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rewarded him with a major's commission Pilgrim Fathers, THE. At the middle (May, 1808). Passing through the vari- of the sixteenth century the social condious grades, he was commissioned briga- tion of the people of England was very dier-general March 12, 1813. Early in primitive, and their wants were few. The

common people lived in cottages built of wooden frames filled in with clay; their houses were without wooden floors; and in many of them the fireplaces were constructed in the middle of the rooms without chimneys, a hole being left in the roof for the escape of the smoke. The windows were not glazed, and were closed against the weather, and the light was allowed to enter by means of oiled paper. Such was the plain condition of the houses of the Puritans of New England. In England in the early part of Queen Elizabeth's reign pallets of straw served for beds of the common people, who had coverings made of rough mats, and their pil. lows were logs. This was regarded as a good bed, for many slept in straw alone. Very few vegetables were then cultivated, for gardening had not yet been generally introduced from Holland, and gardens were cultivated only for the rich, and

these chiefly for ornament. The common ZEBULON MONTGOMERY PIKE.

material for bread was the unbolted flour

of oats, rye, and barley; and sometimes, that year he had been appointed adjutant when these were scarce (afterwards in and inspector-general of the army on the New England), they were mixed with northern frontier. He was killed in an ground acorns. Even this black bread attack upon York, Upper Canada, April was sometimes denied them, and flesh was 27, 1813.

the principal diet. Their forks and Pikeville, BATTLE NEAR. Gen. William ploughs were made of wood, and these, Nelson was in command of about 3,000 with a hoe and spade, constituted the bulk lovalists in eastern Kentucky in Novem- of their agricultural implements. Their ber, 1861. About 1,000 Confederates, un- spoons and platters were made chiefly of der Col. J. S. Williams, were at Pike- wood, and table-forks were unknown. It ville, the capital of Pike county, Ky. Nel- is said that glazed windows were so scarce, son sent Colonel Sill, with Ohio and Ken- and regarded as so much of a luxury, tucky troops, to gain the rear of Williams, that noblemen, when they left their coun: while, with the remainder, he should at- try-houses to go to court, had their glazed tack his front. A battalion of Kentucky windows packed away carefully with othvolunteers, under Col. C. A. Marshall, er precious furniture. Chimneys had been moved in advance of Nelson. On the 9th introduced into England early in the sixthese were attacked by Confederates in teenth century. ambush, and a battle ensued, which lasted The non-conformist English refugees in about an hour and a half, when the Con- Holland under the pastorate of Rev. Mr. federates fled, leaving thirty of their num- Robinson, yearning for a secluded asylum ber dead on the field. Nelson lost six kill- from persecution under the English goved and twenty-four wounded. He did not ernment, proposed to go to Virginia and pursue, as he had no cavalry. Williams settle there in a distinct body under the fled to the mountains at Pound Gap, car- general government of that colony. They rying with him a large number of cattle sent Robert Cushman and John Carver and other spoils.

to England in 1617 to treat with the LonVII.-0



don Company, and to ascertain whether The following are the names of the the King would grant them liberty of con- forty-one persons who signed the constituscience in that distant country. The tion of government on board the Maycompany were anxious to have these peo- flower, and are known as the Pilgrim ple settle in Virginia, and offered them Fathers: John Carver, William Bradample privileges, but the King would not ford, Edward Winslow, William Brewpromise not to molest them. These agents ster, Isaac Allerton, Myles Standish, John returned to Leyden. The discouraged Alden, Samuel Fuller, Christopher Marrefugees sent other agents to England in tin, William Mullins, William White, February, 1619, and finally made an ar- Richard Warren, John Howland, Stephen rangement with the company and with Hopkins, Edward Tilley, John Tilley, London merchants and others for their Francis Cook, Thomas Rogers, Thomas settlement in Virginia, and they at once Tinker, John Ridgedale, Edward Fuller, prepared for the memorable voyage in the John Turner, Francis Eaton, James ChilMayflower in 1620. Several of the congre- ton, John Crackston, John Billington, gation at Leyden sold their estates and Moses Fletcher, John Goodman, Degory made a common bank, which, with the Priest, Thomas Williams, Gilbert Winsaid of their London partners, enabled them low, Edward Margeson, Peter Brown, to purchase the Speedwell, a ship of 60 Richard Britteridge, George Soule, Richtons, and to hire in England the May- ard Clarke, Richard Gardiner, John Allerflower, a ship of 180 tons, for the intend ton, Thomas English, Edward Doty, Eded voyage. They left Delft Haven for Eng- ward Lister. Each subscriber placed opland in the Speedwell (July, 1620), and in posite his name the number of his family. August sailed from Southampton, but, on The following is the text of the agreeaccount of the leakiness of the ship, were ment which was signed on the lid of twice compelled to return to port. Dis. Elder Brewster's chest (see BREWSTER, missing this unseaworthy vessel, 101 of WILLIAM): the number who came from Leyden sailed “In the name of God, Amen. We whose in the Mayflower, Sept. 6 (0. S.). These names are hereunto written, the loyal included the "Pilgrim Fathers," so called. subjects of our dread sovereign lord, King

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James, by the grace of God, of Great have long safely lain. Nearly all the Britain, France, and Ireland, King, De- company went ashore, glad to touch land fender of the Faith, etc., having under. after the long voyage. They first fell on taken for the glory of God and advancement their knees, and thanked God for the pres

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of the Christian Faith, and honor of our ervation of their lives. The waters were King and Country, a voyage to plant the shallow, and they had waded ashore-the first colony in the northern parts of Vir- men to explore the country, the women ginia, do by these presents solemnly and mutually, in the presence of God and of one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitution, and offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the colony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names, at Cape Cod, the llth of November [O. S.], in the year of the reign of our sovereign lord, King James, of England, France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fiftyfourth, Anno Domini 1620.” The Mayflower first anchored in Cape

OLD RELIC FROM THE MAYFLOWER. Cod Bay, just within the cape, on Nov. 21 (N. S.), in what is now the harbor to wash their clothes after the long voyof Provincetown, the only windward port age. for many a league where the vessel could The spot chosen by a party of explorers

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for the permanent landing-place of the the ship were confined in foul air, with unpassengers on the Mayflower was selected wholesome food. Scurvy and other disabout Dec. 20, 1620, where New Plymouth eases appeared among them, and when, was built. From about the middle of late in March, the last passenger landed December until the 25th the weather was from the Mayflower, nearly one-half the stormy, and the bulk of the passengers colonists were dead. remained on the ship, while some of the The lands of the Plymouth Colony were men built a rude shelter to receive them. held in common by the “ Pilgrims” and On the 25th a greater portion of the pas- their partners, the London merchants. In sengers went on shore to visit the spot 1627 the “ Pilgrims” sent Isaac Allerton chosen for their residence, when, tradition to England to negotiate for the purchase

of the shares of the London adventurers, with their stock, merchandise, lands, and chat

tels. He did so for $9,000, Map of

payable in nine years in equal PLYMOUTH annual instalments. Some of BAY

the principal persons of the Scale Miles colony became bound for the per Inch

rest, and a partnership was formed, into which was admitted the head of every fam

ily, and every young man of Captam till

age and prudence. It was agreed that every single free

man should have one share; Kingston

and every father of a family have leave to purchase one

share for himself, one for his aguish

wife, and one for every child living with him; that every one should pay his part of the public debt according to the number of his shares. To every share twenty acres of ara

ble land were assigned by lot; PLYMOUTH

to every six shares, one cow and two goats, and swine in the same proportion. This agreement was made in full court, Jan. 3, 1628. The jointstock or community system was then abandoned, a di

vision of the movable propsays, Mary Chilton and John Alden, both erty was made, and twenty acres of young persons, first sprang upon Plym- land nearest to the town were assigned in outh Rock from the boat that conveyed fee to each colonist. See PLYMOUTH, them.

New. Most of the women and children re- Gov. WILLIAM BRADFORD (9. v.) wrote mained on board the Mayflower until suit- a History of the Plymouth Plantation, of able log huts were erected for their re- which the following is an extract: ception, and it was March 21, 1621, before they were all landed. Those on shore were The Pilgrims' Arrival at Cape to the rigors of winter weather Being thus arived in a good harbor and and insufficient food, though the winter brought safe to land, they fell upon their was a comparatively mild one. Those ou knees & blessed ye God of heaven, who had


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