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shipman, Feb. 2, 1829. He was attached command of a division. In May, 1862, he to the coast survey from 1836 to 1840. took command of the 5th Army Corps; Then he cruised in Brazilian waters, and directed the siege of Yorktown, Va., and served in the Naval Observatory at Wash- was one of McClellan's most efficient comington for a while. He engaged in the war manders during the Peninsular campaign against Mexico on land and on water, and ending with the battle of MALVERN HILL in 1861 joined the Gulf Squadron, in com- (q. v.). For services in that campaign mand of the Powhatan. He was in the he was promoted to major-general of expedition up the Mississippi against New volunteers. Temporarily attached to the Orleans in 1862, in command of twenty- Army of Virginia (Pope's), and formal one mortar-boats and several steamers. charges having been made against him, he Porter did important service on the Mis- was deprived of his command. At the resissippi and Red rivers in 1863-64, and quest of General McClellan, he was rewas conspicuous in the siege of Vicksburg. stored, and accompanied that general in For the latter service he was promoted the campaign in Maryland. In November rear-admiral, July 4, 1863. In 1864 he was he was ordered to Washington for trial in command of the North Atlantic block- by court-martial, on charges preferred by ading squadron, and rendered efficient General Pope, and on Jan. 21, 1863, he service in the capture of Fort Fisher in was cashiered for violation of the 9th and January, 1865. He was made vice-ad- 52d Articles of War. In 1870 he appealed miral in July, 1866; admiral, Oct. 17, to the President for a reversal of this 1870; and was superintendent of the sentence, and in 1878 a commission of Naval Academy from 1866 to 1870. He inquiry was instituted to determine died in Washington, D. C., Feb. 13, 1891. whether there was new evidence in his

Porter, Fitz-John, military officer; favor sufficient to warrant ordering a new born in Portsmouth, N. H., June 13, trial. He was finally in 1886 restored to 1822; a cousin of David Dixon Porter; his rank of colonel and retired. After graduated at West Point in 1845, enter- leaving the army he was superintendent of ing the artillery corps. He was adjutant the building of the New Jersey Asylum of that post in 1853–54, and assistant in- for the Insane; commissioner of public structor of cavalry and artillery in 1854- works and police commissioner in New 55. In 1856 he was made assistant ad- York City; and was offered, but declined, jutant-general. In May, 1861, he was the command of the Egyptian army. He made brigadier-general of volunteers and died in Morristown, N. J., May 21, 1901. chief of staff to Generals Patterson and See GRANT, ULYSSES SIMPSON; LOGAN, Banks until August, when he was as- JOHN ALEXANDER; POPE, JOHN. signed to the Army of the Potomac, in Porter, HORACE, diplomatist, born in

Huntington, Pa., April 15, 1837; gradu. ated at the United States Military Acad. emy in 1860; served with distinction through the Civil War; brevetted brigadier-general in 1865; was private secretary to President Grant in 1869–77; and became ambassador to France in 1897. He is the author of Campaigning with Grant.

Porter, JAMES MADISON, jurist; born in Selma, Pa., Jan. 6, 1793; served in the army during the War of 1812; afterwards studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1813. He was appointed Secretary of War by President Tyler, but the nomination was rejected by the Senate. He died in Easton, Pa., Nov. 11, 1862.

Porter, Moses, military officer; born in Danvers, Mass., in 1755; was in the bat.

tle of Bunker (Breed's) Hill, and many of



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the prominent battles of the Revolution, for his skill and bravery, and received the and was one of the few old officers select- thanks of Congress and a gold medal. ed for the first peace establishment. In President Madison offered him the position 1791 he was promoted to captain, and served under Wayne in 1794. In March, 1812, he was colonel of light artillery, and was distinguished at the capture of Fort George, in May, 1813. He accompanied Wilkinson's army on the St. Lawrence, and in the autumn of 1814 was brevetted brigadier - general, and ordered to the defence of Norfolk, Va. He died in Cambridge, April 14, 1822.

Porter, Noah, educator; born in Farmington, Conn., Dec. 14, 1811; graduated at Yale College in 1831; Professor of Mathematics and Moral Philosophy in Yale College in 1846–71; and president of the same in 1871–86. His publications include Historical Discourse at Farmington, Nov. 4, 1840; The Educational System of the Puritans and Jesuits Compared ; American Colleges and the American Public, etc. He died in New Haven, Conn., March 4, 1892.

PETER BUEL PORTER. Porter, PETER BUEL, military officer; born in Salisbury, Conn., Aug. 4, 1773; of commander-in-chief of the army in 1815, studied law, and began practice at Canan- which he declined. He was secretary of daigua, N. Y., in 1795; was a member of state of New York (1815-16), and was Congress from 1809 to 1813, and again in Secretary of War, under President John 1815–16. He settled at Black Rock, near Quincy Adams, in 1828. General Porter

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Buffalo, where he and his brothers made was one of the early projectors of the large purchases of land along the Niagara Erie Canal, and one of the first board of River. A leader of volunteers on the commissioners. He died at Niagara Falls, Niagara frontier, he became distinguished March 20, 1844.

Porter, ROBERT P., journalist; born in brigade of General Logan's division of the Markham Hall, England, June 30, 1852; advance of McPherson's corps, and others received a common school education, and were sent to help McClernand. Late in the came to the United States early in life. afternoon the Confederates were repulsed He became connected with the Chicago and pursued to Port Gibson. Night ended Inter-Ocean in 1872; was a member of the the conflict, and under its cover the Contariff commission in 1882; later estab- federates fled across a bayou, burning the lished the New York Press; was superin- bridges behind them, and retreated towtendent of the eleventh census, in 1889-93; ards Vicksburg. The Nationals lost in and special United States commissioner this battle 840 men, of whom 130 were to Cuba and Porto Rico in 1898-99. He killed. They captured guns and flags and is the author of The West in 1880; Life 580 prisoners. of William McKinley; Municipal Owner. Port Hudson, CAPTURE OF. Port Hudship at Home and Abroad; and Industrial son, or Hickey's Landing, was on a high Cuba.

bluff on the left bank of the Mississippi, in Porter, WILLIAM DAVID, naval officer; Louisiana, at a very sharp bend in the born in New Orleans, La., March 10, 1809; stream. At the foot of the bluff was a son of David Porter; entered the navy Hickey's Landing. The Confederates had in 1823. In the sloop-of-war St. Mary, erected a series of batteries, extending on the Pacific Station, when, the Civil along the river from Port Hudson to War broke out, he was wrongly suspected Thompson's Creek above, a distance of of disloyalty. He was ordered to duty on about 3 miles. They were arined with very the Mississippi River, in fitting out a heavy guns. They were field batteries gunboat fleet, and was put in command that might be moved to any part of the of the Esscx, which took part in the at- line. Immediately after Banks took comtacks on Forts Henry and Donelson, when mand of the Department of the Gulf (Dec. he was severely scalded. He fought his 18, 1862), he determined to attempt to reway past all the batteries between Cairo move this obstruction to the navigation of and New Orleans, taking part in the at- the Mississippi. He sent General Grover tack on Vicksburg. He caused the de- with 10,000 men to occupy Baton Rouge, struction of the Confederate ram Ar- but the advance on Port Hudson was dekansas, near Baton Rouge, and assisted layed, because it would require a larger in the attack on Port Hudson. For these force than Banks could then spare. So services he was made commodore in July, he operated for a while among the rich 1862. His feeble health prevented his sugar and cotton regions of Louisiana, doing much afterwards. He died in New west of the river. York City, May 1, 1864.

In March, 1863, he concentrated his Port Gibson, BATTLE AT. Grant cross- forces-nearly 25,000 strong—at Baton ed the Mississippi at Bruinsburg on the Rouge. At the same time Commodore Fargunboats and transports which had run ragut had gathered a small fleet at a point by Grand Gulf in 1863. His troops con- below Port Hudson, with a determination sisted chiefly of General McClernand's to run by the batteries there and recover 13th Army Corps. These troops pushed the control of the river between that place forward and were met (May 1), 8 miles and Vicksburg. To make this movement, from Bruinsburg, by a Confederate force, Banks sent towards Port Hudson (March which was pushed back to a point 4 miles 13) 12,000 men, who drove in the pickets, from Port Gibson. There McClernand was while two gunboats and some mortar-boats confronted by a strong force from Vicks- bombarded the works. That night Farburg, under General Bowen, advantageous- ragut attempted to pass, but failed, and ly posted. The Nationals were divided Banks returned to Baton Rouge. After for the occasion. On McClernand's right more operations in Louisiana, Banks rewere the divisions of Generals Hovey, Carr, turned to the Mississippi and began the inand Smith, and on his left that of Oster- vestment of Port Hudson, May 24, 1863, haus. The former pressed the Confeder- His troops were commanded by Generals ates steadily back to Port Gibson. The Weitzel, Auger, Grover, Dwight, and T. troops of Osterhaus were reinforced by a W. Sherman, and the beleaguered garrison

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