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of the Scotland which counts Edinburgh amongst her fairest cities, and Glasgow, as well as Perth and Aberdeen, of the familiar Scotland of Bruce and of the Stewarts, David was unquestionably the creator. With the close of the eleventh century ancient Gaelic Alban gradually fades into the background, and before the middle of the twelfth modern Scotland has already risen into existence.'1

1 Scotland under her Early Kings, vol. i. pp. 319, 320.



'Now palmer, grey palmer,
O tell unto me,
What news bring you home
From the Holy Countrie?'

S1r Walter Scott.

AILRED, the master of Saint David's household, was the biographer of three of our kings. When at the Scottish court he used to surprise hot-spirited nobles at the meekness wherewith he received the rudest contradiction, and all his behaviour was becoming one whom God had called to prepare himself to be in a special way His servant. But he loved the King and Prince Henry very affectionately, and it was some time before he could make the wrench that was to tear him from them. At length it was accomplished, and 'then,' he says, ' I began to know by a little experience what immense pleasure is found in Thy service, and how sweet a peace that is, which is its inseparable companion.' He took the habit in England, his native country, and eventually became abbot in the mother-house of all the Cistercian abbeys in Scotland,—Rievaux in Yorkshire. Of Prince Henry he says: 'Mild he was, and pious, of a gentle spirit and most loving heart, worthy in all things to be born of such a father. With him I lived from my childhood, and I grew up a boy, the companion of his boyhood, and the intimate friend of his youth; and when I left him in body to serve my Saviour, I was ever with him in mind and in affection.'

Robert, the good bishop of St. Andrews, died in 1159, and Waltheof, Abbot of Melrose, was elected to the vacant see. He was the son of Queen Matilda, by her early marriage to the Earl of Northampton, and had lived in his youth at the court of his stepfather. There, his vocation was growing every day. When he went out with the king to the chase, he would seek for opportunities to retire alone into the woods, that he might betake himself to praying or read1ng. The way having been made clear for him, he entered the religious life, and became in time the Abbot of Melrose. When the clergy and nobility arrived at Melrose to offer him the primacy of the Scottish Church, he besought them by his years and incapacities to accept his refusal of so tremendous a responsibility, saying, ' I have put off my coat; how shall I put it on? I have washed my feet; how can I defile them again with the dust of worldly care?' 'There,' he said, pointing to the place that was to be his grave near the chapter-house,—' there is my resting-place. Here will I abide so long as the Lord permits.' As he continued firm in his resolution, Arnold, Abbot of Kelso, was chosen in his stead, and was consecrated in the church of St. Rule, in the presence of the king and of the lords temporal and spiritual. This prelate laid the foundation of the cathedral, but it was not till eleven bishops had held sway, and till one hundred and fifty-eight years had elapsed, that the first pointed cathedral church of St. Andrew arose in its finished magnificence, 'an habitation for the mighty God of Jacob.'

Malcolm, who has been called ' the Maiden,' because of his fair and effeminate face, was in his twelfth year when he succeeded his grandfather. He manifested what his subjects looked on jealously as an excessive affection for his cousin-german, Henry II. of England, and not only followed him to France as a volunteer in his army, but even went the great length of surrendering to him all his Northumbrian possessions, being content to receive in exchange a re-investiture in the honour of Huntingdon. During his absence in France a formidable revolt broke out at home. On his return he quelled it with the vigour characteristic of his race, and subdued Galloway, where it had arisen, bringing that turbulent territory into some sort of feudal submission. He also suppressed another revolt which was stirred up by Donald, son of Wimund,1 a piratical adventurer in the last reign. Malcolm IV. had a delicate constitution. It soon gave way, and he died at twenty-four years old, on the 9th of December 1165. The young king possessed many excellent qualities ; but his life was not perfectly pure and continent.2 He founded, and endowed with 'many fair lands and wealthy possessions,' a Cistercian monastery at CouparAngus, in the valley of Strathmore, and he founded a nunnery of the same order at Manuel, near Linlithgow.8 The Cluniac branch of the Benedictines was introduced by Walter, son of Alan, the Steward of Scotland. The brethren were brought from Wenlock in Shropshire, and a monastery was prepared for them at Paisley. Malcolm was succeeded by his brother William, surnamed the Lion. This title

1 Wimund was a Cistercian monk of Furness, who was sent to the Isle of Man, and is said to have been elected Bishop of Man. He pretended he was the son of the Earl of Murray, and for some time lived as a pirate on the Scottish coasts. He was at last taken prisoner, and probably died in Byland Abbey.

• See Hailes, vol. i. p. 129.

* The Cistercian houses of Sandale in Cantyre, North Berwick, Eccles, Coldstream in the Merse, and Haddington, and the Benedictine nunnery of Lincluden, were also founded about this period.

points to the introduction of the science of heraldry. The Scottish knights were, like the Norman, covered up in coats of mail from top to toe, and hence the necessity of wearing a crest as a distinguishing badge. William's armorial bearing was a red lion rampant. This device still constitutes the arms of Scotland, and the President of the Heralds' Court in this country is called Lord Lyon King-at-Arms. Heraldry, the graceful offspring of chivalry, instituted the proper marshalling of processions, and the performance of coronations, instalments, funerals, marriages, and all other public ceremonies, with becoming order and pomp.

In the year 1174, William made a venture to recover the southern territory which his brother had yielded to England. His undisciplined troops were scattered hither and thither over Northumberland, burning, and creating general havoc, and he was himself wandering carelessly about, attended by only sixty men-at-arms, when in a thick mist he suddenly came face to face with four hundred Englishmen, headed by several Yorkshire barons. No feat was too wild for the King of Scots, and shouting, ' Now we shall see which of us are true knights,' he rushed head-foremost upon the enemy with his handful of attendants. He was unhorsed and made prisoner, and taken in a most degrading manner to Northampton, into the presence of Henry II. The king of England had been in a fever, but the joyful tidings of his cousin's capture had already restored him to health. He immediately sent him beyond seas to Falaise in Normandy. Without delay, Richard, who in 1163 had succeeded Arnold as Bishop of St. Andrews, accompanied by certain of the dignified clergy and nobility, arrived in Normandy, and entered into negotiations with Henry 1l. for the release of their sovereign. It was only at the dear price of the freedom of Scotland that Henry would let his precious captive go free. This agreement, which is called the Treaty of

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