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Harbor. On the afternoon of Nov. 9 he of a cannon. He would not leave the fell in with Earl's flag-ship, the Royal deck, and was knocked overboard and George. He chased her into the Bay of drowned. Quinté, where he lost sight of her in After the capture of Fort George Chaunthe darkness of night. On the following cey crossed the lake, looked into York, morning (Nov. 10) he captured and burn- and then ran for Kingston without meeted a small armed schooner, and soon after. ing a foe. He retired to Sackett's Harbor, wards espied the Royal George making where he urged forward the completion her way towards Kingston. Chauncey of a new corvette, the General Pike, 26 gave chase with most of his squadron guns. She was launched June 12, 1813, (which had been joined by the Julia), and placed in command of Capt. Arthur and followed her into Kingston Harbor, Sinclair. It was late in the summer bewhere he fought her and five land-batter- fore she was ready for a cruise. Meanies for almost an hour. These batteries while, the keel of a fast-sailing schooner were more formidable than he supposed. was laid by Eckford at Sackett's Harbor, A brisk breeze having arisen, and the and named the Sylph, and a small vessel night coming on, Chauncey withdrew and was kept constantly cruising, as a scout, anchored. The next morning the breeze off Kingston, to observe the movements had become almost a gale, and Chauncey of the British squadron there. This little weighed anchor and stood out lakeward. vessel (Lady of the Lake) captured the The Tompkins (Lieutenant Brown), the British schooner Lady Murray (June 16). Hamilton (Lieutenant McPherson), and laden with provisions, shot, and fixed Julia (Sailing-master Trant) chased the ammunition, and took her into the harSimcoe over a reef of rocks (Nov. 11), bor. Sir James L. Yeo was in command and riddled her so that she sank before of the British squadron on the lake. He she reached Kingston. Soon afterwards made a cruise westward, and on July 7 the Hamilton captured a large schooner appeared with his squadron off Niagara. from Niagara. This prize was sent past Chauncey and Scott had just returned Kingston with the Grouler (Sailing-mas. from the expedition to York. Chauncey ter Mix), with a hope of drawing out immediately went out and tried to get the Royal George; but Chauncey had so the weather-gage of Sir James. He had bruised her that she was compelled to thirteen vessels, but only three of them haul on shore to keep from sinking. A had been originally built for war purnumber of her crew had been killed. poses. His squadron consisted of the The wind had increased to a gale on the Pike, Madison, Oneida, Hamilton, Scourge, nights of the 11th and 12th, and during Ontario, Fair American, Gorernor Tompthe night of the 12th there was a snow- kins, ('onquest, Grouler, Julia, Asp, and storm. Undismayed by the fury of the Pert. The British squadron now consistelements, Chauncey continued his cruise, ed of two ships, two brigs, and two large for his heart was set on gaining the su- schooners. These had all been constructed premacy of the Lakes. Learning that for war, and were very efficient in armathe Earl of Moira was off the Real Ducks ment and shields. The belligerents maIslands, he attempted to capture her. She ræuvred all day, and when at sunset a was on the alert and escaped, but a dead calm fell they took to sweeps. When schooner that she was convoying was darkness came, the American squadron made captive. On the same day Chauncey was collected by signal. The wind finally saw the Royal George and two other armed freshened, and at midnight was blowing vessels, but they kept out of his way. a fitful gale. Suddenly a rushing sound In this short cruise he captured three was heard astern of most of the fleet, and merchant vessels, destroyed one armed it was soon ascertained that the Hamilschooner, disabled the British flag-ship, ton and Scourge had disappeared. They and took several prisoners, with a loss, had been capsized by a terrible squall, on his part of one man killed and four and all of the officers and men, excepting wounded. Among the latter was Sailing- sixteen of the latter, had perished. These master Arundel, commander of the Pert, two vessels carried nineteen guns between who was badly injured by the bursting them. All the next day the squadrons

maneuvred for advantage, and towards floated away it was found that the Wolfe evening Chauncey ran into the Niagara (Sir James's flag-ship) was too much in. River. All that night the lake was swept jured to continue the conflict any longer. by squalls. On the morning of the 9th She pushed away dead before the wind, Chauncey went out to attack Sir James, gallantly protected by the Royal George. and the day was spent in fruitless manæu. A general chase towards Burlington Bay vres. At six o'clock on the 10th, having immediately ensued. Chauncey could the weather-gage, Chauncey formed his doubtless have captured the whole British fleet in battle order, and a conflict seemed fleet, but a gale was threatening, and imminent; but his antagonist being un- there being no good harbors on the coast, willing to fight, the day was spent as if he should be driven ashore certain others had been. Towards midnight there capture by land troops would be the conwas a contest, when the Growler and sequence. So he called off his ships and Julia, separating from the rest of the returned to the Niagara, where he lay fleet, were captured. Returning to Sack- two days while a gale was skurrying ett's Harbor, Chauncey prepared for an- over the lake. The weather remaining other cruise with eight vessels. Making thick after the gales, Sir James left Burbut a short cruise, on account of sickness lington Bay for Kingston. Chauncey was prevailing in the fleet, he remained in the returning to Sackett's Harbor, whither harbor until Aug. 28, when he went out all his transports bearing troops had gone, in search of his antagonist. He first saw and at sunset, Oct. 5, when near the him on Sept. 7, and for a week tried to Ducks, the Pike captured three British get him into action, but Sir James strict- transports—the Confiance, Hamilton (the ly obeyed his instructions to "risk noth. Growler and Julia with new names), and ing." On the 11th Chauncey bore down Mary. The Sylph captured the cutter upon Sir James off the mouth of the Drummond and the armed transport Lady Genesee River, and they had a running Gore. The number of prisoners captured fight for three hours. The Pike was on these five vessels was 264. Among the somewhat injured, but the British vessels prisoners were ten army officers. Sir James suffered most. The latter fled to King. remained inactive in Kingston Harbor ston, and Chauncey went into Sackett's Harbor. On the 18th he sailed for the Niagara for troops, and was chased by Yeo. After a few days Chauncey crossed over to York with the Pike, Madison, and Sylph, where the British fleet lay, when the latter fled, followed by the American vessels in battle order. The baronet was now compelled to fight or stop boasting of unsatisfied desires to measure strength with the Americans. An action commenced at a little past noon, and the Pike sustained the desperate assaults of the heaviest British vessels for twenty min- during the remainder of the season, and utes, at the same time delivering destruc- Chauncey was busied in watching his tive broadsides upon her foes. She was movements and assisting the army in its assisted by the Tompkins, Lieutenant descent of the St. Lawrence. He did not, Finch; and when the smoke of battle however, sufficiently blockade Kingston Harbor to prevent marine scouts from slip- returned to Sackett's Harbor. The St. Lau. ping out and hovering near Wilkinson's rence sailed in October with more than tlotilla on the St. Lawrence.



1,000 men, accompanied by other vessels A British squadron on the lake hovered of war; and with this big ship Sir James along its southern shores in the summer was really lord of the lake. The Amerof 1813 and seriously interfered with sup- icans determined to match the st. Laveplies on their way to the American camp ronce, and at Sackett's Harbor the keels on the Niagara. They captured (June 12, of two first-class frigates were laid. One 1813) two vessels laden with hospital of them was partly finished when peace stores at Eighteen-mile Creek, eastward was proclaimed, early in 1815. Chaunof the Niagara River. They made a de- cey expected that Yeo would attack scent upon the village of Charlotte, situ- his squadron in the harbor, but he did ated at the mouth of the Genesee River, not; and when the lake was closed by on the 15th, and carried off a large quan- ice the war had ended on the northern tity of stores. On the 18th they appeared frontier. off Sodus Bay, and the next evening an Opechancanough, brother of Powhatarmed party, 100 strong, landed at Sodus an, was " King of Pamunkey ” when the Point for the purpose of destroying Amer English first landed in Virginia. He was ican stores known to have been deposited born about 1552, and died in 1644. He there. These had been removed to a place first became known to the English as the of concealment a little back of the village. captor of John Smith in the forest. OpeThe invaders threatened to destroy the chancanough would have killed him immevillage if the hiding-place of the stores diately, but for Smith's presence of mind. was not revealed. The women and chil. He drew from his pocket a compass, and dren fled from their homes in alarm. A explained to the savage as well as he could negro, compelled by threats, gave the de- its wonderful nature; told him of the form sired information; and they were march- of the earth and the stars-how the sun ing in the direction of the stores when chased the night around the earth conthey were confronted at a bridge over a tinually. Opechancanough regarded him as ravine by forty men under Captain Turner. a superior being, and women and children A sharp skirmish ensued. The British stared at him as he passed from village were foiled, and as they returned to their to village to the Indian's capital, until vessels they burned the public storehouses, he was placed in the custody of Pow. five dwellings, and a hotel. The property hatan. Opechancanough attended the mardestroyed at Sodus was valued at $25,000. riage of his niece, Pocahontas, at James. The marauders then sailed eastward, and town. After the death of his brother looked into Oswego llarbor, but Sir James (1619) he was lord of the empire, and Yeo, their cautious commander, did not immediately formed plans for driving the venture to go in.

English out of his country. Chauncey was unable to accomplish Gov. Sir Francis Wyatt brought the much with his squadron during 1814. constitution with him, and there was eviEarly in the season he was taken sick, dence of great prosperity and peace everyand in July his squadron was blockaded where. But just at that time a fearful at Sackett's Harbor, and it was the last cloud of trouble was brooding. Opechanof that month before it was ready for sea. canough could command about 1,500 warOn the 31st Chauncey was carried, in a riors. He hated the English bitterly, convalescent state, on board the Superior and inspired his people with the same (his flag-ship), and the squadron sailed feeling, yet he feigned friendship for them oil a cruise. It blockaded the harbor of until a plot for their destruction was perKingston, and Chauncey vainly tried to fected. draw out Sir James Yeo for combat. At Believing the English intended to seize the close of September Chauncey was in- bis domains, his patriotism impelled him formed that the St. Lawrence, pierced for to strike a blow. In an affray with a set112 guns, which had been built at Kings- tler, an Indian leader was shot, and the ton, was ready for sea, when the commo- wily emperor made it the occasion for indore prudently raised the blockade and flaming the resentment of his people against the English. He visited the gov- at its close there were, probably, not 1,000 ernor in war costume, bearing in his belt within the territory of 8,000 square miles. a glittering hatchet, and demanded some T'he colony, too, was sadly injured in concessions for his incensed people. It number and strength. A deadly hostility was refused, and, forgetting himself for between the races continued for more than a moment, he snatched the hatchet from twenty years. Opechancanough lived, and his belt and struck its keen blade into a had been nursing his wrath all that time, loy of the cabin, uttering a curse upon prudence alone restraining him from war. the English. Instantly recovering himself, His malice remained keen, and his thirst he smiled, and said: “ Pardon me, govern- for vengeance was terrible. or; I was thinking of that wicked Eng- When, in 1643, Thomas Rolfe, son of lishman (see ARGALL, SAMUEL) who stole his niece Pocahontas, came from England, my niece and struck me with his sword. and with Cleopatra, his mother's sister, I love the English who are the friends visited the aged emperor, and told him of of Powhatan. Sooner will the skies fall the civil war between the English factions, than that my bond of friendship with the the old emperor concluded it was a favorEnglish shall be dissolved.” Sir Francis able time for him to strike another blow warned the people that treachery was for his country. He was then past ninety abroad. They did not believe it. They so years of age, and feeble in body. He sent trusted the Indians that they had taught runners through his empire. A confedthem to hunt with fire-arms.

eration of the tribes ior the extermination A tempest suddenly burst upon them. of the English was formed, and the day On April 1 (March 22, 0. S.), 1622, the fixed to begin the work in the interior and Indians rushed from the forests upon all carry it on to the sea. Early in April, the remote settlements, at a preconcerted 1644, they began the horrid work. The old time, and in the space of an hour 350 men, emperor was carried on a litter borne by women, and children were slain. At Hen- his warriors. In the space of two days rico, the devoted Thorpe, who had been they slew more than 300 of the settlers, like a father to the children and the sick sparing none who fell in their way. The of the savages, was slain. Six members of region between the Pamunkey and York the council and several of the wealthier rivers was almost depopulated. Governor inhabitants were made victims of the Berkeley met the savages with a comtreachery.

petent armed force, and drove them back On the very morning of the massacre with great slaughter. Opechancanough the Indians ate at the tables of those was made a prisoner, and carried in whom they intended to murder at noon. triumph to Jamestown. He was so much The people of Jamestown were saved by exhausted that he could not raise his eyeChanco, a Christian Indian, who gave lids, and in that condition he was fatally them timely warning, and enabled them to wounded by a bullet from the gun of an prepare for the attack. Those on remote English soldier who guarded him, and who plantations who survived beat back the had suffered great bereavements at the savages and fled to Jamestown. In the hands of the savages. The people, curious, course of a few days eighty of the in- gathered around the dying emperor. habited plantations were reduced to eight. Hearing the hum of a multitude, he asked A large part of the colony were saved, and an attendant to raise his eyelids. When these waged an exterminating war. They he saw the crowd he haughtily demanded struck such fearful retaliating blows that a visit from the governor. Berkeley came, the Indians were beaten back into the when the old man said, with indignation, forest, and death and desolation were “ Had it been my fortune to have taken spread over the peninsula between the Sir William Berkeley prisoner, I would York and James rivers. The emperor fled not meanly have exposed him as a show to the land of the Pamunkeys, and by a to my people.” He then stretched himshow of cowardice lost much of his influ- self upon the earth and died. ence. The power of the confederacy was Open Door. See CHINA AND THE broken. Before the war there were 6,000 Powers. Indians within 60 miles of Jamestown; Opequan, BATTLE OF. See WINCHESTER. Orange, FORT, a defensive work at employed in coast-survey duty, when he Albany, N. Y. In 1614 Captain Chris- was sent to California. He took part in tiansen, who, in the interest of trade, expeditions against the Indians, and, in went up the Hudson River to the head of September, 1861, was made brigadier-gennavigation, built a fortified trading-house eral of volunteers, commanding a brigade on an island just below the site of Albany, of the Pennsylvania Reserves near the which he called Castle Island. The spring Potomac. In May, 1862, he was made floods made the place untenable, and in major-general of volunteers, and ordered 1617 a new fort was built at the mouth to the Army of the Mississippi, where he of the Tawasentha (“ place of many did good service while in command at dead”), or Norman's Kill, on the west Corinth. He commanded the 13th Army side of the river. There a treaty of Corps at the siege and capture of Jackson friendship and alliance was made with the and Vicksburg. In the campaign against Five Nations, the first ever made between Richmond, in 1864, he commanded the the Indians and Hollanders. The situa- 18th Corps from July to September, when tion of the new fort proving to be in- he was severely wounded in the assault on convenient, a more permanent fortification Fort Harrison. He commanded the Dewas built a few miles farther north, and partment of Virginia from January to called 'Fort Orange, in compliment to the June, 1865, and was a participant in the Stadtholder, or chief magistrate, of Hol- capture of Lee's army in April. General land. Some of the Walloons settled there, Ord was brevetted major-general in the and held the most friendly relations with United States army, and commissioned the Indians. Near the fort Kilian Van a brigadier-general, July 26, 1866; and Rensselaer, a wealthy pearl merchant of was retired Dec. 6, 1880. He died in Amsterdam, purchased from the Indians a Havana, Cuba, July 22, 1883. large tract of land in 1630, sent over a col- Orders in Council. On Nov. 6, 1793, ony to settle upon it, and formed the “ Col- a British Order in Council was issued, but onie of Rensselaerswyck.” A settlement was not made public until the end of the soon grew around Fort Orange, and so the year, directing British cruisers to stop, foundations of ALBANY (q. v.) were laid. detain, and bring in for legal adjudication

Ord, EDWARD OTHO CRESAP, military all ships laden with goods the production officer; born in Cumberland, Md., Oct. of any French colony, or carrying pro

visions or other supplies for the use of such colony. The order, which was calculated to destroy all neutral trade with the French colonies, even that which had been allowed in times of peace, was issued simultaneously with the despatch of a great expedition for the conquest of the French West Indies. Martinique, Guadaloupe, and St. Lucia all fell into the hands of the English. The news of the British order produced great excitement at Philadelphia, where Congress was in session, and public feeling against Great Britain ran high. It was manifested in and out of Congress by debates and discussions, and while these were in progress the feeling against the British was intensified by the publication in New York papers of

what purported to be a speech of Lord EDWARD OTHO CRESAP ORD.

Dorchester to a certain Indian deputation

from a late general council at the Maumee 18, 1818; graduated at West Point in Rapids, in which he suggested the prob1839, entering the 3d Artillery. He was ability of a speedy rupture between the in the Seminole War, and in 1845–46 was United States and Great Britain.

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