, which, upou looking that way, I that are made from all parts of the world, not only found to be an old broom-staff. At the same time from Norway and Lapland, from the East and West he whispered me in the ear to take notice of a tabby ladies, but from every particular nation in Europe, cat that sate in the chimney corner, which, as the I cannot forbear thinking that there is such an in- old knight told me, lay under as bad a report as Moll tercourse and commerce with evil spirits, as that White herself; for besides that Moll is said often to which we express by the name of witchcraft. But accompany her in the same shape, the cat is reported when I consider that the ignorant and credulous to have spoken twice or thrice in her life, and to parts of the world abound most in these relations, have played several pranks above the capacity of an and the persons among us, who are supposed to en- ordinary cat. gage in such an infernal commerce, are people of a I was secretly concerned to see human nature in weak understanding and crazed imagination--and at so much wretchedness and disgrace, but at the same the same time reflect upon the many impostures and time could not forbear smiling to hear Sir Roger, delusions of this nature that have been detected in who is a little puzzled about the old woman, advising all ages, I endeavour to suspend my belief till I hear her as a justice of peace to avoid all communication more certain aceounts than any which have yet come with the devil, and never to hurt any of her neighto my knowledge. In short, when I consider the bour's cattle. We concluded our visit with a bounty question, whether there are such persons in the world wbich was very acceptable. as those we call witches, my mind is divided between In our return home Sir Roger told me that old two opposite opinions, or rather (to speak my Moll had been often brought before him for making thoughts freely) I believe in general that there is, children spit pins, and giving maids the nightmare; and has been, such a thing as witchcraft; but at the and that the country-people would be tossing her same time can give no credit to any particular in- into a pond and trying experiments with her every stance of it.
day, if it was not for him and his chaplain. I am engaged in this speculation, by some occur- I have since found upon inquiry ihat Sir Roger rences that I met with yesterday, which I shall give was several times staggered with the reports that had my reader an account of at large. As I was walking been brought him concerning this old woman, and with my friend Sit-Roger by the side of one of his would frequently have bound her over to the county woods, an old woman applied herself to me for my sessions, had not his chaplain with much ado percharity. Her dress and figure put me in mind of suaded him to the contrary. the following description in Otway:
I have been the more particular in this account, lo a close lane, as I pursu'd my journey.
because I hear there is scarce a village in England I spyd a wrinkied bag, with age grown double, that has not a Moll White in it. When an old
woman begins to doat, and grow chargeable to a Themista, her favourite woman, is every whit as parish, she is generally turned into a witch, and fills careful of whom she speaks to, and what she says the whole country with extravagant fancies, imagin- Let the ward be a beauty, her confidant shall treat ary distempers, and terrifying dreams. In the mean you with an air of distance; let her be a fortune, and time, the poor wretch that is the innocent occasion she assumes the suspicious behaviour of her friend of so many evils, begius to be frighted at herself, and patroness. Thus it is that very many of our unand sometimes confesses secret commerces and fami-married women of distinction are to all intents and liarities that her imagination forms in a delirious purposes married, except the consideration of differ. old age. This frequently cuts off charity from the ent sexes. They are directly under the conduct of greatest objects of compassion, and inspires people their whisperer; and think they are in a state of with a malevolence towards those poor decrepid freedom, while they can prate with one of these atparts of our species, in whom human nature is de teudants of all men in general, and still avoid the faced by infirmity and dotage.
L. man they most like. You do not see one heiress in
a hundred whose fate does not turn upon this cir
cumstance of choosing a confidant. Thus it is that No. 118.1 MONDAY, JULY 16, 1711. the lady is addressed to, presented, and flattered,
only by proxy, in her woman. lo my case, how is Hæret lateri lethalis arundo.-VIRG. Æn. iv. 73.
it possible that - Sir Roger was proceeding The fatal dart
in his barangue, when we heard the voice of one Sticks in his side, and rankles in his heart.-DRYDEN.
speaking very importunately, and repeating these This agreeable seat is surrounded with so many words, " What, not one smile?" We followed the pleasing walks, which are struck out of a wood, in sound till we came to a close thicket, on the other the midst of which the house stands, that one can side of which we saw a young woman sitting as it hardly be weary of rambling from one labyrinth of were in a personated sullenness just over a transdelight to another. To one used to live in the city, parent fountain. Opposite to her stood Mr. William, the charms of the country are so exquisite that the Sir Roger's master of the game. The knight whismind is lost in a certain transport which raises us pered me, “Hist, these are lovers." The huntsman above ordinary life, and yet is not strong enough to looking earnestly at the shadow of the young maiden be inconsistent with tranquillity. This state of mind in the stream-“Oh thou dear picture, if thou was I in-ravished with the murmur of waters, the couldst remain there in the absence of that fair creawhisper of breezes, the singing of birds; and whether ture whom you represent in the water, how willingly I looked up to the heavens, down on the earth, or could I stand here satisfied for ever, without troubling turned to the prospects around me, still struck with my dear Betty herself with any mention of her unnew sense of pleasure;—when I found by the voice of fortunate William, whom she is angry with! But my friend, who walked by me, that we had insensibly alas ! when she pleases to be gone, thou wilt also strolled into the grove sacred to the widow. “This vanish-yet let me talk to thee while thou dost stay, woman,” says he, " is of all others the most unintel. Tell my dearest Betty thou dost not more depend ligible: she either designs to marry, or she does not. upon her than does her William; her absence will What is the most perplexing of all is, that she doth make away with me as well as thee. If she offers to not either say to her lovers she has any resolution remove thee, I will jump into these waves to lay against that condition of life in general, or that she hold on thee-herself, her own dear person, I must banishes them; but, conscious of her own merit, she never embrace again. Still do you hear me without permits their addresses, without fear of any ill con-one smile.—It is too much to bear.” He had no sequence, or want of respect, from their rage or sooner spoken these words, but he made an offer of despair. She has that in her aspect against which it throwing himself into the water: at which his mis. is impossible to offend. A man whose thoughts are tress started up, and at the next instant he jumped constantly bent upon so agreeable an object, must across the fountain, and met her in an embrace. She, be excused if the ordinary occurrences in conversa. half recovering from her fright, said in the most tion are below his attention. I call her indeed per- charming voice imaginable, and with a tone of comverse, but, alas ! why do I call her' so ?-because plaint, “I thought how well you would drown yourher superior merit is such, that I cannot approach self. No, no, you will not drown yourself till you her without awe-that my heart is checked by too have taken your leave of Susan Holiday." The much esteem: I am angry that her charms are not huntsman, with a tenderness that spoke the most more accessible that I am more inclined to worship passionate love, and with his cheek close to hers, than salute her. How often have I wished her un- whispered the softest vows of fidelity in her ear, and happy, that I might have an opportunity of serving cried, “Do not, my dear, believe a word Kate Wil. her! and how often troubled in that very imagina- low says; she is spiteful, and makes stories, because tion at giving her the pain of being obliged! Well, she loves to hear me talk to herself for your sake." I have led a miserable life in secret upon her ac- " Look you there,” quoth Sir Roger, “ do you see count; but fancy she would have condescended to there, all .nischief comes from contidants ! But let have some regard for me, if it had not been for that us not interrupt them; the maid is honest, and the watchful animal her confidant.
man dare not be otherwise, for be knows I loved ber “Of all persons under the sun" (continued he, father: I will interpose in this matter, and hasten calling me by my name), “ be sure to set a mark the wedding. Kate Willow is a witty mischievous upon confidants: they are of all people the most wench in the neighbourhood, who was a beauty; and impertinent. What is most pleasant to observe in makes me hope I shall see the perverse widow in her them is, that they assume to themselves the merit of condition. She was so flippant in her answers to persons whom they have in their custody. Orestilla all the honest fellows that came near her, and so is a great fortune, and in wonderful danger of sur very vain of her beauty, that she has valued herself prises, therefore full of suspicions of the least indif- upon her charms till they have ceased. She thereferent thing, particularly careful of new acquaint- fore now makes it her business to prevent other ance, and of growing too familiar with the old young women from being more discreet than she was
herself: however, the saucy thing said the other day If after this we look on the people of mode in the well enough, Sir Roger and I must make a match, country, we find in them the manners of the last age. for we are both despised by those we loved.' The Tbey have no sooner fetched themselves up to the hassy has a great deal of power wherever she comes, fashions of the polite world, but the town has dropped and has her share of curning.
them, and are nearer to the first state of nature, than However, when I reflect upon this woman, I do to those refinements which formerly reigned in the not know whether in the main I am the worse for court, and still prevailed in the country. Oue may baving loved ber : whenever she is recalled to my now know a man that never conversed in the world, imagination, my youth returus, and I feel a forgotten by his excess of good-breeding. A polite country Farmth in my veins. This affliction in my life has esquire shall make you as many bows in half an streaked all my conduct with a softness, of which I hour, as would serve a courtier for a week. There, should otherwise have been incapable. It is owing, is infinitely more to do about place and precedency perhaps, to this dear image in my heart that I am in a meeting of justices' wives, than in an assembly apt to relent, that I easily forgive, and that many of duchesses. desirable things are grown into my temper, which I This rural politeness is very troublesome to a man should not have arrived at by better motíves than of my temper, who generally take the chair that is the thought of being one day hers. I am pretty next me, and walk first or last, in the front or in the well satisfied such a passion as I have had is never rear, as chance directs. I have known my friend Fell eured; and between you and me, I am often Sir Roger's dinner almost cold before the company apt to imagine it has had some whimsical effect upon could adjust the ceremonial, and be prevailed upon my brain: for i frequerily find, that in my most se to sit down; and have heartily pitied my old friend, rious discourse I let fall some comical familiarity of when I have seen him forced to pick and cull his speech or odd phrase that makes the company laugh. guests, as they sat at the several parts of his table, However, I cannot but allow she is a most excellent that he might drink their healths according to their woman. When she is in the country, I warrant she respective ranks and qualities. Honest Will Wimble, does not run into dairies, but reads upon the nature who I should have thought had been altogether un of plants; but has a glass hive, and comes into the infected with ceremony, gives me abundance of garden out of books to see them work, and observe trouble in this particular. Though he has been fishthe policies of their commonwealth. She understands ing all the morning, he will not help himself at din. erery thing. I would give ten pounds to hear her ner until I am served. When we are going out of argue with my friend Sir Andrew Freeport about the hall, he runs behind me; and last night as we trade. No, no, for all she looks so innocent as it were walking in the fields, stopped short at a stile until were, take my word for it she is no fool.”-T. I came up to it, and upon my making signs to him
to get over, told me with a serious smile, that sure I
believed they had no manners in the country No. 119.) TUESDAY, JULY 17, 1711.
There has happened another revolution in the Urben quam dicunt Romum, Melibae, putavi
point of good-breeding, which relates to the converScultus ego huic postræ similem
VIRG. EcL i 20.
sation among men of mode, and which I cannot but The cily men call Rome, unskilful clown, I thought resen.bled this our humble town.-WARTON.
look upon as very extraordinary. It was certainly
one of the first distinctions of a well-bred man to The first and most obvious reflections which arise express every thing that had the most remote ap, in a man who changes the city for the country, are pearance of being obscene, in modest terms and disupon the different manners of the people whom he tant phrases; whilst the clown, who had no such meets with in those two different scenes of life. By delicacy of conception and expression, clothed his manners I do not mean morals, but behaviour and ideas in those plain homely terms that are the most good-breeding, as they shew themselves in the town obvious and natural. This kind of good-manners and in the country.
was perhaps carried to an excess, so as to make conAnd here in the first place I must observe a very versation too stiff, formal, and precise : for which great revolution that has happened in this article of reason (as hypocrisy in one age is generally sucgood-breeding. Several obliging deferences, con-ceeded by atheism in another) conversation is in a deseensions, and submissions, with many outward great measure relapsed into the first extreme; 80 forms and ceremonies that accompany them, were that at present several of our men of the town, and first of all brought up among the politer part of particularly those who have been polished in France, mankind, who lived in courts and cities, and distin- make use of the most coarse, uncivilized words in guished themselves from the rustic part of the species our language, and utter themselves often in such a (who on all occasions acted bluntly and naturally) manner as a clown would blush to hear. by sueh a mutual complaisance and intercourse of This infamous piece of good-breeding, which civilities. These forms of conversation by degrees reigns among the coxcombs of the town, has not yet zaltiplied and grew troublesome; the modish world made its way into the country: and as it is imposfound too great a constraint in them, and have there-sible for such an irrational way of conversation to fore thrown most of them aside. Conversation, like last long among a people that make any profession the Romish religion, was so encumbered with show of religion, or show ot‘modesty, if the country genand ceremony, that it stood in need of a reformation tlemen get into it, they will certainly be left in the to retreach its superfluities, and restore it to its na- lurch. Their good-breeding will come too late to tural good sense and beauty. At present, therefore, them, and they will be thought a parcel of lewd an unconstrained carriage, and a certain openness clowns, while they fancy themselves talking together of bebaviour, are the height of good-breeding. The like men of wit and pleasure. fashionable world is grown free and easy; our man- As the two points of good-breeding, which I have ners sit more loose spon us. Nothing is so modish hitherto insisted upon, regard behaviour and con
an aggreeable negligence. In å word, good versation, there is a third which turns upon dress. breeding shews itself most, where to an ordinary eye In this, too, the country are very much behindhand. at appears the least.
The rural beaus are not yet got out of the fashion
that took place at the time of the revolution, but with grass, for their security and concealment, and ride about the country in red coats and laced hats, produce such infinite swarms of insects for the supwhile the women in many parts are still trying to port and sustenance of their respective broods ? outvie one another in the height of their head-dresses. Is it not wonderful that the love of the parent
But a friend of mine, who is now upon the western should be so violent while it lasts, and that it should circuit, having promised to give me an account of last no longer than is necessary for the preservation the several modes and fashions that prevail in the of the young ? different parts of the nation through which he passes, The violence of this natural love is exemplified I shall defer the enlarging upon this last topic till I by a very barbarous experiment; which I shall quote bave received a letter from him, which I expect at length, as I find it in an excellent author, and every post.-L.
hope my readers will pardon the mentioning such an
instance of cruelty, because there is nothing can so No. 120.) WEDNESDAY, JULY 18, 1711.
effectually shew the strength of that principle in
animals of which I am here speaking.“ A person Equidem credo, quia sit divinitus illis who was well skilled in dissections opened a bitch, Ingenium
Virg. Georg. i. 415.
and as she lay in the most exquisite tortures, offered -I deem their breasts inspir'd
her one of her young puppies, which she immediWith a divine sagacity
ately fell a licking; and for the time seemed insensMy friend Sir Roger is very often merry with me ible of her own pain. On the removal, she kept upon my passing so much of my time among his her eye fixed on it, and began a wailing sort of cry, poultry. He has caught me twice or thrice looking which seemed rather to proceed from the loss of her after a bird's nest, and several times sitting an hour young one, than the sense of her own torments.” or two together bear a hen and chickens. He tells But notwithstanding this natural love in brutes is me he believes I am personally acquainted with every much more violent and intense than in rational fowl about his house ; calls such a particular cock creatures, Providence has taken care that it should my favorite ; and frequently complains that his ducks be no longer troublesome to the parent than it is and geese have more of my company than himself. useful to the young; for so soon as the wants of the
I must confess I am infinitely delighted with those latter cease, the mother withdraws ber fondness, and speculations of nature which are to be made in a leaves them to provide for themselves; and what is country life; and as my reading has very much lain a very remarkable circumstance in this part of inamong' books of natural history, I cannot forbear stinct, we find that the love of the parent may be reccilecting upon this occasion the several remarks lengthened out beyond its usual time, if the preservwhich I have met with in authors, and comparing ation of the species requires it; as we may see in them with what falls under my own observation: the birds that drive away their young as soon as they arguments for Providence drawn from the natural are able to get their livelihood, but continue to feed history of animals being in my opinion demonstrative. them if they are tied to the nest, or confined within
The make of every kind of animal is different from a cage, or by any other means appear to be out of that of every other kind; and yet there is not the least a condition of supplying their own necessities. turn in the muscles or twist in the fibres of any one, This natural love is not observed in animals to which does not render them more proper for that ascend from the young to the parent, which is not particular animal's way of life than any other cast at all necessary for the continuance of the species ; or texture of them would have been.
nor indeed in reasonable creatures does it rise in any The most violent appetites in all creatures are proportion, as it spreads itself downward; for in all lust and hunger. The first is a perpetual call upon family affection, we find protection granted and fathem to propagate their kind; the latter to preserve vours bestowed, are greater motives to love and tenthemselves.
derness, than safety, benefits, or life received. It is astonishing to consider the different degrees One would wonder to hear sceptical men disputing of care that descend from the parent to the young, for the reason of animals, and telling us it is only so far as it is absolutely necessary for the leaving a our pride and prejudices that will not allow them posterity. Some creatures cast their eggs as chance the use of that faculty. directs them, and think of them no farther; as in- Reason shews itself in all occurrences of life; sects and several kinds of fish. Others, of a nicer whereas the brute makes no discovery of such a taframe, find out proper beds to deposit them in, and lent, but in what immediately regards his own prethere leave them; as the serpent, the crocodile, and servation or the continuance of his species. Åniostrich : others hatch their eggs and tend the birth mals in their generation are wiser than the sons of until it is liable to shift for itself.
men ; but their wisdom is confined to a few particuWhat can we call the principle which directs every lars, and lies in a very narrow compass. Take a different kind of bird to observe a particular plan in brute out of his instinct, and you find him wholly the structure of its nest, and directs all the same deprived of understanding. To use an instance that species to work after the same model? It cannot be comes often under observation : imitation ; for though you hatch a crow under a With what caution does the ben provide herself a hen, and never let it see any of the works of its own nest in places unfrequented, and free from noise and kind, the nest it makes shall be the same, to the lay- disturbance! when she has laid ber eggs in such a ing of a stick, with all the other nests of the same manner that she can cover them, what care does she species. It cannot be reason; for were animals take in turning them frequently, that all parts may endued with it to as great a degree as man, their partake of the vital warmih! when she leaves them, buildings would be as different as ours, according to to provide for her necessary sustenance, how puncthe different conveniences that they would propose tually does she return before they have time to cool, to themselves.
and become incapable of producing an animal! In Is it not remarkable that the same temper of the summer you see her giving herself greater freeweather, which raises this genial warmth in animals, doms, and quitting her care for above two hours should cover the trees with leaves, and the fields together ; but in winter, when the rigour of the sea.