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were repulsed with considerable loss, and syth, seeing his peril, gave orders for a refled in confusion over the frozen bosom of treat to Black Lake, 8 or 9 miles distant. the St. Lawrence. Meanwhile the left col. There he wrote to the War Department, umn, 500 strong, had marched into the giving an account of the affair, and say. town and captured a 12-pounder cannon ing, “If you can send me 300 men, all and its custodians without resistance. shall be retaken, and Prescott too, or I
They then expected an easy conquest of will lose my life in the attempt.” The the town, but were soon confronted by town, in possession of the enemy, was cannon under Captain Kellogg and Sher- plundered by Indians and camp-followers iff York. The gun of the former became of both sexes, who came over from Canada, disabled, and he and his men fled across and by resident miscreants. Every house the Oswegatchie and joined Forsyth, leav- in the village but three was entered, and ing the indomitable York to maintain the the public property carried over to Canafight alone, until he and his band were da. Two armed schooners, fast in the ice, made prisoners. The village was now in were burned, and the barracks near the complete possession of the British, and river were laid in ashes. Fifty-two prisMcDonell proceeded to dislodge Forsyth oners were taken to Prescott. The Amerand his party at the fort. He sent a mes. icans lost in the affair, besides the prisonsage to that commander to surrender, say- ers, five killed and fifteen wounded; the ing, “ If you surrender, it shall be well; if British loss was six killed and forty-eight not, every man shall be put to the bayo. wounded. They immediately evacuated the net.” “Tell Colonel McDonell,” said For- place, and the fugitive citizens retạrned. syth to the messenger, “ there must be Ogilvie, Joun, clergyman; born in New more fighting done first.” Then the two York City in 1722; graduated at Yale in cannon near the ruins of the fort gave 1748; missionary to the Indians in 1749; heavy discharges of grape and canister chaplain to the Royal American Regiment shot, which threw the invaders into con during the French and Indian War; asfusion. It was only momentary. An sistant minister of Trinity Church, New overwhelming party of the British were York City, in 1764. He died in New York preparing to make an assault, when Fer- City, Nov. 26, 1774.
Oglesby, RICHARD JAMES, military offi- Yamacraw Bluff. A satisfactory confercer; born in Oldham county, Ky., July 25, ence with the surrounding Indians, with 1824; settled in Decatur, Ill., in 1836. MARY MUSGROVE (q. v.) as interpreter, When the Mexican War broke out he en- resulted in a treaty which secured sovtered the army as lieutenant in the 8th ereignty to the English over a large terIllinois Infantry and participated in the ritory. Oglethorpe went to England in siege of Vera Cruz and in the action at 1734, leaving the colony in care of others, Cerro Gordo. Resigning in 1847 he and taking natives with him. He did not studied law, and began practice in 1851. return to Georgia until 1736, when he He was elected to the State Senate in took with him several cannon and about 1860, but when the Civil War began re- 150 Scotch Highlanders skilled in the milisigned his seat and became colonel of the tary art. This was the first British army 8th Illinois Volunteers; won distinction in Georgia. With him also came Rev. in the battles of Pittsburg Landing and JOHN WESLEY (q. v.) and his brother Corinth; and was promoted major-general Charles, for the purpose of giving in 1862. He was elected governor of Il. spiritual instruction to the colonists. linois in 1864 and 1872, but in his second The elements of prosperity were now term served a few days only when he was with the colonists, who numbered more elected United States Senator. In 1878 he than 500 souls; but the unwise re. was again elected governor. He died in strictions of the trustees were a serious Elkhart, Ill., April 24, 1899.
bar to advancement. Many Germans, also, Oglethorpe, JAMES EDWARD, “ father” now settled in Georgia, among them a of Georgia; born in London, England, Dec. band of Moravians; and the Wesleys were 21, 1698. Early in 1714 he was commis- followed by GEORGE WHITEFIELD (9. v.), a sioned one of Queen Anne's guards, and was one of Prince Eugene's aids in the campaign against the Turks in 1716–17. At the siege and capture of Belgrade he was very active, and he attained the rank of colonel in the British army. In 1722 he was elected to a seat in Parliament, which he held thirty-two years. In that body he made a successful effort to relieve the distresses of prisoners for debt, who crowded the jails of England, and projected the plan of a colony in America to serve as an asylum for the persecuted Protestants in Germany and other Continental countries, and " for those persons at home who had become so desperate in circumstances that they could not rise and hope
JAMES EDWARD OGLETHORPE. again without changing the scene and making trial of a different country.” Thom. zealous young clergyman burning with zeal son, alluding to this project of transporting for the good of men, and who worked lovand expatriating the prisoners for debt to ingly with the Moravians in Georgia. America, wrote this half-warning line, “ O With his great guns and his Highlandgreat design! if executed well.” It was ers, Oglethorpe was prepared to defend his proposed to found the colony in the coun- colony from intruders; and they soon try between South Carolina and Florida. proved to be useful, for the Spaniards at King George II. granted a charter for the St. Augustine, jealous of the growth of purpose in June, 1732, which incorporated the new colony, menaced them. With his twenty-one trustees for founding the col- martial Scotchmen, Oglethorpe went on ony of Georgia.
an expedition among the islands off the Oglethorpe accompanied the first com- coast, of Georgia, and on St. Simon's he pany of emigrants thither, and early in founded Frederica and built a fort. At 1733 founded the town of Savannah on Darien, where a few Scotch people had planted a settlement, he traced out a forti- offer congratulations to John Adams, fication. Then he went to Cumberland because of American independence, when Island, and there marked out a fort that that gentleman went as minister to would command the mouth of the St. England in 1784. He died in Essex, Mary's River. On a small island at the England, Jan. 30, 1785. See FLORIDA ; entrance of the St. John's River he GEORGIA. planned a small military work, which he O'Hara, CHARLES, military officer; born named Fort George. He also founded Au- in 1730; was a lieutenant of the Coldgusta, far up the Savannah River, and stream Guards in 1756, and, as colonel built a stockade as a defence against hos- of the Foot Guards, came to America in tile Indians.
1780 in command of them. He served These hostile preparations caused the under Cornwallis, and commanded the Spaniards at St. Augustine to threaten van in the famous pursuit of Greene in war. Creek tribes offered their aid to 1781. He was badly wounded in the battle Oglethorpe, and the Spaniards made a of GUILFORD (q. v.), and was commander treaty of peace with the English. It was of the British right, as brigadier-general, disapproved in Spain, and Oglethorpe was at the surrender at Yorktown, when he notified that a commissioner from Cuba gave to General Lincoln the sword of Cornwould meet him at Frederica. They met. wallis, the latter too ill, it was alleged, The Spaniard demanded the evacuation of to appear on the field. After serving as all Georgia and a portion of South Caro- governor of several English colonies, he lina by the English, claiming the territory was lieutenant-governor of Gibraltar in to the latitude of Port Royal as Spanish 1787, and governor in 1795. In 1797 he possessions. Oglethorpe hastened to Eng. was made general. He died in Gibraltar, land to confer with the trustees and seek Feb. 21, 1802. military strength. He returned in the au- O'Hara, THEODORE, poet; born in Dantumn of 1738, a brigadier-general, author- ville, Ky., Feb. 11, 1820; graduated at ized to raise troops in Georgia. He found St. Joseph Academy, Bardstown, Ky.; and the colonists languishing and discontented. admitted to the bar in 1845. He was apIdleness prevailed, and they yearned for pointed captain and assistant quarterthe privilege of employing slave-labor. master in the army in June, 1846, and Late the next year war broke out between served with distinction throughout the England and Spain. St. Augustine had Mexican War. After the remains of the been strengthened with troops, and Ogle- Kentucky soldiers who fell at Buena Vista thorpe resolved to strike a blow before the were reinterred in their native State he Spaniards should be well prepared; so he wrote for that occasion the well-known led an unsuccessful expedition into Flori. poem, The Bivouac of the Dead, the first da. Two years later the Spaniards pro- stanza of which is: ceeded to retaliate, but were frustrated by a stratagem. Oglethorpe had successfully
“The muffled drum's sad roll has beat settled, colonized, and defended Georgia, The soldier's last tattoo. spending a large amount of his own fort No more on life's parade shall meet une in the enterprise, not for his own
That brave and fallen few.
On Fame's eternal camping-ground glory, but for a benevolent purpose. He
Their silent tents are spread; returned to England in 1743, where, after And Glory guards, with solemn round, performing good military service as major
The bivouac of the dead." general against the “ Young Pretender " (1745), and serving a few years longer During the Civil War he enlisted in the in Parliament, he retired to his seat in Confederate army and became colonel of Essex. When General Gage returned from the 12th Alabama Regiment. He died near America, in 1775, Oglethorpe was offered Guerryton, Ala., June 6, 1867. the general command of the British troops Ohio, STATE OF, was first explored by in this country, though he was then about La Salle about 1680, his object being trade seventy-seven years of age. He did not and not settlement. Conflicting claims approve the doings of the ministry, and to territory in that region led to the declined. He was among the first to FRENCII AND INDIAN WAR (q. v.). The
French held possession of the region north near Lake Erie. In 1800 jurisdiction of the Ohio River until the conquest of over these tracts was relinquished to Canada in 1760 and the surrender of vast the national government, the States territory by the French to the English in retaining the right to the soil, while 1763. After the Revolution disputes arose the Indian titles to the rest of the State
were bought up by the national govern: ment.
In the autumn of 1785 United States troops began the erection of a fort on the right bank of the Muskingum, at its mouth. The commander of the troops was Maj. John Doughty, and he named it Fort Harmar, in honor of his commander, Col. Josiah Harmar. It was the first military post of the kind built in Ohio. The outlines formed a regular pentagon, embracing three-fourths of an acre. United States troops occupied Fort Harmar until 1790, when they left it to construct Fort Washington, on the site of
Cincinnati. After the treaty of GreenSEAL OF THE STATE OF OHIO.
ville it was abandoned.
In 1788 Gen. Rufus Putnam, at the
head of a colony from Massachusetts, between several States as to their respec- founded a settlement at the mouth of the tive rights to the soil in that region. Muskingum River, and named it Marietta, These were settled by the cession of the in honor of Marie Antoinette, the Queen of territory to the United States by the re- Louis XVI. of France. A stockade fort spective States, Virginia reserving 3,709,- was immediately built as a protection 848 acres near the rapids of the Ohio, against hostile Indians, and named Camand Connecticut a tract of 3,666,921 acres pus Martius. In the autumn of the same
the full number had assembled at the close of April, 1812. They were organized into three regiments, and elected their field - officers before the arrival of Hull. The colonels of the respective regiments were Duncan McArthur, James Findlay, and Lewis Cass. The 4th Regiment of regulars, station. ed at Vincennes,
under Lieut.-Col. CAMPUS MARTIUS.
had been ordered year a party of settlers seated themselves to join the militia at Dayton. The comupon SYMMES's PURCHASE (q. v.) and mand of the troops was surrendered to founded Columbia, near the mouth of the Hull by Governor Meigs on May 25, 1812. Little Miami. Fort Washington was soon They began their march northward June afterwards built, a little below, on the site of Cincinnati.
Ohio was soon afterwards organized into a separate territorial gore ernment. The settlers were annoy. ed by hostile Indians until Wayne's victories in 1794 and the treaty at Greenville gave peace to that region. In 1799 the first territorial legislature assembled, and Ohio was admitted into the Union as a State April 30, 1802. From 1800 to 1810 the seat of government was at Chillicothe. For a while it was at Zanesville, then again at Chillicothe, and finally, in 1816, Columbus was made the permanent seat of the State government.
Its people were active on the frontiers in the War of 1812. The President called on Gov. P. J. Meigs for 1,200 militia to be prepared to march to Detroit. Gov. William Hull, of Michigan, was
SEAT OF GOVERNMENT AT CHILLICOTHE IN 1800. persuaded to accept the commission of brigadier-general and take command of l; and at Urbana they were joined by them. Governor Meigs's call was gen- Miller's 4th Regiment, which, under Coloerously responded to, and at the mouth nel Boyd, had participated in the battle of the Mad River, near Dayton, O., of TIPPECANOE (q. v.). They encountered