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ers. They were then relentlessly pursued a territory in the Mormon settlements in by the Sioux. They had increased in num- Deseret, called Utah. Then the comber, when Lewis and Clarke found them promise measures contained in the omnion the Quicoure in 1805, to about 600. bus bill were taken up separately. In They have from time to time ceded lands August a bill for the admission of Calito the United States, and since 1855 have fornia passed the Senate; also for providbeen settled, and have devoted themselves ing a territorial government for New exclusively to agriculture. In 1899 they Mexico. In September a fugitive slave numbered 1,202, and were settled on the bill passed the Senate; also a bill for the Omaha and Winnebago agency, in Ne- suppression of the slave-trade in the Disbraska.

trict of Columbia. All of these bills were O'Mahony JOHN FRANCIS, Fenian adopted in the House of Representatives leader; born in Kilkenny, Ireland, in in September, and received the signature 1816; emigrated to the United States in of President Fillmore. See CLAY, HENRY. 1854; organized the Fenian Brotherhood “On to Richmond!” At the beginning in 1860; issued bonds of the Irish Repub- of 1862 the loyal people became very lic, which were purchased by his followers impatient of the immobility of the imto the amount of nearly a million dollars. mense Army of the Potomac, and from He died in New York City, Feb. 7, 1877. every quarter was heard the cry, “ Push

Omnibus Bill, THE. The subject of the on to Richmond!” Edwin M. Stanton admission of California as a State of the succeeded Mr. Cameron as Secretary of Union, in 1850, created so much sectional War, Jan. 13, 1862, and the President ill-feeling that danger to the integrity of issued a general order, Jan. 27, in which the Union was apprehended. Henry Clay, he directed a general forward movement feeling this apprehension, offered a plan of all the land and naval forces on Feb. of compromise in the United States 22 following. This order sent a thrill Senate, Jan. 29, 1850, in a series of of joy through the heart of the loyal peoresolutions, providing for the admission ple, and it was heightened when an order of California as a State; the organization directed McClellan to move against the of new territorial governments; fixing the inferior Confederate force at Manassas. boundary of Texas; declaring it to be in- McClellan remonstrated, and proposed to expedient to abolish slavery in the Dis- take his great army to Richmond by the trict of Columbia while that institution circuitous route of Fort Monroe and the existed in Maryland, without the consent Virginia peninsula. The President finally of the people of the District, and without yielded, and the movement by the longer just compensation to the owners of slaves route was begun. After the Confederates within the District; that more effectual had voluntarily evacuated Manassas, the laws should be made for the restitution of army was first moved in that direction, fugitive slaves; and that Congress had no not, as the commander-in-chief said, to power to prohibit or obstruct the trade pursue them and take Richmond, but to in slaves between the several States. Clay give his troops "a little active experience spoke eloquently in favor of this plan. before beginning the campaign.” The Mr. Webster approved it, and Senator “ promenade," as one of his French aides Foote, of Mississippi, moved that the called it, disappointed the people, and the whole subject be referred to a committee cry was resumed, “On to Richmond!” of thirteen-six Southern members and The Army of the Potomac did not begin six Northern members--they to choose the its march to Richmond until April. The thirteenth. This resolution was adopted President, satisfied that General McClelApril 18; the committee was appointed, lan's official burdens were greater than and Mr. Clay was made chairman of it. he could profitably bear, kindly relieved On May 8, Mr. Clay reported a plan of him of the chief care of the armies, compromise in a series of bills substantial- and gave him, March 11, the command ly the same as that of Jan. 29. It was call- of only the Department of the Potomac. ed an “omnibus bill.” Long debates en- While Hooker and Lee were contending sued, and on July 31 the whole batch was near CHANCELLORSVILLE (9. v.), a greatrejected except the proposition to establish er part of the cavalry of the Army of


the Potomac was raiding on the communi. Rapidan. For a while the opposing armies cations of Lee's army with Richmond. rested. Meade advanced cautiously, and Stoneman, with 10,000 men, at first per- at the middle of September he crossed formed this service. He rode rapidly, cross- the Rappa hannock, and drove Lee beyond ing rivers, and along rough roads, and the Rapidan, where the latter took a struck the Virginia Central Railway near strong defensive position. Here ended Louisa Court-house, destroying much of it the race towards Riehmond. Meanwhile before daylight. They were only slightly the cavalry of Buford and Kilpatrick opposed, and at midnight of May 2, 1863, had been active between the two rivers, the raiders were divided for separate work, and had frequent skirmishes with Stuart's On the morning of the 3d one party de- mounted force. Troops had been drawn stroyed canal - boats, bridges, and Con- from each army and sent to other fields federate supplies at Columbia, on the of service, and Lee was compelled to James River. Colonel Kilpatrick, with take a defensive position. His defences another party, struck the Fredericksburg were too strong for a prudent commander Railway at Hungary Station and destroy. to assail directly. See RICHMOND, CAMed the depot and railway there, and, PAIGN AGAINST. sweeping down within 2 miles of Rich- “ On to Washington!” The seizure of mond, captured a lieutenant and eleven the national capital, with the treasury and men within the Confederate works of that archives of the government, was a part capital. Then he struck the Virginia (en- of the plan of the Confederates everywhere tral Railway at Meadows Bridge, on the and of the government at Montgomery. Chicka hominy; and thence pushed on, de- Alexander H. Stephens, the Vice-Presistroying Confederate property, to Glou- dent of the Confederacy, was sent by Jefcester Point, on the York River. Another ferson Davis to treat with Virginia for its party, under Lieutenant-Colonel Davis, annexation to the league, and at various destroyed the station and railway at Ham- points on his journey, whenever he made over Court-house, and followed the road speeches to the people, the burden was, “ On to within 7 miles of Richmond, and also to Washington!” That cry was already repushed on to Gloucester Point. Another sounding throughout the South. It was an party, under Gregg and Buford, destroyed echo of the prophecy of the Confederate the railway property at Hanover Junction. Secretary of War. “Nothing is more They all returned to the Rappa hannock probable," said the Richmond Inquirer, by May 8; but they had not effected the in 1861, " than that President Davis will errand they were sent upon-namely, the soon march an army through North Carocomplete destruction of Lee's communica- lina and Virginia to Washington”; and tions with Richmond.

it called upon Virginians who wished to Three days after General Lee escaped “join the Southern army” to organize at into Virginia, July 17-18, 1863, General once. “ The first fruits of Virginia secesMeade crossed the Potomac to follow his sion," said the New Orleans Picayune, on flying antagonist. The Nationals marched the 18th, “ will be the removal of Lincoln rapidly along the eastern base of the Blue and his cabinet, and whatever he can Ridge, while the Confederates went rapidly carry away, to the safer neighborhood of up the Shenandoah Valley, after trying to Harrisburg or Cincinnati---perhaps to Bufcheck Meade by threatening to re-enter falo or Cleveland." The Vicksburg (Miss.) Maryland. Failing in this, Lee hastened Whig of the 20th said: “Maj. Ben Meto oppose a movement that menaced his Culloch has organized a force of 5,000 men front and flank, and threatened to cut off to seize the Federal capital the instant his retreat to Richmond. During that ex- the first blood is spilled.” On the evening citing race there were several skirmishes of the same day, when news of bloodshed in the mountain-passes. Finally Lee, by in Baltimore reached Montgomery (see a quick and skilful movement, while Meade BALTIMORE), bonfires were built in front of was detained at Manassas Gap by a heavy the Exchange Hotel, and from its balcony skirmish, dashed through Chester Gap, Roger A. Pryor, of Virginia, in a speech and, crossing the Rappahannock, took a to the multitude, said that he was in “ favor position between that stream and the of an immediate march on Washington.”

At the departure of the 2d Regi- cannot remain under the jurisdiction of ment of South Carolina Infantry for the United States Congress without humilRichmond, the colonel, as he handed iating Southern pride and disputing the flag just presented to it to the color- Southern rights. Both are essential to sergeant, said: “To your particular charge greatness of character, and both must cois committed this noble gift. Plant it operate in the destiny to be achieved.” A where honor calls. If opportunity offers, correspondent of the Charleston Courier, let it be the first to kiss the breezes of writing from Montgomery, said: “ The deheaven from the dome of the Capitol at sire for taking Washington, I believe, inWashington.” The Richmond Examiner creases every hour; and all things, to my said, on April 23—the day when Stephens thinking, seem tending to this consummaarrived in that city: “ The capture of tion. We are in lively hope that before Washington City is perfectly within the three months roll by the [Confederate! power of Virginia and Maryland, if Vir- government-Congress, departments, and ginia will only make the proper effort all-will have removed to the present Fedby her constituted authorities. There eral capital.” Hundreds of similar exnever was half the unanimity among the pressions were uttered by Southern polipeople before, nor a tithe of the zeal upon ticians and Southern newspapers; and any subject that is now manifested to Alexander H. Stephens brought his logic take Washington ard drive from it every to bear upon the matter in a speech at AtBlack Republican who is a dweller there. lanta, Ga., April 30, 1861, in the followFrom the mountain-tops and valleys to the ing manner: “A general opinion prevails shores of the sea there is one wild shout that Washington City is soon to be atof fierce resolve to capture Washington tacked. On this subject I can only say, City at all and every human hazard.” our object is peace. We wish no aggres

On the same day Governor Ellis, of sions on any man's rights, and will make North Carolina, ordered a regiment of none. But if Maryland secedes, the DisState troops to march for Washington; trict of Columbia will fall to her by reand the Goldsboro (N. C.) Tribune of the versionary right—the same as Sumter to 24th, speaking of the grand movement of South Carolina, Pulaski to Georgia, and Virginia and a rumored one in Maryland, Pickens to Florida. When we have the said: “It makes good the words of Secre- right, we will demand the surrender of tary Walker, of Montgomery, in regard Washington, just as we did in the other to the Federal metropolis. It transfers cases, and will enforce our demand at evthe lines of battle from the Potomac to ery hazard and at whatever cost.” At the the Pennsylvania border.” The Raleigh same time went forth from the free-labor (N. C.) Standard of the same date said: States, “On to Washington!" for its pres“Our streets are alive with soldiers ” ervation; and it was responded to effectu(North Carolina was then a professedly ally by hundreds of thousands of loyal loyal State); and added, “Washington citizens. City will be too hot to hold Abraham Lin- Onderdonk, HENRY, author; born in coln and his government. North Carolina North Hempstead, N. Y., June 11, 1804; has said it, and she will do all she can to graduated at Columbia in 1827. Among make good her declaration.” The Eufaula lis publications are Revolutionary His(Ala.) Express said, on the 25th: “Our tories of Queens; New York; Suffolk ; policy at this time should be to seize the and Kings Counties; Long Island and old Federal capital, and take old Lincoln New York in the Olden Times; The An. and his cabinet prisoners of war.” The nals of Hempstead, N. Y., etc. He died Milledgeville (Ga.) Southern Recorder in Jamaica, N. Y., June 22, 1886. said: “ The government of the Confeder- Oneida, THE. The first warlike measate States must possess the city of Wash- ure of the Americans previous to the hosington. It is folly to think it can be used tilities begun in 1812 was the construction, any longer as the headquarters of the Lin- at Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., of the brig coln government, as no access can be had Oneida, 16 guns, by Christian Berg and to it except by passing through Virginia Henry Eckford. She was launched in and Maryland. The District of Columbia 1809, and was intended for a twofold purONEIDA COMMUNITY-ONONDAGA INDIANS pose-to enforce the revenue laws under titude they were largely held by the inthe embargo act, and to be in readiness fluence of Samuel Kirkland, a Protestant to defend American property afloat on missionary, and Gen. Philip Schuyler. Lake Ontario in case of war with Great Because of this attitude they were subBritain. Her first duty in that line was jected to great losses by the ravages of performed in 1812, when she was com- Tories and their neighbors, for which the manded by Lieut. Melancthon T. Woolsey. United States compensated them by a The schooner Lord Nelson, laden with treaty in 1794. They had previously ceded flour and merchandise, and owned by their lands to the State of New York, British subjects at Niagara, was found in reserving a tract, now in Oneida county, American waters in May, 1812, on her where some of them still remain. They way to Kingston, and was captured by the had been joined by the Stockbridge and Oneida and condemned as lawful prize, Brotherton Indians. Some of them emiAbout a month later (June 14) another grated to Canada, and settled on the British schooner, the Ontario, was capt. Thames; and in 1821 a large band purured at St. Vincent, but was soon dis- chased a tract on Green Bay, Wis. They charged. At about the same time still an- have all advanced in civilization and the other offending schooner, the Niagara, was mechanic arts, as well as in agriculture, seized and sold as a violator of the and have schools and churches. In 1899 revenue laws. These events soon led to there were 270 Oneidas at the New York retaliation.

agency, and 1,945 at the Green Bay Oneida Community. See NoYES, JOHN agency. HUMPHREYS.

O'Neill, Joun, military officer; born in Oneida Indians, the second of the five Ireland in 1834; served in the National nations that composed the original IRO- army during the Civil War; commanded QUOIS CONFEDERACY (q. v.). Their domain a force of 1,200 Fenians who invaded Canextended from a point east of Utica to ada in 1866, most of whom were arrested Deep Spring, near Manlius, south of by the United States authorities. He Syracuse, in Onondaga county, N. Y. again invaded Canada in 1870, was captDivided into three clans—the Wolf, Bear, ured and imprisoned. He died in Omaha, and Turtle-their tribal totem was a stone Neb., Jan. 7, 1878. in a forked stick, and their name meant Onondaga Indians, the third nation “tribe of the granite rock." Tradition of the Iroquois Confederacy; their name says that when the great confederacy was means “ men of the great mountain." Traformed, Hiawatha said to them: “You, dition says that at the formation of the Oneidas, a people who recline your bodies confederacy Hiawatha said to them: “ You, against the 'Everlasting Stone,' that can- Onondagas, who have your habitation at not be moved, shall be the second nation, the “Great Mountain,' and are overshadbecause you give wise counsel.” Very soon owed by its crags, shall be the third after the settlement of Canada they be- nation, because you are greatly gifted came involved in wars with the French with speech, and are mighty in war." and their Huron and Montagnais allies. Their seat of government, or “castle,” In 1653 they joined their neighbors, the was in the hill country southward from Onondagas, in a treaty of peace with the Syracuse, where was the great councilFrench, and received missionaries from fire of the confederacy, or meeting - place the latter. At that time they had been of their congress. The Atatarho, or great so reduced by war with southern tribes sachem of the tribe, was chosen to be that they had only 150 warriors. In the the first president of the confederacy. general peace with the French, in 1700, They were divided into fourteen clans, they joined their sister nations; and when with a sachem for each clan, and their the Revolutionary War was kindling they domain extended from Deep Spring, near alone, of the then Six Nations in the great Manlius, Onondaga co., west to a line council, opposed an alliance with the Eng. between Cross and Otter lakes. This nalish.

tion carried on war with the Indians They remained faithful to the English- in Canada, and also with the French, American colonişts to the end. In this at- after their advent on the St. Lawrence;

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and they were prominent in the destruc- was weakened, and finally, in 1777, the tion of the Hurons. In 1653 they made council-fire at Onondaga (as the confedpeace with the French, and received Jesuit erate government was familiarly called) missionaries among them. The peace was was formally extinguished. The Ononnot lasting, and in 1662 a large force of dagas joined the English, and the war Onondagas ravaged Montreal Island. They left them helpless, and in 1778 they ceded again made peace, and in 1668 the French all their lands to the State of New York, mission was re-established.

except a reservation set apart for their As the English extended their influence remnant, which they continue to hold. among the Five Nations, the Iroquois were In 1899 they numbered 549. There are won to their interest, and the Onondagas about 400 Onondagas in Canada, making permitted them to erect a fort in their the total number of the once powerful domain; but when, in 1696, Frontenac nation less than 1,000. It is said that invaded their territory, the Onondagas the Onondaga dialect is the purest one destroyed the fort and their village, and of the Iroquois. returned to the forests. The French sent Ontario, LAKE, OPERATIONS ON. Comdeputies to the Onondaga sachems, and modore Isaac Chauncey was in command then, in 1700, signed the general treaty of a little squadron of armed schooners, of peace at Montreal. This was broken hastily prepared, on Lake Ontario late in 1709, when the Onondagas again made in 1812. The vessels were the Oneida (his war on the French, and were alternately flag - ship), Conquest, Growler, Pert, hostile and neutral towards them until Scourge, Governor Tompkins, and Hamil· the overthrow of the French power, in ton. He sailed from Sackett's Harbor 1763. When the war for independence (Nov. 8) to intercept the British squadwas kindling, a general council of the ron, under Commodore Earl, returning to confederacy was held at Onondaga Castle. Kingston from Fort George, on the Niag. The Oneidas and Tuscaroras opposed an ara River, whither they had conveyed alliance with the English, and each na- troops and prisoners. Chauncey took tion was left to act as it pleased in the bis station near the False Ducks, a group matter. By this decision the confederacy of islands nearly due west from Sackett's

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