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The public revenue of the United States Congress sent him to Philadelphia to learn is now derived from three general sources. the art of making powder, and on his reThe sources and amounts for the fiscal turn he set up a mill. The president of year ending June 30, 1904, were: Cus- the Congress (Joseph Warren) chose toms, $262,013,079; internal revenue, Revere as one of his trusted messengers $232,873,721; and miscellaneous, $46,- to warn the people of Lexington and Con628,843—total, $541,515,644. Under the cord of the expedition sent thither by war revenue act, which went into effect Cage (April 18, 1775), and to tell Adams on July 13, 1898, and was greatly modi- and Hancock of their danger. He was fied on July 1, 1901, the sum of $310,- made a prisoner while on his way from 053,363 was collected up to June 1, 1901. Lexington towards Concord, but was soon The sources of internal revenue and their several amounts in 1903–04 were as follows: From spirits, $135,779,720; tobacco, $44,655,801; fermented liquors, $49,083,458; and miscellaneous, $46,628,843. In 1900-01 the total revenue was $587,685,337, which included $40,194,641 of war stamp taxes.

Revere, JOSEPH WARREN, grandson of Paul Revere; born in Boston, May 17, 1812; was an officer in the United States navy, 1828-50. During the Civil War he became colonel of a New Jersey regiment, and was promoted brigadier-general in 1862. He was court - martialled in 1863, but the sentence was revoked by President Lincoln in 1864. Revere retired to private life in 1864, and died in Hoboken, N. J., April 20, 1880.

Revere, PAUL, patriot; born in Boston, Mass., Jan. 1, 1735. Was descended from the Huguenots, and was educated in his father's trade of goldsmith. In the French and Indian War he was at Fort Edward, on the upper Hudson, as a lieutenant of artillery, and on his return he established himself as a goldsmith, and, without instruction, became a copper-plate engraver. He was one of four engravers in America when the Revolutionary War broke out.

PAUL REVERE. He had engraved, in 1766, a print emblematic of the repeal of the Stamp Act, and in released. Longfellow made Revere's mid1767 another called “ The Seventeen Re- night ride the subject of his well-known scinders." He published a print of the poem. He served in the military corps Boston massacre, in 1770, and from that for the defence of his State, and after the time became one of the most active op- war he cast church bells and cannon; and ponents of the acts of Parliament. Re- he founded the copper-works at Canton, vere engraved the plates, made the press, Mass., afterwards carried on by the and printed the bills of credit, or paper Revere Copper Company. He was the money, of Massachusetts, issued in 1775; first in the United States to smelt copper he also engraved the plates for the “Con- ore and roll it into sheets. In 1795 tinental money." He was sent by the Revere, as grand master of the masonic Sons of Liberty, of Boston, to confer with order, laid the corner-stone of the Statetheir brethren in New York and Phila- house in Boston. He died in Boston, Mass., delphia. Early in 1775 the Provincial May 10, 1818.

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Revolution, DIPLOMACY OF THE As Americans began to contemplate the necessoon as the idea of independence had taken sity of foreign aid, material and moral. the practical shape of a resolution and The Congress appointed a secret comdeclaration adopted by Congress, the mittee of correspondence for the purpose,

and sent Silas Deane upon a half-com- Meanwhile the Continental Congress had mercial, half-diplomatic mission to France. sent John Jay as ambassador to Spain, to Franklin was at first opposed to seeking win the active friendship of that power. foreign alliances. “A virgin State," he He could effect nothing; and it was well he said, “should preserve the virgin char. did not, as subsequent events manifested. acter, and not go about suitoring for al- From the time of the treaty of alliance liances, but wait with decent dignity for with France, the action of Spain towards the application of others.” But Franklin the United States was selfish, hypocritical, soon became the chief suitor in Europe, for and often sullen. She declared war in the autumn of 1776 he was sent as against England for her own selfish purcommissioner ” to France to seek an al- pose, but it worked in favor of the Ameriliance and material aid. The aid was cans by keeping British troops employed furnished through Beaumarchais, at first elsewhere than in America. The Count secretly, and afterwards by the govern d'Aranda, the Spanish minister in France, ment openly. The American commission- who had watched the course of events with ers proposed a treaty of alliance with keen vision from the beginning to the end France, but the French government hesi. of the American war for independence, tated, for it did not then desire an open suggested to his sovereign, as an antidote rupture with England; but when the to American independence, the formation news of the defeat and capture of Burs of the Spanish-American colonies into ingoyne's army, late in 1777, reached dependent Spanish monarchies. He said, France, the King no longer hesitated, and in reference to the treaty of peace in 1783: a treaty of amity, commerce, and alli- “ The independence of the English coloance was consummated in February, nies has been, then, recognized. It is for 1778.

me a subject of grief and fear. France The recognition of the independence of has but few possessions in America; but the United States involved France in war she was bound to consider that Spain, her with England, and the latter sent com- most intimate ally, had many, and that missioners to negotiate with the Ameri- she now stands exposed to terrible recans for peace. The terms were not satis- verses. From the beginning France has factory, and the mission failed. The acted against her true interests in enFrench government pressed Spain to join couraging and supporting this indepenin espousing the cause of the Americans, dence, and so I have often declared to the but that power hesitated, because a sup- ministers of this nation." port of such a republican system in Amer. When the armed neutrality was proica might be dangerous to the integrity of posed in 1780, the Americans gladly joinher own colonial system in that part of ed the European powers with their moral the world. In this feeling France had influence (all they could then give), for been alike cautious, and for the same rea- it would aid themselves by weakening Eng. sons. They had agreed that while it land. Its results were disappointing to the would not be politic to invade the rights other powers, but it added to the open of the British crown, they would evade enemies of England. The Congress, in inthe obligations of treaties, for both had structions to Dana at St. Petersburg, had a mischievous intent to foment the dis- said: “You will readily perceive that it turbances between England and her Ameri- must be a leading and capital point, if can colonies. While doing this secretly, these United States shall be formally adthey held the language of honest neu- mitted as a party to the convention of the trality. When, therefore, France had de- neutral maritime powers for maintaining termined openly to espouse the cause of the freedom of commerce." Thus early, the Americans, Spain was urged to do while yet fighting for independence, the likewise; but the Spanish Court could not American statesmen assumed the dignity be persuaded to go beyond a certain point. and used the language of the representaThe French minister, with keen prescience, tives of a powerful nation, which they saw ultimate independence for America, certainly expected to form. while the Spanish Court dreaded such a re- The Americans had opened negotia. sult.

tions with the States-General of Holland

for a treaty as early as 1778. William, following he had completed the negotiabrother of Richard Henry and Arthur tion of a treaty with Holland, and signed Lee, had begun the discussion of such a it with great satisfaction. It was 3 treaty with Van Berkel, the pensionary “ Treaty of Alliance between their High of Amsterdam. This negotiation with a Mightinesses the States - General of the single province was made in secret. Lee United Netherlands and the United States had no authority to sign a treaty, nor of America.” This treaty was not altocould the expression of a single province gether dependent upon the alliance of the bind the Dutch Republic. Finally, Henry United States with France, and was a step Laurens was sent by Congress to negotiate forward in the march of the former towa treaty with the States-General, but was ards independent national existence. The captured while crossing the Atlantic, and final great act in the diplomacy of the imprisoned in England. Then John Adams Revolution was the negotiation of a treaty was sent for the purpose to The Hague. of peace with England. In their foreign diEarly in 1782, through the joint exertions plomacy the Congress had been greatly aidof Mr. Adams and the French ministered at almost every step by the enlightened at The Hague, the provinces, one after an- wisdom, prudence, and firmness of Count other, consented to the public recognition Gravier de Vergennes, who was a faithof Mr. Adams, and so openly recognized ful servant of his King, while he earnestly the independence of the United States. desired the boon of the enjoyment of raHe was publicly introduced to the Prince tional liberty for all peoples. He died of Orange on April 22, 1782. In October soon after the peace.


Revolutionary War, the popular name exceeding two million of Spanish millof the struggle of the American colonies ed dollars be emitted by Congress in against Great Britain for independence in

bills of credit for the defence of

America.".................June 22, 1775 1775-83; also known in American his- Washington takes command of the army tory as the first war for independence. at Cambridge................ July 3, 1775 For a detailed statement of causes the Declaration by Congress, the causes and reader is referred to DECLARATION OF IN

necessity for taking up arms. .July 6, 1775

First provincial vessel commissioned DEPENDENCE. The following is a chrono for naval warfare in the Revolution, logical record of the war:

sent out by Georgia........July 10, 1777

Importation of gunpowder, saltpetre, Battle of Lexington, Mass., at dawn of

sulphur, and fire-arms permitted by

April 19, 1775 act of Congress........ ....July 15, 1775 Col. Samuel H. Parsons and Benedict Georgia joins the United Colonies..... Arnold plan, at Hartford, Conn., the

July 20, 1775 capture of Fort Ticonderoga, N. Y. Franklin's plan of confederation and

April 27, 1775 perpetual union, " The United Colo. Arnold leads his company from New

nies of North America," considered Haven to Boston, arriving........

by Congress...... .... July 21, 1775

April 29, 1775 Congress resolves to establish an army Fort Ticonderoga captured by Ethan

hospital...................July 27, 1775 Allen ..

....May 10, 1775 British vessel, the Betsy, surprised by Crown Point, N. Y., captured by Ameri

a Carolina privateer off St. Augustine cans.......................May 12, 1775 bar, and 111 barrels of powder captAmericans under Benedict Arnold capt

ured ........................ Aug., 1775) ure St. John, Canada......May 16, 1775 King issues a proclamation for suppressLritish Generals Howe, Clinton, and

ing rebellion and sedition in the Burgoyne arrive at Boston from Eng

colonies................... Aug. 23, 1775 land with troops...........May 25, 1775 American troops under Gen. Richard Congress votes to raise 20,000 men..

Montgomery sent into Canada to cut

June 14, 1775 off British supplies............ Sept., 1775 George Washington is unanimously Col. Benedict Arnold, with a force of elected by Congress commander-in

about 1,100 men, marches against chief of the American forces. June 15, 1775 Quebec via Kennebec River.... Sept., 1775 Lattle of Bunker Hill, June 16-17; and

English ship seized off Tybee Island, burning of Charlestown.... June 17, 1775 Ga., by the Liberty people, with 250 Resolved by Congress, “ That a sum not

barrels of powder..........Sept. 17, 1775 British capture Col. Ethan Allen and Resolution introduced in Congress by thirty-eight men near Montreal..

Richard Henry Lee, that “the United

Sept. 25, 1775 Colonies are and ought to be free and Bristol, R. I., bombarded......Oct. 7, 1775 independent States; that they are abGen. William Howe supersedes General

solved from all allegiance to the Gage as commander of the British

British crown, and that their political army in America, who embarks for

connection with Great Britain is and England ..................Oct. 10, 1775 ought to be totally dissolved"... Falmouth, Me., burned by British....

June 7, 1776 Oct. 18, 1775 Committee appointed by Congress to St. John, Canada, surrenders to Amer

prepare a form of confederation. icans under Montgomery..... Nov. 2, 1775

June 11, 1776 Congress orders a battalion to protect Committee appointed by Congress to

Georgia ...................Nov. 4, 1775 draw up a Declaration of IndepenBritish fleet repulsed at Hampton, Va.,

dence .................... June 11. 1776 Oct. 25, 1775, and Lord Dunmore de

Board of war and ordnance appointed clares open war............. Nov. 7, 1775 by Congress, consisting of five memNight attack of the British vessels

bers, viz.: John Adams, Roger SherTamar and Cherokee on the schooner

man, Benjamin Harrison, James WilDefence, in Hog Island Channel, S. C.

son, and Edward Rutledge; Richard

Nov. 12, 1775 Peters elected secretary.....June 12, 1776 Americans under Montgomery capture American forces under General SulliMontreal ..................

..... Nov. 13, 1775 van retire from Canada to Crown Benjamin Harrison, Benjamin Franklin,

Point, N. Y... ...... June 18, 1776 Thomas Johnson, John Dickinson,

Unsuccessful attack on Fort Moultrie and John Jay, appointed by Congress

by British fleet under Sir Peter a committee for secret correspondence


.......... June 28, 1776 with friends of America in Great Declaration of Independence adopted by Britain, Ireland, and other foreign

Congress ...

:............. July 4, 1776 nations.....

........ Nov. 29, 1775 Declaration of Independence read to the Battle of Great Bridge, Va... Dec. 9, 1775 army in New York by order of GenCongress appoints Silas Deane, John

eral Washington.............July 9, 1776 Langdon, and Christopher Gadsden, British General Lord Howe lands 10,a committee to fit out two vessels

000 men and forty guns near Gravesof war, Nov. 25, orders thirteen ves.

end, L. I........ ......... Aug. 22, 1776 sels of war built and appoints Esek

Battle of Long Island ........ Aug. 27. 1776 Hopkins commander......... Dec. 13, 1775 Washington withdraws his forces from British vessels driven from Charleston

Long Island to the city of New York. Harbor, S. C., by artillery company

Aug. 29-30, 1776 under Colonel Moultrie, stationed on

Congress resolves“ that all Continental Haddrell's Point.............. Dec., 1775 commissions in which heretofore the American forces united under Mont

words United Colonies' have been gomery and Arnold repulsed at Que

used, bear hereafter the words 'Unit. bec; General Montgomery killed....

ed States'".

................ Sept. 9. 1776

Dec. 31, 1775 Americans evacuate New York City.. Washington unfurls the first Union flag

Sept. 14, 1776 of thirteen stripes at Cambridge, British repulsed at Harlem Heights... ......................Jan. 1, 1776

Sept. 16, 1776 Norfolk, Va., partly burned by Gov. Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane, and

ernor Dunmore..............Jan. 1, 1776 Arthur Lee appointed ambassadors to Battle of Moore's Creek, N. C.; Mc

the Court of France........ Sept. 22, 1776 Donald's loyalists routed by militia ; Nathan Hale executed as a spy at New seventy killed and wounded.. Feb. 27, 1776

York ..

........ Sept. 22, 1776 Silas Deane appointed political agent to Battle on Lake Champlain ; British victhe French Court..........March 2, 1776 tory ....

........Oct. 11-13, 1776 IIowe evacuates Boston... ... March 17, 1776 Thaddeus Kosciuszko, a Pole, arrives ; Congress authorizes privateering......

recommended to Washington by Dr.

March 23, 1776 Franklin; appointed colonel of enCongress orders the ports open to all

gineers by Congress........Oct. 18, 1776 nations ...... .......... April 6, 1776 Battle of White Plains, N. Y.; British North Carolina declares for indepen.

y ..::...............Oct. 28, 1776 dence ...

........ April 22, 1776 Franklin sails for France in the ReAmerican forces under Gen. John

prisal, of sixteen guns, one of the new Thomas retire from the siege of Que

Continental frigates, the first nabec ..........

.............. May 6, 1776 tional vessel to appear in the EastRhode Island, May 4; Massachusetts,

ern Hemisphere................ Oct., 1776 May 10; and Virginia, May 14, de Congress authorizes the raising of clare for independence.

.... 1776 $5,000,000 by lottery for expenses of Congress advises each colony to form

the next campaign .......... Nov. 1, 1776 a government independent of Great Fort Washington on the Hudson captBritain ....... ..........May 15, 1776 ured by the British......... Nov. 16, 1776

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