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don; and three daughters, Ada, who became the wife of Florence, Count of Holland, Margaret, the wife of Conan, Duke of Brittany, and Matilda, who died unmarried. On the death of the prince, King David committed his eldest grandson, Malcolm, to the charge of the Earl of Fife and an armed retinue, and sent him on a solemn progress through Scotland, that in every county the people might see and acknowledge their future king. Even before the death of his son, David ha"d become a living instance of the holiness that' with God 'it is 'possible' to attain to under the most adverse circumstances of wealth and prosperity. In the holy court of Scotland hours were set apart every day for prayer, business, and charity to the poor. The king delegated to others certain of his affairs, but the care of the destitute, the fatherless, and widows he reserved as his own special privilege. He used to sit at his palace-gate on appointed days that such might come and lay before him their grievances. His favourite recreation was the chase, but often when all the arrangements had been made for hunting, the day fine, and his foot in the stirrup, a poor man would arrive with evidently a long story to lay before the king. There was no hesitation; horses and men were dismissed, the day's sport was given up, and David, returning to the palace, sat down to listen to the complaints of his humble subject. It fell to his lot as king to act sometimes as the judge of criminals, and then justice and tender natural feelings had a fight together; but where condemnation was right he did not shrink, but with tears and faltering lips pronounced a sentence which, according to the mediaeval penal code, was probably enough to tear a Christian heart even to describe. That the clergy should of all men be at peace with one another was his earnest desire, and if they disagreed he would fall on his knees to them, entreating them to cease their strife. He was very fond of gardening, and doubtless made discoveries about budding and engrafting hitherto unknown in this country. He had a garden at Edinburgh, and though the site of it cannot now be identified, ' it is interesting to know that . . . seven centuries ago there was a royal garden somewhere in the valley below the Castle, though doubtless it would contrast curiously enough with the Princes Street gardens of the present day.'1 In the accounts of the royal expenditure which are preserved there is a payment allowed at the king's castle of Forfar for a gardener.2 Probably he was the first Scottish monarch who spent his leisure hours in so gentle a diversion. The legend of Holy Rood is curious. It was a fast-day, but David went out to hunt in Drumselch, 'ane gret forest, full of hartis, hyndis, toddis, and sic like manner of beistis,' covering the ground which has been for centuries occupied by the Scottish capital. Suddenly, when the sport was at its height, there rushed in front of the king a furious stag, and prepared to attack him, but at the same moment he felt in his hand the Holy Rood of Scotland, reproaching him for preferring his amusement to the service of the Crucified. The stag vanished, and the fruits of the admonition was the Augustinian Abbey of the Holy Rood. The canons-regular came from St. Andrews, and till ' Domus Sanctas Crucis' was ready they resided in the church of the Castrum Puellarum. They were very comfortably endowed, as we read in the great charter of the foundation of Holyrood. King David confirmed to them 'in perpetual peace,' the Church of the Castle, and the lands under the Castle, 'from the spring that rises near the corner of my garden, by the road that leads to the church

1 See review in Scotsman, June 15, 1871, of Charters and other Documents relating to the City of Edinburgh, A.d. 1143-1540. * See Scotland in the Middle Ages, c. iv. p. 124.

of St. Cuthbert, and on the other side, under the Castle, until you come to a crag which is under the same Castle towards the east.' They were to have a mill and a saltwork at Airth, and were entitled to the draught of certain fish nets, to half the fat, the tallow, and hides of the slaughter of Edinburgh, and all the skins of the king's flocks dying at the Castle or at Linlithgow. Their flocks of swine were to range in the royal woods without paying ' pannage,' or feeding-dues, and supplies of malt, meal, and firewood were among the substantial privileges of the brotherhood.1

King David had many favourite residences. Besides Scone, Perth, Edinburgh, and Stirling, Dunfermline, associated with his childhood, and now his mother's grave, and Berwick-upon-Tweed, the busy mercantile town, he had several beautiful country-seats. Wherever he went the court accompanied him. The marriages of the royal family brought many strangers to the Scottish palaces, and for their entertainment horses, hawks, and hounds, and all the paraphernalia of the chase, a pastime for which this country was so well adapted, were provided. If the glitter of the Norman aristocracy began to appear in the royal establishment it was tempered by comparative poverty, and refined by the king's Christianity. Yet there was sufficient state maintained to indicate a considerable revenue, and the Gaelic gentry who ventured down thither from their mountains, became gradually resigned to decencies which they were however never very sure of as pertaining to southern effeminacy somewhat . St. David was teaching the upper classes to fulfil that great mission of refinement and good influence which is intrusted to them in every age. He was the first of his family who united the character of an English

1 See review in Scotsman, June 15, 1871, of Charters and other Documents relating to the City of Edinburgh, A.d. 1143-1540.

baron to fhat of a Scottish king. He instituted a feudal court, with the great officers of the crown, a feudal nobility, and feudal tenures, governing the country upon feudal principles. He introduced the charter—that is, the written evidence of the right to freehold property. He regulated the 'Two Estates'—the clergy and the baronage and freeholders connected with the land, and he founded the 'Third Estate,' being the actual creator of the burghs, and of the free population connected with them. He befriended his sturdy peasantry, and encouraged trade and agriculture, and he remitted three years' rent and tribute to all his people who were willing to improve their dwellings and to adopt increased refinement in their dress and in their general manner of living.1 'A more perfect exemplar of a good king is to be found in the reign of David I.,' says an historian, 'than in all the theories of the learned and ingenious.'2

After Easter, in the year 1153, when living at Carlisle, David was seized with a malady. It soon told on a constitution already broken down by affliction and a hard life. For some time before his death he was able to attend mass regularly, and to receive Holy Communion every Sunday, and he could also, even when growing very weak, go into his oratory to observe the canonical hours. On Wednesday the 20th of May, seeing that there was no chance of his recovery, he called his friends to him, and bade them goodbye. On the Friday, the end was very near, and he desired to receive the last Sacraments. As his mother had done on her deathbed, he asked for the Black Rood of Scotland, and at sight of the representation of the sufferings of that

1 See Scotland under her Early Kings, vol. i. pp. 188, 230, 285, 292.

2 Buchanan, vii. 122 ; quoted by Hailes, vol. i. p. 109.

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dear Lord for whom he had lived, and whom he was now going to be with for ever, the dying saint burst into tears; he laid the crucifix upon his breast, and made his confession with serious repentance. He was then led to church by two priests, and received his viaticum, employing all his remaining strength to adore his Saviour, there present under the forms of Bread and Wine. Invigorated by the Bread of Life, he was carried back to his chamber, and lying down on the ground received the Last Anointing. The priests, anxious to spare him fatigue, were trying to abbreviate the service, but he begged them not to hurry, and responded to every prayer. The next day, his last day on earth, was spent in reciting the 119th and 120th Psalms, and he dwelt on the words of the former: 'I have done the thing that is lawful and right: O give me not over to mine oppressors.' Whilst thus engaged, his almoner entered the room; he affectionately embraced him, and asked if the poor had received their daily alms. Being told that they had, he went on with his work. When his friends besought him not to exhaust himself by this incessant recitation, he said: 'Suffer me rather to meditate on heavenly things, that my soul, now about to escape from its earthly prison, may return to its own home, refreshed by the viaticum of the Word of God. . . .' On the dawn of the next morning, the Sunday before Ascension Day, David died in this 'great calm,' his hands clasped on his breast in prayer. 'The king shall rejoice in God.'

Of King David his great modern biographer says— 'Augustus found Rome brick and left her marble; but David found Scotland built of wattles and left her framed in granite, castles and monasteries studding the land in every direction. He found her a pastoral country, and before the close of his reign she is described as the granary \>f her neighbours Of feudal and historical Scotland,

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