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labours. He had been formerly a canon-regular at St. Oswald's, near Pontefract, and then prior of the Augustinian house at Scone, and having therefore had practical experience of the excellent working of the order of St. Augustine, he set about the erection of a similar community at St. Andrews. This was an undertaking which called for patient waiting, for neither funds nor expediency admitted of its immediate execution, but Bishop Robert did what he could, and before long 'some houses and the cloisters of the priory were so far finished as to admit as residents men of moderate and contented minds, who could wait with patience till better accommodation were provided.'l Men of moderate and contented minds having been found among the monks of Scone, the bishop presented them with the monastery of St. Serf at Loch Leven, with 'its revenues, lands, villas, mills, tithes, certain quantities of cheese, barley, and pigs from different farms ; also vestments, and certain books.' The books were before cited as a specimen of a very ancient monastic library. He also obtained a prior from the English house of his own early training, and held out a friendly hand to those who still remained of the old Culdean institution at St. Andrews. With a Christian desire to give offence to no one, if possible, which is not the natural accompaniment of the excitement attendant on the birth of a new enterprise, the Culdecs were invited to become canons, and those who declined doing so were to enjoy a liferent of their possessions ; but on their decease canons were to be elected in their places, and their lands were to fall to the priory. The gifts to the priory, which were many and splendid for centuries, were stated to be given 'in pure and perpetual charity to God, the Blessed Virgin, and the Church of St. Andrew the Apostle in Scotland, and to the canons then serving, or

» Sibbald's Hist. of Fife. p. 189.

who may hereafter serve.'1 Bishop Robert also devoted his own seventh part of the oblations at the altar to the erection of a cathedral ;2 and John, bishop of Glasgow, dedicated a cathedral at Glasgow in 1136. The bishop of St. Andrews was styled 'maximus episcopus Scotorum,' and his chair was called the 'pontifical chair of St. Andrews.' In the list of witnesses to public documents his name is written first after the king's ; when a brother or son of the king is present, he ranks after the bishop; then follow the other bishops and church dignitaries ; and after them the nobility, gentry, and commonalty.3 Still our Church had no metropolitan, and so long as this was the case the clergy could only meet in council by authority of the Pope, exercised by a Legate in Scotland, or transmitted by rescript from Rome.4 The Popes claimed to promulgate universal laws on subjects of ecclesiastical constitution and discipline. In order to determine on the affairs of distant churches, they sent legates on extraordinary occasions, who were to found or restore churches, hold synods, reform abuses, and prescribe laws.6 So early as the fifth century, we have seen the germs of the Papacy. The bishop of Rome called himself the supreme teacher and guardian of the faith, the visible representative of ecclesiastical unity, the legislator, guardian, and administrator of the canons,—in short, the father of fathers, the shepherd and guardian of the flock of Christ. In addition to all this, the Popes of

1 See Lyon, App. vi.

* The cathedral erected by Bishop Robert is the present little church of St. Rule, at St. Andrews. See ' Scottish Abbeys and Cathedrals,' Quarterly Review, vol. lxxxv. 1849, p. 120.

* See Lyon, App. vi.

4 See Joseph Robertson's Pref. to Statula Ecclesie Scoticane, p. xxvi.

* Dollinger's Hist, of the Church, vol. iii. p. 178.

the middle ages laid claim to yet more tremendous assumptions. These assumptions, on which the foundation of the edifice of Papal Infallibility is laid, were derived from a long list of pretended decrees of the early Popes and Synods, issued about the year 845, and known now as the Forged Decretals. They also sought to ' weld the states of Europe into a priest-kingdom,' with themselves at its head—in short, to prostrate the kingdom of Christ, and all the empires of this world as well, grovelling at their feet. Into this system, so grandly conceived, and yet so feebly founded, Scotland as a state of Europe was now incorporated, and she was to sink very considerably under the Papal influence. In 1126, the first council called by the Pope in Scotland was held at Roxburgh by John of Crema, cardinallegate from Pope Honorius II. The Pope wrote to 'our beloved son David, King of Scots,' and after commending to his hospitality ' our beloved son John, cardinal,' decreed, 'you will assemble your bishops to the council to be held by him. The controversy which has long existed between the Archbishop of York and your bishops he will investigate, but the final decision we reserve to ourselves.' In 1138, another council met at Carlisle under Alberic, Bishop of Ostia, legate of Innocent 1l.

But it is now time to turn to the life of St. David. His boyhood was passed with his mother, and after the death of his parents he lived in early manhood at the court of Henry Beauclerc and his sister Matilda. By the help of the 'good Queen Maud,' he was enabled to pass through the fiery trial of court life unscathed by any grievous sin. 'By his early converse with our countrymen,' says an English historian, 'his manners were polished from the rust of Scottish barbarity.'1 During his residence in the south he

1 Malmesbury, 158; cited by Hailes, vol. i. p. 74.

married Matilda, 'a woman of passing beautie and chastetie,' widow of Simon de St. Liz, Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton, and daughter and heiress of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland, by Judith, the niece of the Conqueror. He received with her a portion of her immense estates, the honour of Huntingdon. The only son she bore him, Prince Henry, was eleven years old at the time of his father's accession to the throne of Scotland. Eleven years after this event David became involved in war with England. Maud, or the Empress Matilda, as she is called after her marriage to the Emperor of Germany, was the only child of Henry Beauclerc, and therefore the heiress of England. In 1127 the clergy, David, King of Scots, and Stephen, Count of Boulogne, swore to her father to maintain the settlement of her succession. On Henry's death, however, Stephen, oblivious of his oath, made himself King of England. The party who favoured Mat1lda's cause rose in arms, and were joined by her uncle, King David, who till 1139 was engaged in war with Stephen. Hostilities were brought to a close in the Battle of the Standard, fought in 1138 near Northallerton.

The battle received its name from the English standard —' the mast of a ship fitted into the perch of a high fourwheeled carriage. From it were displayed the banners of St. Peter of York, of St. John of Beverley, and of St. Wilfred of Ripon: on the top of this mast there was a little casket containing a consecrated Host.'1 Old age and infirmities alone hindered Thorstein, the Archbishop of York, from fighting in person, and, as his deputy, Ralph, Bishop of Orkney, presided in the compact and well-disciplined English camp. The Scottish army consisted of Scots and Angles, the men of Lothian and Teviotdale, and of

1 Hailes, vol. i. pp. 85, 86.

Northumberland and Cumberland, besides gatherings of Norwegians from the Orkneys, and the wild men of Galloway. There could only be inextricable confusion in such a horde, and in spite of a desperately brave resistance David's troops were defeated. Soon after this battle a treaty was entered into with England, the terms whereof were peculiarly favourable to the Scots. Its terms were that Cumberland, as by ancient right, should belong to David, and Northumberland and Durham, excepting the fortresses of Newcastle and Bamborough, should be ceded to Prince Henry. On the whole, the war had been a gain to the defeated nation. To the sovereign it had been a loss, and like another royal David, he could only cry for the rest of his life, 'Have mercy upon me, O God, after Thy great goodness.' The Galwegians, who were a part of his heterogeneous army, were the wildest of the wild Highlanders, and they committed fearful excesses among the English. Many souls fell into deadly sin, and Ailred says, 'It must be confessed that our David also sinned ... as he might perhaps have even restrained them more than he did. I will confess with tears that he did wrong.' For this transgression David repented with his whole soul. He would fain have laid down his kingdom and become a pilgrim to the Holy Land, but he yielded to the will of God, and accepted instead the sharper penance of a throne.

His wife died some years after his accession, and on the 12th of June 1152 the much-loved Prince Henry was also taken away. The hopes of the nation met with a great disappointment, and the light of the king's eyes was gone, but he bent in resignation beneath the adorable Hand that thus chastised him. After the battle of the Standard, Prince Henry had married Ada, daughter of the Earl of Surrey. By her he had three sons, Malcolm and William, afterwards kings of Scotland, and David, Earl of Hunting

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