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it had been purchased for another pur- thrown open to settlers, and again there pose.

was a wild rush of home-seekers; in July, In 1889 the government bought it a 1901, the same scenes were enacted in the second time from the Creeks, paying a Kiowa and Comanche country. Populamuch higher price, but obtaining it with- tion in 1890, 61,834; in 1900, 398,331. See out any restrictive conditions. For ten UNITED STATES-OKLAHOMA, in vol. ix. years companies of adventurers, called " boomers," under the lead of Capt. David


1890 1891 L. Payne, had been hovering on the out. George W. Steele...

Abraham J. Seay...... Republican.... .. 1891-1893 skirt

William C. Renfrow ... Democrat...... . 1893-1897 stealing across the border for the pur- cu

C. M. Barnes.......... Republican...... 1897-1901
Thomas B. Ferguson..

... 1901 pose of making settlements on the forbidden lands. As often as they had thus Old Dominion, a title often given to trespassed, however, they were promptly the State of Virginia. The vast, undedriven out again by the United States fined region named Virginia by Queen troops. A proclamation was issued by Elizabeth was regarded by her as a fourth the President, April 22, 1889, opening kingdom of her realm. Spenser, Raleigh's 1,900,000 acres of land for settlement. firm friend, dedicated his Faëry Queene There was immediately a grand rush into (1590) to Elizabeth, "Queen of England, the territory by the “ boomers," and by France, Ireland, and Virginia.” When thousands of home-seekers and specula- James VI. of Scotland came to the Eng. tors. In a single day the city of Guth- lishe throne (1603), Scotland was added, rie, with a population of 10,000, sprang and Virginia was called, in compliment, into existence, and all the valuable land the fifth kingdom. On the death of was taken up. By subsequent proclama- Charles I. on the scaffold. (,1649), his son tions other lands were opened, and the Charles, heir to the throne, was in exile. bounds of the territory were extended un- SIR WILLIAM BERKELEY (9. v.), a stanch til, in 1891, it embraced 39,030 square miles. royalist, was then governor of Virginia, A large portion of Oklahoma, however, and a majority of the colony were in symremained under the occupancy of Indian pathy with him. He proclaimed that son, tribes, who were under the control of the “ Charles the Second, King of England, Indian bureau, and received regular sup- Scotland, Ireland, and Virginia; and plies of clothing and food from the gove when, in 1652, the Virginians heard that ernment. Among these tribes were about the republican government of England 500 Sacs and Foxes, 400 Kickapoos, 2,000 was about to send a fleet to reduce them Cheyennes, and 1,200 Arapahoes.

to submission, they sent a message to Oklahoma when settled was a richly Breda, in Flanders, where Charles then wooded country, except in the west, where resided, inviting him to come over and be there were extensive prairies. The climate King of Virginia. He was on the point of is delightful, and the soil fertile and well sailing for America when circumstances adapted to agriculture. The first territo- foreshadowed his restoration to the throne rial governor was appointed by the Pres- of his father. When that act was accomident in 1890. The name Oklahoma means plished, the grateful monarch caused the “ Beautiful Country.” The Cherokee Strip arms of Virginia to be quartered with or Outlet towards Kansas was acquired those of England, Scotland, and Ireland, from the Cherokee nation, and on Sept. as an independent member of the empire. 16, 1893, it was opened to settlers. The From this circumstance Virginia received scenes attending the opening resembled the title of The Dominion. Coins with such those in 1889 and 1891. Ninety thou- quarterings were struck as late as 1773. sand intending settlers registered, and Old Ironsides, a name given to the 20,000, it was estimated, encamped on the frigate CONSTITUTION (q. v.). site selected for the chief town. The old Probabilities, a title familiarly Strip contains about 6,000,000 acres, part given to the head of the United States of which is good farming land. On May weather bureau, first applied to Professor 23, 1896, another great section of terri- Abbe by Gen. Albert J. Myer, the chief tory, called the Kickapoo Strip, was signal-officer of the bureau.

Oid South Church, Boston. The oppo- tion in church and commonwealth.” Besition to the requirement of church-mem- fore these disclosures Oldham had bebership for the exercise of political rights haved with much insolence, abusing the (see HALF-WAY COVENANT) led to the es- governor and Captain Standish, calling tablishment, in 1669, of the “ Third Church them “rebels and traitors," and, when in Boston,” known as “ The Old South” proved guilty, he attempted to excite a since 1717, of which Mr. Fiske says: “It mutiny on the spot. Lyford burst into is a building with a grander history than tears and confessed that he “ feared he any other on the American continent, was a reprobate." Both were ordered to unless it be that other plain brick build- leave the colony, but Lyford, humbly ing in Philadelphia where the Declara. begging to stay, asking forgiveness and tion of Independence was adopted and the promising good behavior, was reinstated. federal Constitution framed."

Oldham went to Nantasket, with some of old Style, dates according to the his adherents, and engaged in traffic with Julian calendar, which was supplanted by the Indians. Lyford was soon detected the Gregorian calendar in 1582, but not again in seditious work and expelled from accepted by Great Britain until 1752. the colony. He joined Oldham. They

Oldham, John, Pilgrim; born in Eng. afterwards lived at Hull and Cape Anne, land about 1600. In 1623 the Pilgrims, and Oldham represented Watertown in the regarding Robinson, in Holland, as their popular branch of the Massachusetts govpastor, and expecting him over, had no ernment in 1634. He made an exploring other spiritual guide than Elder Brewster. journey to the site of Windsor, on the Because of this state of things at Plym- Connecticut River, the next year, which outh, the London partners were taunted was followed by the emigration to that with fostering religious schism. To re- region in 1635. While in a vessel at lieve themselves of this stigma, they sent Block Island, in July, 1636, Oldham was a minister named Lyford to be pastor. murdered by some Indians, who fled to He was kindly received, and, with John the Pequods, on the mainland, and were Oldham, who went to Plymouth at about protected by them. This led to the war the same time, was invited to the consul. with the PEQUOD INDIANS (q. v.). tations of the governor with his council. Oldmixon, John, author; born in It was soon discovered that Lyford and Bridgewater, England, in 1673; and died Oldham were plotting treason against the in London, July 9, 1742. He was the Church and State. Several letters written author of The British Empire in Amer. by Lyford to the London partners, breath- ica (2 volumes), published in 1708. ing sedition, were discovered by Bradford Oligarchy. See ARISTOCRACY. as they were about to be sent abroad. Olin, STEPHEN, clergyman; born in The governor kept quiet for a while, but Leicester, Vt., March 2, 1797; graduated when Lyford set up a separate congrega. at Middlebury College in 1820; became tion, with a few of the colonists whom he a Methodist clergyman in 1824; presihad seduced, and held meetings on the dent of Randolph-Macon College in 1834; Sabbath, Bradford summoned a General president of Wesleyan University in 1839. Court (1624), before whom the offending He died in Middletown, Conn., Aug. 16, clergyman and his companions were ar- 1851. raigned on a charge of seditious corre. Oliphant, LAURENCE, author; born in spondence. They denied the accusation, Cape Town, Africa, in 1829. Lord Elgin when they were confronted by Lyford's let. made him his private secretary in 1853, ters, in which he defamed the settlers, ad- and in 1865 he was elected to Parliament, vised the London partners to prevent Rob- but he resigned in 1868 in obedience to inson and the rest of his congregation instructions from Thomas L. Harris, coming to America, as they would inter- leader of the Brotherhood of the New fere with his church schemes, and avowed Life a spiritualistic society of which both his intention of removing the stigma of Oliphant and his wife were members. schism by a regularly organized church. Among his publications are Minnesota, or

A third conspirator had written that the Far West in 1855; and The Tender Lyford and Oldham “intended a reforma- Recollections of Irene Macgillicuddy, a saVII.-B


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tire on American society. He died in the Puritan policy. He died at sea in Twickenham, England, Dec. 23, 1888. 1855.

Oliver, ANDREW, governor; born in Oliver, PETER, jurist; born in Boston, Boston, March 28, 1706; graduated at Mass., March 26, 1713; was a brother Harvard in 1724; a representative in the of Andrew Oliver, and graduated at HarGeneral Court from 1743 to 1746; one of vard in 1730. After holding several his Majesty's council from 1746 to 1765; offices, he was made judge of the Supreme secretary of the province from 1756 to 1770; Court of Massachusetts in 1756, and in and succeeded Hutchinson (his brother-in- 1771 chief-justice of that court. His law) as lieutenant-governor. In 1765 he course in Boston in opposition to the pawas hung in effigy because he was a stamp triots made him very unpopular, and he distributer, and his course in opposition was one of the crowd of loyalists who fled to the patriotic party in Boston caused from that city with the British army in him to share the unpopularity of Hutchin- March, 1776. He went to England, where son. His letters, with those of Hutchin- he lived on a pension from the British son, were sent by Franklin to Boston, and crown. He was an able writer of both created great commotion there. He died prose and poetry. Chief Justice Oliver, on in Boston, March 3, 1774. See HUTCHIN- receiving his appointment, refused to acSON, THOMAS.

cept his salary from the colony, and was Oliver, BENJAMIN LYNDE, author; born impeached by the Assembly and declared in Marblehead, Mass., in 1788; was ad- suspended until the issue of the impeach mitted to the bar. His publications in- ment was reached. The Assembly of Mas clude The Rights of an American Cit- sachusetts had voted the five judges of the izen; Law Summary; Forms of Practice, Superior Court ample salaries from the or American Precedents in Personal and colonial treasury, and called upon them to Real Actions; Forms in Chancery, Ad- refuse the corrupting pay from the crown. miralty, and Common Law, etc. He died Only Oliver refused, and he shared the in 1843.

fate of Hutchinson. He died in BirmingOliver, HENRY KEMPLE, musician; born ham, England, Oct. 13, 1791. in Beverly, Mass., Nov. 24, 1800; gradu. Oliver, ROBERT, military officer; born ated at Dartmouth College in 1818; in Boston, Mass., in 1738; served through taught music for many years; elected the War of the Revolution, and was one of mayor of Lawrence, Mass., 1859; State the earliest settlers in Ohio, locating in treasurer of Massachusetts, 1861; mayor Marietta. He filled various State offices, of Salem, Mass., 1866. Mr. Oliver is best and died in Marietta, O., in May, 1810. known as organist, director of choirs, Oliver, THOMAS, royal governor; born and composer. He wrote Federal Street; in Dorchester, Mass., Jan. 5, 1734; gradBeacon Street, and many other well. uated at Harvard in 1753; succeeded known hymn-tunes, and published a num- Lieut.-Gov. Andrew Oliver (of another ber of church tune - books. He died in family) in March, 1774, and in September Boston, Mass., Aug. 10, 1885.

following was compelled by the people of Oliver, PETER, author; born in Han Boston to resign. He took refuge with over, N. H., in 1822; studied law and be- the British troops in Boston, and fled gan practice in Suffolk county, Mass. He with them to Halifax in 1776, and thence was the author of The Puritan Common- to England. He died in Bristol, England, wealth: An Historical Review of the Puri. Nov. 29, 1815. tan Government in Massachusetts in itsOlmstead, CASE OF. During the RevoCivil and Ecclesiastical Relations, from lutionary War, Capt. Gideon Olmstead, its Rise to the Abrogation of the First with some other Connecticut men, was Charter; together with some General Re- captured at sea by a British vessel and flections on the English Colonial Policy taken to Jamaica, where the captain and and on the Character of Puritanism. In three others of the prisoners were comthis book, which revealed much literary pelled or persuaded to enter as sailors on skill as well as great learning, he em- the British sloop Active, then about to phasized the unfavorable side of the sail for New York with stores for the Puritan character, and severely criticised British there. When off the coast of

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Delaware the captain and the other three colonel), and was often the chief officer Americans contrived to secure the rest of of the Rhode Island forces. He fought the crew and officers (fourteen in number) conspicuously at Red Bank, Springfield, below the hatches. They then took pos. Monmouth, and Yorktown, and after the session of the vessel and made for Little war he was collector of the port of Provi. Egg Harbor. A short time after, the dence, and president of the Rhode Island Active was boarded by the sloop Conven- Society of Cincinnati. He died in Provi. tion of Philadelphia, and, with the priva- dence, R. I., Nov. 10, 1812. teer Girard, cruising with her, was taken Olney, JESSE, geographer; born in to Philadelphia. The prize was there Union, Conn., Oct. 12, 1798; taught school libelled in the State court of admiralty. for some years; then devoted himself to Here the two vessels claimed an equal the preparation of text-books, geographies, share in the prize, and the court decreed a history of the United States, arithmeone-fourth to the crew of the Convention, tics, readers, etc. He died in Stratford, one-fourth to the State of Pennsylvania Conn., July 31, 1872. as owner of the Convention, one-fourth to Olney, RICHARD, lawyer; born in the Girard, and the remaining one-fourth Oxford, Mass., Sept. 15, 1835; graduated only to Olmstead and his three com- at Brown University in 1856; admitted to panions. Olmstead appealed to Congress, the bar in 1859; member of the Massaand the committee of appeals decided in chusetts legislature; appointed United his favor. The Pennsylvania court re- States Attorney-General by President fused to yield, and directed the prize sold Cleveland in 1893, and Secretary of State and the money paid into court to await in 1895. its further order. This contest continued Olney, STEPHEN, military officer; born until 1809, when the authorities of Penn- in North Providence, R. I., in October, 1755 ; sylvania offered armed resistance to the brother of Jeremiah Olney; entered the United States marshal at Philadelphia, army as a lieutenant in his brother's comupon which he called to his assistance a pany in 1775, and served with distinction posse comitatus of 2,000 men. The mat- in several of the principal battles of the ter was, however, adjusted without an Revolutionary War. He served under Laactual collision, and the money, amounting fayette in Virginia, and was distinguished to $18,000, paid to the United States in the capture of a British redoubt at marshal.

Yorktown during the siege, where he was Olmsted, DENISON, scientist; born in severely wounded by a bayonet-thrust. East Hartford, Conn., June 18, 1791; Colonel Olney held many town offices, and graduated at Yale in 1813; taught in New for twenty years represented his native London schools, Yale College, and the Uni- town in the Assembly. He died in North versity of North Carolina. He published Providence, R. I., Nov. 23, 1832. the Geological Survey of North Carolina; Olustee Station, BATTLE AT. Early in Text-books on Astronomy and Natural 1864 the national government was inPhilosophy; and Astronomical Observa- formed that the citizens of Florida, tired tions in the Smithsonian Collections. He of the war, desired a reunion with the died in New Haven, Conn., May 13, 1859. national government. The President com

Olmsted, FREDERICK Law, landscape missioned his private secretary (John architect; born in Hartford, Conn., April Hay) a major, and sent him to Charleston 26, 1822; chief designer (with Calvert to accompany a military expedition which Vaux) of Central Park, New York City, General Gillmore was to send to Florida, 1857; and, with others, of many public Hay to act in a civil capacity if required. parks in Brooklyn, Boston, Buffalo, Chi. The expedition was commanded by Gen. cago (including World's Fair), Milwau. Truman Seymour, who left Hilton Head kee, Louisville, Washington, etc. He died (Feb. 5, 1864) in transports with 6,000 in Waverly, Mass., Aug. 28, 1903.

troops, and arrived at Jacksonville, Fla., Olney, JEREMIAJI, military officer; born on the 7th. Driving the Confederates from in Providence, R. I., in 1750; was made there, the Nationals pursued them into lieutenant-colonel at the beginning of the the interior. General Finnegan was in Revolutionary War (afterwards made command of a considerable Confederate force in Florida, and stoutly opposed this the best of the material resources of their movement. At Olustee Station, on a rail. commonwealths; and while art and music way that crossed the peninsula in the and all phases of the æsthetic were not heart of a cypress swamp, the Nationals neglected, it was the fine panorama of the encountered Finnegan, strongly posted. A material West which afforded the most sharp battle occurred (Feb. 20), when interest. Cast in a different figure, this Seymour was repulsed and retreated to Trans-Mississippi Exposition was an epitJacksonville. The estimated loss to the ome of the wealth-and not only of the Nationals in this expedition was about wealth, but of the progress-of the great 2,000 men; the Confederate loss, 1,000 men central region of the nation. and several guns. Seymour carried with One of the speakers at the opening of him about 1,000 of the wounded, and left the exposition put the progress of the re250 on the field, besides many dead and gion in a nutshell when he made note of dying. The expedition returned to Hilton the fact that in the land where only fifty Head. The Nationals destroyed stores years ago the Indians wandered at will, valued at $1,000,000. At about the same there are now 22,000,000 people, with an time Admiral Bailey destroyed the Confed- aggregate wealth of $22,000,000,000. erate salt-works on the coast of Florida, Many of the States contributed liberally valued at $3,000,000.

to the exposition in the way of suitable Omaha, the metropolis of Nebraska; buildings, while the general government county seat of Douglas county; military appropriated $200,000 for its building, and headquarters of the Department of the in it placed exhibits of great interest. Platte; has extensive machine, car, and The government took official notice of the repair shops, smelting and refining works, exposition by issuing a series of postagelarge trade, seven national banks, and an stamps, from one cent to $2, inclusive, assessed property valuation of $101,256,- commemorative of the event. Over three 290. Population in 1890, 140,452; in 1900, hundred millions of these stamps were 102,555. The city was the seat of ordered for the first instalment. The dethe Trans-Mississippi Exposition. The signs on the stamps are appropriate to corner-stone of the exhibition was laid the great West and its progress, illustraon Arbor Day, 1897, and the opening ting phases of pioneer life. ceremonies were held June 1, 1898. In The officers of the exposition were: Gorthe telegram which President McKinley don W. Wattles, president; Alvin Saunders, sent to the exposition, after setting resident vice-president; Herman Kountze, in motion its machinery, he paid a treasurer; John A. Wakefield, secretary; tribute, for which the success of this Major T. S. Clarkson, general manager, exposition will give warrant, when he said with an executive committee of seven, that nowhere have the unconquerable de- and vice-presidents for each of the twentermination, the self-reliant strength, and ty-four Trans-Mississippi States. The the sturdy manhood of American citizen- exposition covered a tract of more than ship been more forcibly illustrated than in 200 acres, containing a water amphithe achievements of the people from be- theatre and many handsome buildings. yond the Mississippi.

Despite the fact that the country was at It would not be easy to estimate the war with Spain, the exposition was well value of such an exposition as this in attended and a great success in every way. illustrating to the nation at large the Omaha Indians, a tribe of Indians of immense resources of the region which the Dakota family. They are represented lies in the great Mississippi basin and in Marquette's map in 1673. They were contiguous to it. The exhibits of the divided into clans, and cultivated corn and mining, the manufacturing, the agricult- beans. One of their customs was to proure, the forestry, the horticulture, the hibit a man from speaking to his fathercommerce were an epitome of the business in-law and mother-in-law. They were reof this vast region extending from the duced, about the year 1800, by small-pox, Canadian line to the Gulf of Mexico. The from a population capable of sending out States themselves, through appropriations, 700 warriors to about 300. They then provided the funds to show to the world burned their villages and became wander.

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