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CHAPTER XIII.

French fleet and a French minister arrive in America in the summer of 1778–

French minister received with great joy-Dr. Franklin appointed minister to

France-His instructions-Plan of attacking Canada in conjunction with

France adopted by congress -Submitted to general Washington-Disapproved

by him-His public and his private letters on this subject--Congress finally

relinquish the scheme- Co-operation of Spain expected-Spain declines ac-

ceding to the treaties made with France-Reasons of this-Wishes security for

her own American possessions-Offers her mediation between France and

Great Britain-- France accepts the mediation-Great Britain holds a corres-

pondence on the subject for some months-Refuses to have her disputes with

the Americans brought into the negociations-Rejects the final proposition of

Spain - King of Spain joins France in the war, June, 1779—This in pursuance

of a secret treaty made in April preceding-Manifestoes issued both by France

and Spain--Answered by Great Britain--Pending this mediation the British min-

ister, through Mr. Hartley, again sounds Dr. Franklin at Paris, on the subject

of reconciliation-Mr. Hartley with this view submits to him certain preliminary

propositions-Not acceded to-Object of the British minister to break the alli-

ance between the United States and France -Congress informed of the offer-

ed mediation of Spain by the French minister-Subject referred to a commit-

tee-Committee report instructions to be given to an American minister to

negociate peace-- These instructions create long debates and great divisions in

Congress - Particularly about the fisheries, the boundaries and the navigation

of the Mississippi-Terms relative to peace ultimately settled in congress

The use of the fisheries and the navigation of the Mississippi not made ultima-

ta— No treaty of commerce to be made with Great Britain, without a stipula-

tion on her part not to disturb the Americans in taking fish on the banks of

Newfoundland, &c.

CHAPTER XIV.

Congress offer to guaranty the Floridas to Spain, if she would accede to the trea.

ties—John Adams appointed Minister to negociate peace-John Jay, Min-

ister to the Court of Madrid–French Minister communicates to Congress

the views of the Spanish Court concerning the western country and the navi.

gation of the Mississippi—Spain requires the United States to relinquish all

claim to the country west of the Alleghany mountains, and to the right of nav-

igating the Mississippi--In answer to this, Congress send their Ministers a

statement of their claim to the western lands, to be communicated to the

courts, both of France and Spain-Congress give additional instructions to

Mr. Adams concerning a truce-Mr. Jay's instructions varied concerning the

navigation of the Mississippi below latitude 31°--Mr. Jay arrives in Spain, in

the spring of 1780-Spanish Minister requires of him particular information

concerning the United States Mr. Jay confers, with.the Spanish Minister-Is

informed that the King world Dotarçoede to the treadde. His situation very un-

pleasant-Is much embaitasitu oby: bills drowy upos kira by Congress-Span-

ish Minister engages to punish money for the United States-Neglects to

comply with his engagement-Pherfry Gajusos öppdinted Minister to Holland

-Negociations between the pensjonary of Amsterdam, and the American Min-

ister, William Lee, concerning a' tréaly' of commerce-Laurens taken on his

passage to Holland, and committed in the toster-His papers fall into the

hands of the British-War between Great Britain aid Holland—Mr. Adams

appointed Minister to Holland in the room of Mr. Laurens Presents a memo-

rial to the Dutch government--The subject referred to the several provinces

-This creates great delay-Mr. Adams demands a categorical answer-Is at

last received as a Minister, and concludes a commercial treaty-Armed neu-

trality in Europe-Principles of it approved by Congress-Mediation of the

Empress of Russia, and the Emperor of Germany-Communicated to Congress

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CHAPTER XV.

France assists America with troops--6000 arrive at Newport in July, 1780--

In the spring of 1781, join the American army near New York-Assist in the

capture of lord Cornwallis in October of the same year--British ministry

again attempt to make separate treaties with United States and France-

Make advantageous offers to the latter--Both nations refuse to treat separately

- Change of ministry in England --Pacific overtures made by the new admin-

istration—Mr. Oswald sent to Paris on the subject--His reception by Dr.

Franklin and the French minister–Agree to treat of peace at Paris--Mr. Gren-

ville sent as minister by the British Commissioners of peace about the same

time sent to America -Congress refuse to treat with them--Grenville declares

to Dr. Franklin that the independence of the United States was to be ac-

knowledged as a preliminary--New administration in England in consequence

of the death of the marquis of Rockingham-Lord Shelbume placed at the head

of it--Opposed to an express and open acknowledgment of American indepen.

dence-Supposed to have sent Mr. Jones to Paris secretly to sound the Amer-

ican ministers on the subject-Mr. Jones arrives at Paris - Makes an extraordi-

nary cominunication to Dr. Franklin-Great difficulties respecting the powers

of ihe British negociators-Mr. Jay refuses to treat except as the representative

of an independent nation-Views of the French minister on this subject-Gren-

ville recalled---Oswald appointed to treat with America---His powers finally

satisfactory.--Negociations commence-- American commissioners and Mr. Os-

wald agree on articles concerning boundaries and the fisheries to be inserted

in a treaty if approved by the British cabinet---Sent to London--- Mr. Jay

resumes negociations with Spain at Paris-Views of the Spanish and French

courts concerning the western bounds of the United States-Western line

designated by the Spanish minister-Not approved by the American ministers

---Extraordinary communication made to Mr. Jay on this subject by the sec-

retary of Vergennes-Views of France on the subject of the fisheries--- Articles

sent to London not agreed to by the British court---Mr. Strachey sent to

Paris to assist Mr. Oswald in further negociations.--The subjects of bounda-

ries, the fisheries, and compensation to the loyalists create great difficulties---

Finally settled by a provisional treaty---This treaty concluded by the American

minister without consulting the French court-Reasons of this---Correspon-

dence between Dr. Franklin and Vergennes on this poiat--Delay in the

negociations between Great Britain and Dragice ard Spain occasioned by the

demand made by Spain, for the surrender of Gibraltar--- Majority of the British

cabinet agree to give up this fortression certain conditions--- The British mon-

arch refuses to give it up on any terms---Spanish "mirister obliged to relinquish

the demand and treaties between those powers finally concluded---The treaties

not approved by the house of commoasiv Change of administration--- Provis-

ional treaty ratified by the United States Ine aroclo about debts not satis-

factory to some of the states---David Hartley sent by the new ministry to

complete the definitive treaty---Negociators not able to agree on any new

terms, or to make any cominercial arrangements,

Vol. II.

1

Pages

CHAPTER XVI.

The revolution not effected without great sacrifices and sullerings on the part

of the Americans--Paper money issued--Depreciates--Taxes not called for

by congress until November, 1777— Paper money made a tender in payment of

debts----Prices of articles fixed by law--Congress attempt to call in the paper,

but without success---States neglect to comply with the requisitions-Con-

gress present an address to the states--Paper ceases to circulate in 1780-

Distresses of the Americans for want of funds-Apply to France for aid

Special minister sent to the French court-- King of France furnishes money

--Loans obtained in Holland--New arrangements in the civil departments-

Sufferings of the army--General Washington's letters on this subject--Revolt

of the Pennsylvania line--- Americans suffer from the burning of their towns--

Discontents among the officers of the army--- Half pay recommended by gen-

eral Washington.---Finally granted—Is unpopular in some of the states--Offi-

cers petition congress on this subject, and for a settlement of their accounts

-.-Congress delay acting on their memorial---This creates great uneasiness

among the officers---A meeting called by an anonymous notitication to obtain

redres ---Prevented by general Washington---Congress grant five years' full

pay in lieu of the half pay for life---News of peace arrives---Arrangements

marie for disharding the army---General Washington sends a circular letter to

the states---Dehnilive treaty of peace arrives---Army finally disbanded--- Gen-

eral Washington addresses the army for the last time---Takes leaves of his

otticars--- Resigns his commission to congress,

134

CHAPTER XVII.*

After the peace of 1783, congress take measures to restore public eredit-

Amount of the debt of the United States--States requested to vest congress

with power to levy duties on imposts, and to establish sunds for the payment

of the interest of the debt-Address to the states on the subject--All the states

grant the impost, except New York-Congress propose to enter into commer-

cial treaties with most of the powers of Europe-- Establish certain principles

respecting treaties --Appoint ministers to form commercial arrangements with

for nations - Pitt's bill respecting commercial intercourse with the United

St?te *-- Not approved by the new ministry and the navigating interest--Lord

bartinia's observations upon it-King and comcil authorized to regulate the

3,free of the United States --Americans excluded from the West India

16--Disputes with Great Britain about the inexecution of the treaty of

prace-Mr. Adams sent minister to England--His instructions--His reception

at ple court of London--Presents a memorial to the British ministers--- British

complain of infractions of the treaty on the part of the United States--Con-

ress recommend the repeal of all laws contrary to the treaty--Disputes with

Sraiu renewed about limits and the navigation of the Mississippi-Gardoqui,

minister from Spain, arrives-Mr. Jay appointed to negociate with him--His

insert ctions, and course of negociation with the Spanish minister---Cessions of

lands by the states--Territory of the United States formed into a district-Or-

dinance of congress for the government of the territory--Inefficiency of the

general governspent Depressed stage of 2012 vean commerce--Insurrection in

Massachusetts--Alacas congresso loops Bidered to be raised to assist Massa-

chuseiis--Meeting of coninisiones fton several states at Annapolis, to amend

the a cles of confederation--Genealogutention recommended by these com-

missioners and by congresso Delgesio this convention appointed by all the

states except Rhode Island,

179

CFAPTER XVIII.

General convention meet at: Phimadeipia--form rules for their proceedings--

Propositions of Mr. Randolph for a new system of government-Amendments

* Inscrted svi, by mistake.

Page.

of the articles of confederation proposed by Mr. Patterson-Both debated— The

amendments of Mr. Patterson rejected --Large majority agree to form a new

system of government--- To be divided into three great departments, legisla-

tive, executive and judicial - Legislative divided into two branches, house of

representatives and senate-Convention divided on the subject of the represent-

ation of the states in the senate--Sketch of the debate on this question--- States

equally divided upon it--- The subject referred to a large committee --Commit-

tee report a compromise between the large and small state3---This finally

adopted by a majority of the convention---Sketch of the powers granted to

congress---General government prohibited from doing certain acts---The

powers of the states restricted --The organization of an executive attended

with great difficulty---Outlines of the first plan adopted by the convention---

This afterwards rejected and a new plan formed and eventually adopted---

· Powers given to the executive---Judicial department to consist of a supreme

court and inferior courts---In what cases they have jurisdiction---Constitution

eventually different, in many respects, from what the members first con-

templated---Difference between the articles of confederation and the constitu-

tion-States divided on the subject of importing slaves, and on the subject of

the powers of congress, relative to navigation acts--- These differences settled

by mutual concessions---General Washington's influence in the convention---

Constitution considered by state conventions---People greatly divided in some

of the states---Adopted by three states unanimously---By large majorities in

four states---Rhode Island refuses to call a convention--- The other five states

much divided--- Doubtful for a time whether they would ratify it without pre-

vious amendments---Massachusetts adopts it, and recommends certain amend.

ments---Convention of New Hampshire meet and adjourn --The system

strongly opposed in New York, Virginia and North Carolina, without previous

amendments---Is warınly debated in the conventions of those states---New

Hampshire follows the example of Massachusetts--- Virginia and New York

adopt it in the same manner by small majorities---North Carolina refuses her

assent unless amended,

224

CHAPTER XIX.

States institute forms of government agreeably to the advice of congress--

States of Connecticut and Rhode Island proceed according to their charters--

Massachusetts at first conform to their charter as far as practicable--New

Hampshire, South Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware,

Maryland, and North Carolina, establish new governments in the course of the

year 1776---Those of New Hampshire, South Carolina, and New Jersey, lim-

ited to the continuance of the disputes with Great Britain---General principles

and outlines of these constitutions---New York establishes a government in

1777---Its general features---Constitution of Massachusetts not finally com-

pleted until 1780---Vermont not a part of the union until 1791---Claimed by

New York and New Hampshire--Declares independence in 1777---Outlines

of her constitution, formed in 1786---Constitution of Georgia as established in

1789---After the formation and adoption of the general government, principles

of making constitutions better understood--Pennsylvania, New Hampshire,

South Carolina, and Delaware, revise and alter their systems of government,

293

CHAPTER XX.

First congress under the new constitution meet at New York, on the 4th of

March, 1789---George Washington chosen president, and John Adams vice-

president---President's inaugural speech, and answers of both houses---Con-

gress lay tonnage and other duties---Give a preference to American shipping---

Establish different departments---Determine the question about the removal

of the heads of these departments---Power of removal vested in the presi-

dent alone---Debate on this subject--- The senate about equally divided upon

it--- Amendments to the constitution proposed--- A national judiciary establish-

Page.

ed---Its powers and jurisdiction---Vessels of North Carolina and Rhode Island

placed on the same footing with those of the United States, until the 15th of

January, 1790.--Congress direct the secretary of the treasury to report, at their

next session, a plan for the support of public credit--- Request the president to

recommend the observance of a day of public thanksgiving and prayer---Ad-

journ to the first Monday of January, 1790---North Carolina adopts the con-

stitution in November---Speech of the president at the opening of the second

session of congress---He recommends the promotion of such manufactures,

as would remer the United States independent on others for essential arti-

cles, the establishment of a good militia system, and adequate provision for

the support of public credit--- Financial plan of the secretary of the treas-

ury, submitted to the house in January--Outlines of this plan-Secretary

recommends funding the debt of the United States, and the assumption of the

state diebts-This creates great divisions and long debates in congress-Motion

to discriminate between the original holders and the assignees of the domestic

debt negatived-- Assumption of the state debts violently opposed-Debates

on this question-Finally camied— Terms of funding the debts-Commission-

ers appointed to setile the accounts between the states, and principles of set-

tlement adopted--Census of the inhabitants to be taken on the first Monday

of August, 1790—Third session commences the first Monday of December,

1790 --Vermont and Kentucky admitted into the union-National bank es-

tablished-Strongly opposed as unconstitutional-Cabinet divided on the

question, President decides in favor of its constitutionality-Duties laid on

spirits distilled within the United States—Opposed in congress, and in some

of the states--Speech of the president at the opening of the first session of the

second congres, in Uctober, 1791–Ratio of representation setded--Difference

between the houses and the president as to the constitutional rule of apportion-

ment-Gen. St. Clair and his army defeated by the Indians--Opposition to

the internal duties increases-The two great parties in the United States

more distinctly marked--Cabinet divided--An inquiiy into the official conduct

of the secretary of the treasury, instituted in the house of representatives,

Charges exhibited againsi him-Negatived by a large majority-Supreme

court decides, that a state is liable to a suit in favor of individuals -- An annend-

inent altering the constitution in this respect proposed and adopted-The

first term of president Washington's administration expires on the 4th of

March, 1793,

317

CHAPTER XXI.

George Washington again elected president, and John Adams vice-president

- Public feeling in America in favor of the French revolution-France declar-

ed a republic-Declare war against England and Holland-Genet a new

French rinister arrives in America--Proclamation of neutrality issued-Is

strongly opposed-- French minister's instructions---He is directed to form a

family or national compact with the United States-A new guaranty of the

French West Indies to be a condition of enjoying a commerce with them---

Conduct of Genet--- Difference between him and the American executive---

Causes of it-Genet claims a right to arm vessels in American ports, and to

issue commissions and to enlist Americans to man then-Uses intemperate

language in his correspondence-French consuls take cognizance of prizes

---Resist the officers of the United States Genet arms and sends out a vessel

directly contrary to the orders of the president-Threatens to appeal to the

peopit--- President requests his recall — Genet furnished with a copy of the

letter containing this request--- His insulting reply--- Issues commissions, and

engages men in South Carolina and Kentucky in hostile expeditions against the

Spanish possessions-Spirited conduct of South Carolina against such pro-

ceedings---Conduct of the French agents in Kentucky—Their correspondence

with the governor of that state--Correspondence between the secretary of

state and governor Shelby--Conduct of the French minister supported by

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