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ciety in Philadelphia, whose names were sharply did Keith criticise the shortcom. given. It was done, Aug. 28, 1777, and ings of his co-religionists that he was disJohn Fisher, Abel James, James Pember- owned by the Yearly Meeting, when he ton, Henry Drinker, Israel Pemberton, forth with instituted a meeting of his own, John Pemberton, John James, Samuel to which he gave the name of " Christian Pleasants, Thomas Wharton, Sr., Thomas Quakers.” A Testimony of Denial was Fisher, and Samuel Fisher, leading mem- put forth against Keith, who replied in a bers, were banished to Fredericksburg, Va. published address, in which he handled The reason given by Congress for this act his adversaries without mercy. The Quakwas that when the enemy were pressing er magistrates fined him for “insolence," on towards Philadelphia in December, and William Bradford, the only printer 1777, a certain seditious publication, ad. in the colony, was called to account for dressed “To our Friends and Brethren in having published Keith's address. He was Religious Profession in these and the ad- discharged, but was so annoyed that he jacent Provinces," signed John Pember- removed his printing business to New ton, in and on behalf of the “ Meeting of York. Sufferings,” held in Philadelphia, Dec. 26, Quarantine Law, FIRST. A profitable 1776, had been widely circulated among trade had been opened between MassaFriends throughout the States. At the chusetts and Barbadoes and other West same time the Congress instructed the India islands, when, in the summer of board of war to send to Fredericksburg 1647, there was a wasting epidemic in those John Penn, the governor, and Benjamin islands, carrying off 6,000 people in BarChew, chief-justice of Pennsylvania, for badoes, and nearly as many in the other safe custody. While the British army was islands, proportionably to their population. in Philadelphia in 1778, Joseph Galloway, The General Court of Massachusetts, on an active Tory, and others employed John hearing of the disease, published an order Roberts and Abraham Carlisle, members that all vessels which should come from of the Society of Friends, as secret agents the West Indies should stay at the Castle in detecting foes to the British govern- at the entrance to the harbor, and not ment. Carlisle was a sort of inquisitor- land any passengers or goods without ligeneral, watching at the entrances to the cense from three of the council, under a city, pointing out and causing the arrest penalty of $500. A like penalty was imof Whigs, who were first cast into prison posed upon any person visiting such quarand then granted permission to pass the antined vessel without permission. A simlines. Both Roberts and Carlisle acted as ilar order was sent to Salem and other guides to British expeditions when they ports. The nature of the epidemic is not went out of Philadelphia to fall upon and known, but yellow fever has been alleged. massacre their countrymen. These facts Quartering Act. A clause inserted in being laid before Congress, that body the British mutiny act in 1765 authorcaused the arrest of Roberts and Car- ized the quartering of troops upon the lisle. They were tried, found guilty, and English-American colonies. By a special

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enactment known as the “ quartering Quakers, CHRISTIAN. In 1692 there act," the colonies in which they were was a schism among the Friends, or stationed were required to find quarters, Quakers, in Pennsylvania, caused by the firewood, bedding, drink, soap, and canaction of George Keith, a Scotch Friend, dles. formerly surveyor of east Jersey, and at Quay, MATTHEW STANLEY, legislator; this time master of the Friends' school born in Dillsbury, Pa., Sept. 30, 1833; at Philadelphia. He was a champion of graduated at Jefferson College in 1850; the Quakers against Cotton Mather and admitted to the bar in 1854; became lieuthe Boston ministers. He pressed the tenant in the 10th Pennsylvania Reserves doctrine of non-resistance to its logical in 1861; promoted colonel of the 134th conclusion, that this principle was not Pennsylvania Volunteers in August, 1862; consistent with the exercise of political member of the Pennsylvania legislature in authority. He also attacked negro slavery 1864-66; secretary of the commonwealth as inconsistent with those principles. So in 1872–78; and was elected United States

hanged.

Senator in 1887, 1893, and 1901. In 1889 April 21, 1889, Governor Stone issued to he was indicted for alleged misappropria- Mr. Quay a recess appointment certificate, tion of public funds, but was acquitted, but this was not accepted by the Senate, after a sensational hearing, April 21. The which, on April 24, 1900, declared the cresame year he was a candidate for re-elec- dentials offered invalid. On Jan. 15, 1901, tion to the United States Senate; the the legislature elected him for the remainlegislature got into a deadlock, and ad- der of the term ending March 4, 1905. He journed without making a choice. On died in Beaver, Pa., May 28, 1904.

QUEBEC

Quebec. The New England colonies and 7,000 men. When the ships arrived at New York formed a bold design, in 1690, the mouth of the St. Lawrence, after loiter. to subject Canada to the crown of Eng. ing by the way, they were overtaken by a land. An armament was fitted out for storm and thick fog. They were in a operations by sea and land. The naval perilous place among rocks and shoals. arm of the service was placed under the Walker's New England pilots, familiar command of Sir William Phipps, who, with the coast, told him so; but he without charts or pilots, crawled cautious. haughtily rejected their information, and ly along the shores around Acadia and up relied wholly on French pilots, who were the St. Lawrence, consuming nine weeks interested in deceiving him. On the night on the passage. A swift Indian runner of Sept. 2 his fleet was driving on the had carried news of the expedition from shore. Just as the admiral was going Pemaquid to Frontenac, at Montreal, in to bed, the captain of his flag-ship came time to allow him to hasten to Quebec down to him and said, “ Land is in sight; and strengthen the fortifications there. we are in great danger.” He did not bePhipps did not arrive until Oct. 5. Im- lieve it. Presently a provincial captain mediate operations were necessary on ac- rushed down and exclaimed, “For the count of the lateness of the season. He Lord's sake, come on deck, or we shall sent a flag demanding the instant surren- be lost!” Leisurely putting on his gown der of the city and fortifications. His and slippers, the admiral ascended to the summons was treated with disdain. After deck and saw the imminent peril. His being prevented from landing near the city orders given to secure safety were too by a gale, he debarked a large body of his late. The vessels were driven on the troops at the Isle of Orleans, about 3 miles rocks, and eight of them were lost. In below the town, where they were attack- the disaster almost 1,000 men perished. ed by the French and Indians. There the At a council of war held a few days afterEnglish remained until the 11th, when wards, it was determined to abandon the a deserter gave them such an account of expedition, and Nicholson, with his ships, the strength of Quebec that Phipps aban- returned to England, while the troops doned the enterprise, hastily re-embarked were sent to Boston. The arrogant Walkhis troops, and crawled back to Bos. er actually claimed credit for himself in ton with his whole fleet, after it had been retreating, falsely charging the disaster dispersed by a tempest.

to the New England pilots, and saying: After the reduction of Port Royal, in “ Had we arrived safe at Quebec, ten or 1711, Colonel Nicholson went again to twelve thousand men must have been left England to solicit an expedition against to perish with cold and hunger; by the Canada. The ministry acceded to his loss of a part, Providence saved all the proposal, and a sufficient armament was rest.” His government did not reward ordered for the grand enterprise. Nichol. him for helping Providence. Governor son hastened back, gave notice to the col- Vaudreuil, at Montreal, advised of the onies, and prepared for the invasion of movement, had sent out Jesuit missionCanada by sea and land. Admiral Walk- aries and other agents to gather Indian er commanded the fleet of sixty-eight ves- allies, and, hastening to Quebec, strengthsels of war and transports, bearing about ened the fortifications there. So enthusi.

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astic were the people in preparing for de- 8,000 troops, in transports, under a convoy fence that women worked on the forts. of twenty-two line-of-battle ships and as

Another expedition for the capture of many frigates and smaller armed vessels, Quebec was fitted out in the spring of commanded by Admirals Holmes and 1759, and placed under the command of Saunders. On June 27 he landed his Gen. James Wolfe, then only thirty-three troops on the Isle of Orleans. Quebec ocyears of age. He left Louisburg with cupied a strong position for defence

against attack. It consisted of an upper Canadians and Indians. This camp was and a lower town on a point of land at the strongly intrenched, and, overhanging the confluence of the St. Lawrence and its St. Lawrence, and extending a great distributary the St. Charles. The lower tance above Quebec, the Heights, almost town was built on a narrow beach at the perpendicular on the river-front, seemed to water's edge of both rivers; the upper present an almost impregnable barrier town occupied a high rocky cape, rising at of defence. Wolfe found a great advanone point 300 feet above the river, and ex- tage in his naval superiority, which gave tending back some distance in a lofty him full command of the river. On the

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plateau, called the Plains of Abraham. south side of the St. Lawrence, opposite The upper town was surrounded by a forti- Quebec, was Point Levi, occupied by some fied wall. At the mouth of the St. French troops. This post Wolfe seized Charles the French had moored several (July 30) without much opposition, on floating batteries, and, apprised of the ex- which he erected batteries. From there pedition, had taken vigorous measures to he hurled hot shot upon the city, which destrengthen the port. Beyond the St. stroyed the cathedral and did much damCharles, and between it and the Mont- age to the lower town, but which had very morency, a river which enters the St. Law- little effect upon the strong fortifications rence a few miles below Quebec, lay Mont- of the upper town. Wolfe then detercalm's army, almost equal in numbers to mined to land below the mouth of the that of Wolfe, but composed largely of Montmorency and bring Montcalm into

action. For this purpose he caused a large force to be landed, under Generals Townshend and Murray (July 10), who were to force the passage of the Montmorency. But the French were so strongly posted that such action was deferred. Finally General Monckton, with grenadiers, crossed the river from Point Levi and landed upon the beach at the foot of the high bank, just abovo the Montmorency. Murray and Townshend were ordered to cross that stream above the great falls and cooperate with Monckton, but the latter was too eager for attack to await their coming. He unwisely rushed forward, but was soon repulsed and compelled to take

shelter behind a block-house near the NEAR THE PLACE WHERE WOLFE LANDED. beach, just as a thunder-storm, which had

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foot of a narrow ravine, a short distance above the town, that led up to the Plains of Abraham. At midnight the troops left the ships, and in flat-bottomed boats, with

muffled oars, went down to the designated S AUEBEC

WRENCE A landing-place, where they disembarked.

At dawn (Sept. 13) Lieutenant-Colonel
Howe (afterwards Gen. Sir William
Howe) led the van up the tangled ravine
in the face of a sharp fire from the guard

above. After a brief struggle they reachMAP OF BATTLE OF QUEBEC.

ed the plain, drove off a small force there,

and covered the ascent of the main body. been gathering for some time, burst in In early morning the whole British force fury upon the combatants. Before it was upon the Plains of Abraham, ready ceased night came on, and the roar of to attack the city at its weakest points. the rising tide warned the English to take to their boats. In the battle and the flood 500 of the English perished. Various devices were conceived for destroying the French shipping, to draw out the garrison, and to produce alarm. A magazine and many houses were fired and burned, but it was impossible to cut out the French shipping.

Two months passed away; very little progress had been made towards conquest; and no other intelligence had been received from Amherst than a report by the enemy that he had retreated. The season for action was rapidly passing. The prospect was discouraging; yet Wolfe, though prostrated by sickness, was full of hope. He called a council of officers at his bedside, and, on the suggestion of General Townshend, it was resolved to scale the Heights of Abraham from the St. Lawrence and assault the town. A plan was instantly matured, and, feeble as Wolfe was from the effects of fever, he resolved to lead the assault in person. The camp below the Montmorency was broken up (Sept. 8), and the attention of Montcalm was diverted from the real designs of the English by seeming preparations to attack his lines. Even De Bougainville, whom Montcalm had sent up the river with 1,500 men to guard against an attack above the town, had no suspicions of their intentions, so secretly and skilfully had the affair been managed. The troops had been

MONTMORENCY FALLS. withdrawn from the Isle of Orleans and placed on shipboard, and on the evening of Sept. 12 the vessels moved up the It was an apparition unexpected to the stream several miles above the intended vigilant Montcalm. He instantly put his landing-place, which was at a cove at the troops in motion to meet the impending

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