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heavy rains and terrible fatigue all the army during the war 317,133 soldiers. Popway to Detroit, their destination. See ulation in 1890, 3,672,316; in 1900, 4,157,HULL, WILLIAM.

545. See UNITED STATES, Ohio, in vol. ix.

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In March, 1851, a convention revised the

State constitution, and it was ratified in

Term Term


began. expired. June; but a new constitution, framed by

Arthur St. Clair...... a convention in 1873, was rejected by the

1788 1802

Charles W. Byrd.... 1802 1803 people at an election in 1874.

STATE GOVERNORS. At the beginning of the Civil War, the fa

Edward Tiffin ....... 1803 1807 governor of Ohio, William Dennison, Jr., Thomas Kirker..... 1807 1808

Samuel Huntington.....

1808 1810 was an avowed opponent of the slave

Return Jonathan Meigs.. 1810 1814 system. The legislature met on Jan. 7, Othniel Looker....

1814 1814

Thomas Worthington... 1814 1818 1861. In his message the governor ex

Ethan Allen Brown.. 1818 1822 plained his refusal to surrender alleged Allen Trimble....... 1822 1822

Jeremiah Morrow... 1822 1826 fugitive slaves on the requisition of the

Allen Trimble......

1826 1830 authorities of Kentucky and Tennessee; Duncan McArthur.. 1830 1832

Robert Lucas......


1836 denied the right of secession; affirmed the

Democrat. Joseph Vance......

1836 1838

Whig. loyalty of his State; suggested the repeal Wilson Shannon..


1840 Democrat. Thomas Corwin....


1842 of the fugitive slave law as the most

Wilson Shannon.... 1842 1844 Democrat. effectual way of procuring the repeal of Thomas W. Bartley... 1844 1844

Mordecai Bartley.

1844 1846 the personal liberty acts; and called for

William Bebb.....

1846 1849 the repeal of the laws of the Southern Seabury Ford......... 1849 1850

Reuben Wood.....

1850 1853 States which interfered with the consti

Democrat. William Medill.....


1856 tutional rights of the citizens of the free Salmon P. Chase.... 1856 1860 Republican. labor States. “Determined to do no

William Dennison... 1860 1862
David Tod..........

1862 1864 wrong," he said, “ we will not contentedly John Brough............ 1864 1865 submit to wrong.” The legislature de

Charles Anderson..

1865 1866

Jacob Dolson Cox... 1866 1868 nounced (Jan. 12) the secession move Rutherford B. Hayes 1868 1872 ments; promised for the people of Ohio

Edward F. Noyes.... 1872 1874
William Allen...

1874 1876 Democrat. their firm support of the national govern- Rutherford B. Hayes.... 1876 1878 Republican ment; and, on the 14th, pledged “the en

Richard M. Bishop..

1878 1880 Democrat Charles Foster......

1880 1884 Republican tire power and resources of the State for George Hoadley......... 1884 1886 Democrat a strict maintenance of the Constitution

Joseph B. Foraker.... 1886 1890 Republican
James E. Campbell. .... 1890


Democrat. and laws of the general government by William McKinley, Jr.... 1892 1896 Republican. whomsoever administered.” These prom- Asa

Asa S. Bushnell...... 1896 1900
George K. Nash......

ises and pledges were fulfilled to the ut- Myron T. Herrick.... 1904
most, the State furnishing to the National

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Ohio Company, THE. When, by treaty,

- the Indians had ceded the lands of the Name. I No. of Congress, Term.

ng Northwestern Territory, the thoughts of John Smith..

8th to 10th 1803 to 1808 Thomas Worthington..... 8th “ 10th 1803 “ 1807 el

enterprising men turned in that direcReturn Jonathan Meigs... 10th" 11th 1809 " 1810 tion as a promising field for settlements. Edward Tiffin........

10th 11th 1807 " 1809 Stanley Griswold....


1809 On the night of Jan. 9, 1786, Gen. Rufus Alexander Campbell... 11th to 13th

Putnam and Gen. Benjamin Tupper formThomas Worthington... 11th * 13th 1811 - 1814 Joseph Kerr.......... 13th " 14th 1814 1815 ed a plan for a company of soldiers of the Jereiniah Morrow..... 13th 4 16th 1813 * 1819

9 Revolution to undertake the task of settleBenjamin Ruggles ... 14th " 230 1815 " 1833 William A. Trimble..... 16th 6 17th 1819 " 1821 ment on the Ohio River. The next day Ethan Allen Brown.... 17th * 19th 1822" 1825 they issued a call for such persons who William Henry Harrison. 19th 20th Jacob Burnett........ 20th " 230 1828 “ 1831 felt disposed to engage in the enterThomas Ewing..... 22d " 25th 1831 “ 1837

prise to meet at Boston on March 1, Thomas Morris....

23d 26th 1833 “ 1839 William Allen......

25th " 31st 1837 “1849 by delegates chosen in the several Benjamin Tappan.... 26th " 29th 1839 " 1845

counties in Massachusetts. Thomas Corwin... 29th " 31st 1845

They met,

1850 Thomas Ewing....


1850 and formed “ The Ohio Company." Salmon P. Chase...

31st to 34th 1849 to 1855 Benjamin F. Wade.... 32d 6 41st 1851 • 1869 It was composed of men like Rufus George E. Pugh......

34th " 37th 1855 1861 Putnam, Abraham Whipple, J. M. VarSalmon P. Chase...


1861 John Sherman. 37th to 45th

num, Samuel Holden Parsons, BenjaAllen G. Thurman...

41st 47th 1869 “ 1880 min Tupper, R. J. Meigs, whom AmerStanley Matthews..... 45th " 46th 1877 • 1879 George H. Pendleton.. 46th " 49th 1879 - 1885 icans think of with gratitude. They James A. Garfield......


1880 purchased a large tract of land on the John Sherman.

47th to 54th 1881 to 1897 Henry B. Payne.....

49th " 52d 1885 ** 1891 Ohio River; and on April 7, 1788, the Calvin S. Brice...... 52d " 55th 1891 • 1896

first detachment of settlers sent by the Joseph B. Foraker.... 55th

1897 Marcus A. Hanna ..... 55th " 58th 1897 · 1904 company, forty-eight in number — men, Charles Dick ........ 58th "

1904 "

women, and children-seated themselves

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near the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio rivers, athwart the great war-path of the fierce Northwestern tribes when they made their bloody incursions to the frontiers of Virginia and Pennsylvania. They named the settlement Marietta, in honor of Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, the ally of the Americans. This was the seed from which sprang the great State of Ohio. It was composed of

GENERAL PUTNAM'S LAND OFFICE AT MARIETTA. the choice materials of New England society. At one time and, at their own cost, to build and gar-in 1789 — there were no less than rison a fort. The government was anxten of the settlers there who had re- ious to carry out this scheme of colonizaceived a college education. During that tion west of the Alleghany Mountains to year fully 20,000 settlers from the East counteract the evident designs of the were on lands on the banks of the Ohio. French to occupy that country. At the beginning of 1788 there was not a The French took immediate measures white family within the bounds of that to countervail the English movements. commonwealth.

Galissonière, who had grand dreams of Ohio Land Company, THE. Soon I'rench empire in America, fitted out an after the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle an expedition under Céleron de Bienville in association of London merchants and Vir- 1749 to proclaim French dominion at ginia land speculators, known as “The various points along the Ohio. The comOhio Land Company," obtained from the pany took measures for defining and occucrown a grant of 500,000 acres of land on pying their domain. Thomas Lee, two of the east bank of the Ohio River, with the the Washingtons, and other leading Virexclusive privilege of the Indian traffic. ginia members ordered goods suitable for International, or at least intercolonial, the Indian trade to be sent from London. disputes immediately occurred. The T'he company sent an agent to explore the French claimed, by right of discovery, the country and confer with the Indian tribes; whole region watered by the tributaries and in June, 1752, a conference was held of the Mississippi River. The English set at Logstown, near the Ohio, and friendly up a claim, in the name of the Six Na- relations were established between the tions, as under British protection, and English and the Indians. But the Westwhich was recognized by the treaties of ern tribes refused to recognize the right Utrecht (1713) and Aix-la-Chapelle of either the English or the French to (1748), to the region which they had lands westward of the Alleghany Mounformerly conquered, and which included tains. A Delaware chief said to Gist, the the whole eastern portion of the Missis- agent of the company, “ The French claim sippi Valley and the basin of the lower all the land on one side of the river, and lakes, Erie and Ontario. These conflict- the English claim all the land on the other ing claims at once embarrassed the opera- side of the river: where is the Indian's tions of the Ohio Land Company. It was land ?” This significant question was anprovided by their charter that they were to swered by Gist: “ Indians and white men pay no quit-rent for ten years; to colonize are subjects of the British King, and all at least 100 families within seven years; have an equal privilege in taking up and possessing the land." The company sent ened, in case of their refusal, to make war surveyors to make definite boundaries. upon them, and subdue them “ to the yoke English settlers and traders went into the and obedience of the Church and his Majcountry. The jealousy of the French was esty”; that he would make slaves of aroused. They seized and imprisoned their wives and children, take all their some of the surveyors and traders, and possessions, and do them all the harm he built forts. The French and Indian War could, protesting that they alone would that broke out soon afterwards put a be to blame for all deaths and disasters stop to the operations of the company. which might follow their disobedience. See FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR; OHIO See ALEXANDER VI. COMPANY.


This proclamation, which justified murOjeda, ALONZO DE, adventurer; born in der and robbery under the sanction of Cuenca, Spain, in 1465; was among the the Church and State, indicated the spirit earliest discoverers in America after of most of the Spanish conquerors. The Columbus and Cabot. He was with Co- natives delayed, and slaughter began. lumbus in his first voyage. Aided by the Captives were carried to the ships as Bishop of Badajos, he obtained royal per- slaves. The outraged Indians gathered mission to go or a voyage of discovery, in bands and slew many of the Spanish and the merchai ts of Seville fitted out soldiers with poisoned arrows. Ojeda four ships for hi , in which he sailed for took shelter from their fury among matSt. Mary's on May 20, 1499, accompanied ted roots at the foot of a mountain, where by Americus Vespucius as geographer. his followers found him half dead. At Following the track of Columbus in his that moment Nicuessa, governor of the third voyage (see COLUMBUS, CHRISTO- other province, arrived, and with reinPHER), they reached the northeastern forcements they made a desolating war on coast of South America, and discovered the natives. This was the first attempt mountains on the continent. Coasting to take possession of the mainland in along the northern shore of the continent America. Ojeda soon retired with some (naming the country Venezuela), Ojeda of his followers to Santo Domingo. The crossed the Caribbean Sea, visited Santo vessel stranded on the southern shore Domingo, and returned to Spain in Sep- of Cuba, then under native rule, and a tember. In 1509 the Spanish monarch di- refuge for fugitive natives from Santo vided Central America into two provinces, Domingo. The pagans treated the sufferand made Ojeda governor of one of them ing Christians kindly, and were rewardand Nicuessa of the other. Ojeda sailed ed with the fate of those of Hispaniola from Santo Domingo late in the autumn, (see Santo DOMINGO). The pious Ojeda accompanied by Pizarro and some Spanish had told of the wealth of the Cubans, friars, whose chief business at the outset and avaricious adventurers soon made that seems to have been the reading aloud to paradise a pandemonium. He built a the natives in Latin a proclamation by the chapel there, and so Christianity was Spanish leader, prepared by eminent introduced into that island. He died Spanish divines in accordance with a de- in Hispaniola in 1515. cree of the Pope of Rome, declaring that Ojibway Indians. See CHIPPEWA IND. God, who made them all, had given in IANS. charge of one man named St. Peter, who Okeechobee Swamp, BATTLE OF, an enhad his seat at Rome, all the nations on gagement in Florida in which General the earth, with all the lands and seas on Taylor defeated the Seminoles and capt. the globe; that his successors, called ured Osceola, Dec. 25, 1837. popes, were endowed by God with the Okemos, Indian chief; nephew of Pov. same rights; that one of them had given TIAC (9. 1.). When a boy he fought the to the monarchs of Spain all the islands Americans under Arthur St. Clair and and continents in the Western Ocean, and Anthony Wayne, and took an active part that the natives of the land he was on in the War of 1812, receiving a severe were expected to vield implicit submission wound in the attack on Fort Meigs. He to the servants of the King and Ojeda, his died in Lansing, Mich., December, 1886, representative. The proclamation threat. probably much over 100 years of age.

Oklahoma, TERRITORY OF. During the the Indians were permitted to sell to the Civil War many of the Indians belonging United States a vast tract of unused to the Five Civilized Nations in the Ind- lands in the central and western part of ian Territory espoused the cause of the their territory. Several millions of acres Confederacy and took up arms against the were bought by the government, for 'the United States. At the close of the war purpose of making a place of settlement the government declared that by these acts for freedmen and several Indian tribes.

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of hostility the grants and patents by Included in this tract was Oklahoma, which the tribes held their extensive do- which originally consisted of about 2,000,mains had become invalid, and a read- 000 acres in the centre of the territory. justment of the treaty acts under which It remained for several years unoccupied, these grants had been made was ordered. being closed to white immigrants because, By the conditions of this new adjustment as its former owners, the Creeks, claimed,

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