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Kanem, a tributary to my country. Bor- him. The armies pitched their camps noo, after a manly effort, was compelled opposite to each other; and the king of by force of arms to submit to the yoke Begharmi sent a messenger with a letof the Fellatahs. . .

ter to Maïs Barnoma, informing him In 1815 Bornoo arose from its humil. that the heaviest assault would be made iating position, to shake off the yoke upon the left, and that, if he would give of Danfodio. Mohammed el Anim el El Kanemy command there, the bravKanemy, the Washington of Bornoo, est of the assailants would surround was the man who undertook to liber- and kill him at once. This letter the ate his country and restore her former messenger carried to El Kanemy inprestige. This immortal hero could stead of the king, who, at once seeing collect from the villages of Bornoo but the plot, immediately answered the ima few hundreds of horsemen ; but in portant document, signing the name of Kanem he got eight hundred men, and Barnoma, and loading the messenger accepted an engagement with the en- with presents of all descriptions for emy. He gained the first victory, and his master. The next morning El Katook such good advantage of his suc- nemy went to the king and told him cess, that in the space of two months that the heaviest assault would be made he won forty battles, drove the enemy on the right, and that he should not entirely out of Bornoo, and captured expose his precious life there. As a great many places belonging to the Barnoma got no letter from the king Fellatahs.

of Begharmi, he thought El Kanemy At the close of the war, El Kanemy was right, and acted accordingly. found himself at the head of twenty- The battle finally began, and the eight thousand horsemen, and the real Sycaries of Begharmi, attacking the left ruler of Bornoo. Like all great men, where they thought El Kanemy was, he refused the sceptre, and, going to surrounded Maïs Barnoma and killed the legitimate heir of the throne, Maïs him, supposing him El Kanemy. The Barnoma, told him he was at his dis- battle, however, went on, and the king posal. Barnoma, notwithstanding the of Begharmi found out before long that noble actions of El Kanemy, was jeal- he had killed the wrong lion. His arous of his fame, and tried a plan to my, in spite of their usual courage, were dispose of him, which he thought would beaten, and obliged to recross the river be best, and of which the public would Shary, at that place more than two miles not suspect him. Accordingly he wrote wide, with a loss of half their number. to the king of Begharmi, promising to The victorious army of El Kanemy pay the expenses of his troops, and also crossed the river, and, pursuing some extra compensation beside, if he the retreating forces, captured Mesna, would make as though he were really the capital of Begharmi, and drove the at war with Bornoo. He agreed to king into the country of Waday. the proposal, and crossed with his army El Kanemy now found himself the the great river Shary, the natural fron absolute ruler of Bornoo, nor had that tier of the two kingdoms. El Kanemy kingdom ever any greater ruler. Under was then in the city of Kooka, which his reign the nation prospered finely. he had built for himself. He heard He encouraged commerce with Northfinally of the war between Bornoo and ern and Eastern Africa, and, building Begharmi, and, hastily calling out his a fleet of small vessels, sailed with a ancient veterans, he reported to En- strong force against a tribe who inhabgornoo, where the king resided. The ited the main islands of Lake Tchad, combined forces numbered some forty and who used to commit depredations thousand men. El Kanemy knew noth- upon the neighboring sections of Boring of the infamous act of the king ; but noo, and chastised them severely. Allah, who protects the innocent and These islanders are the finest type punishes the guilty, was smiling over of the African race, possessing regular

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features, and large, expressive eyes, mother and uncle returned me to the though they are the darkest of all teacher for eighteen months. I stayed Africans. El Kanemy also subdued the required time, and then was tried many of the surrounding tribes and and passed. nations, until the population of Bornoo I was then old enough to be cirand its provinces amounted to nearly cumcised. Three hundred boys went fifteen millions.

through the ceremony at once, and My father was the descendant of a were then dressed in white clothes, and very illustrious family. He was the received according to custom a great first man who had a commission under many presents. Fifteen days we ate El Kanemy when he went to Kanem to the best that Kooka had, the king himrecruit his forces. He was made a self giving us the best he had in his Bagafuby, or captain of one hundred palace. This generally happens only cavalry, and was in every engagement to the sons of those who have distinwhich El Kanemy went through. The guished themselves in the army, or, to name by which my father was known explain myself better, to those of the was Barca Gana.* My great-grand- military aristocracy. At the end of this father was from Molgoi. He estab- time all of us went home. For my lished himself in Bornoo many years' part, this was the first time I had slept ago, and was greatly favored by the in my father's house for four years and monarchs of that country. My mother seven months. I was very much welwas a Mandara woman, the daughter comed by my mother, sisters, and brothof a chief. I was born in Kooka, a few ers, and was a pet for some time. years after the Waday war of 1831. After returning from school to my We were in all nineteen children, father's house, I judge about four or five twelve boys and seven girls. I was years afterwards, I was invited, in comthe ninth child of my mother. All my pany with three of my brothers, by the brothers were well educated in Arabic eldest son of the governor of the provand Turkish. Two of them, Mustapha ince of Yaoori and Laree, who lived in and Abderahman, were very rich, hav- the town of the latter name, to visit ing acquired their wealth by trading in him. This part of the province is very ivory and gold-dust. Both had been to charming. The forests are full of deMecca as pilgrims. My father himself licious game, and the lake of fish and was rich, but when he was killed, our beautiful aquatic birds; while in the elder brother seized the greater part, dry seasons the woods and uncultivated and those who were not eighteen years plains are worthy to be called the garof age had to leave their share in their den of Eden. In my childhood I had mother's hands. Five cleared farms quite a passion for hunting, one of my and a considerable amount of gold fell father's great passions also. In spite to my share. I do not know how much of the efforts of my elder brothers to the gold amounted to, but my mother check me in it, I would persuade the used to tell me, that, when I got to be other boys to follow me into the thick twenty years of age, I would have as woods, to the danger of their lives and much as either of my elder brothers. mine. My worthy mother declared sev

After my father's death I was given eral times that I would be captured by to a teacher to be instructed in my the Kindils, a wandering tribe of the native tongue, and also in Arabic. In desert. Her prophecy was fulfilled after the space of three years I could read all, unhappily for myself, and perhaps and write both languages. I was tried more so for those I had persuaded with in my native tongue, and passed ; but me. While on the visit just spoken I could not pass in Arabic, and my of, one day, - it was a Ramadan day,

anniversary of the Prophet's day, - I * Barca Gana is alluded to in the Encyclopædia Britannica (Vol. V. p. 54) as the general of the

persuaded a great number of boys, and Scheik of Bornoo. - EDS.

we went into the woods a great way

from any village. We came across away. We succeeded in breaking the nests of Guinea fowl, and gathered chains, and four of the oldest boys took plenty of eggs, and killed several of the their captors' arms, cut their throats, fowl. We made fire by rubbing two jumped on their horses, and succeeded pieces of dry stick together, and broiled in making their escape. When it was the chickens and eggs. Then we pro- found out, they gave each of us fifteen ceeded farther, and came across a tree strokes in the hollows of our feet, becalled Agoua, bearing a delicious kind cause we did not inform them. of fruit. We all went up the tree, eat- A little while after our comrades' esing fruit and making a great deal of cape we started on again. This time noise. We frolicked on that tree for we had to go on foot for five days, unmany hours. Presently several of the til we reached a town called Kashna, boys told me they heard the neighing belonging to the Emperor of the Felof horses. We then all agreed not to latahs, but situated in the country of make so much noise, but we were just Houssa, where we were all dispersed to too late. In about a quarter of an hour see each other no more. Fortunately, we were startled by the cry, “ Kindil ! none of my brothers were with me in Kindil !" The boys who were nearest the woods. to the ground contrived to hide them- My lot was that of an Arab slave, for selves in the thicket. It happened I was bought by a man named Abdthat I was higher than any one, and el-Kader, a merchant of Tripoli and while coming down with haste, I missed Fezzan. He was not an Arabian, howmy hold and fell, and lay senseless. ever, but a brown-skinned man, and When I opened my eyes, I found my- undoubtedly had African blood in his self on horseback behind a man, and veins. He had at this time a large tied to him with a rope. Out of forty load of ivory and other goods waiting boys, eighteen of us were taken cap- for the caravan from Kano and Saccative. I wished then that it was a dream too. This caravan soon came, and with rather than a reality, and the warnings it we started for Moorzook, capital of of my mother passed through my mind. the pachalic of Fezzan. Although we Tears began to flow down my cheeks; numbered about five hundred, all armed I not only lamented for myself, but for except slaves who could not be trustthose also whom I persuaded into those ed, a lion whom we met after starting, wild woods. Meanwhile, our inhuman lying in our path, would not derange captors were laughing and talking mer- himself on our account, and we had to rily, but I could not understand them. attack him. Twelve men fired into About six hours' ride, as I suppose, him. Four men he killed, and woundbrought us to their camp. The tentsed five or six, and then escaped. He were then immediately taken down, the was hit somewhere, as they found camels loaded, and we started again, blood where he lay, but it was not travelling night, and day for three long known where. When he roared, he days, until we came to a temporary vil scared all the horses and camels comlage where their chief was. After we posing the caravan. Abd-el-Kader got there we were all chained together, was one of those who attacked the lion, except four, who were taken pity upon, but he was not hurt. on account of their age and birth. It Five days after we left Kashna, we was then night, and nearly all the camp came to the first oasis. Here the plains was under the influence of hashish, an were all barren and sandy, but full of intoxicating mixture made of hemp- gazelles, antelopes, and ostriches. The seed and other ingredients, which when principal tree growing here was the too much is eaten will intoxicate worse date-palm, and the water was very bad, than whiskey, or even spirits of wine tasting salty. While the robbers were drunk, we boys As the caravan travelled toward the were consulting and plotting to run east, the ground rose by degrees. If I am not mistaken, we passed five them very dangerous from their steepoases before we came into the coun- ness, and a few camels were lost by try of Tibboo, a mountainous region falling into the ravines. After passing between Bornoo and Fezzan, the in- this dangerous place, a sign of vegetahabitants of which suffer considerably tion was seen, oases were more frefrom the Kindils, though they are also quent, and at last forests of date-palm, robbers themselves. The capital of the fruit of which forms the principal Tibboo is Boolma, built on a high food of both the inhabitants of Fezzan mountain. I was disappointed when and their camels, became abundant. I saw the city, for I had heard that El Kaheni is the first town or human it was quite a large place. Laree, the habitation seen after leaving Tibboo. smallest town in Bornoo, is a place of It is a small walled town, like all other more importance. The people of Tibe places in Fezzan. Here I first saw boo are of dark-brown complexion, and the curious way in which the Fezzaare noted in Soodan for their shrewd neers cultivate their land by irrigation. ness. The day that the caravan hap- Each farm has a large well, wide at pened to be at Boolma, two parties the top and sloping toward the bottom, were in a warlike attitude about a fair out of which water is drawn by donmaid whom each wished their chief to keys, and poured into a trough, from have for a wife. We did not stay long which it runs into small ditches. This enough to see the issue of the fight, process is renewed every few days unand two days' journey took us out of til the crop no longer needs watering. the kingdom of Tibboo.

The people of El Kaheni were very As soon as the oasis of Tibboo was courteous. I had a long talk with a left, the country became very rocky, - young man, who gave me a description the rock being a kind of black gran- of the capital, Moorzook, but his story ite ; and the Arabs had to make shoes did not agree with that which Abd-elfor both their camels and slaves, for Kader told me. I afterwards found the rocks were very sharp, and if this that the young man's story was corprecaution had not been taken, in a rect. We left El Kaheni the next day, few hours their feet would have been taking a large load of dates, superior so cut that they could not have pro- to those of Soodan in size and sweetceeded farther. Some Arabs would ness. After three days' journey we rather lose four or five slaves than a could see in the distance a large flag single camel. They rode very seldom. on a long pole, on the top of the EngIn a journey of ten or twelve weeks I lish Consulate, the largest house in the saw Abd-el-Kader ride but once, and metropolis of Fezzan. We passed sevthe majority never rode at all.

eral villages of trifling importance, and In these rocky regions of the desert at about noon arrived within the walls a great amount of salt is found also, - of Moorzook. There the caravan diswhat is called in our language Kalboo, solved, and each man went to his own and I believe, in English, carbonate house. of soda. Soodan is supplied by the I found Moorzook to be not larger Moors and Kindils with salt from the than a quarter of my native town of desert. Sea-shells are also occasion. Kooka; but the buildings were in ally found in this region. After we general better, every house being of left Tibboo fire was never allowed, stone, though of course very poorly even in the oases, but I do not know built in comparison with European for what reason.

dwellings. The city has four gates, The mountainous regions of the one toward each cardinal point of the desert passed, we came to a more level compass. The northern is the one by country, but it was not long before we which the caravan entered; the eastsaw other mountains ahead. As we ern is a ruin ; the southern, which is passed over the last of them, we found behind the Pacha's palace, has mount

ed by it two guns of large calibre ; in Tripoli. So long as I had to be a while the western, and the best of all, slave, I hated to leave so excellent a is situated near the barracks, which man, but I had to go. Accordingly, are fine buildings, larger even than the when the caravan was to start, he sent Pacha's palace. The pachalic of Fez- me in charge of Abd-el-Kader, the man zan is a tributary of the Ottoman Porte, from whom he had bought me. Beand the Pacha, a Turk, is very much fore leaving the city we went to a house hated by the Bedouins.

that I had never seen before, and had After reaching Abd-el-Kader's house, our names registered in a book by a · I found that he was a poor man. The very benevolent-looking man, who wore reader can form some idea from his liv. spectacles on his eyes, something I ing in the capital, and having but one had never seen before, and which made wife, all his property consisting of a me afraid of him. As we passed out piece of land about two and a half of the city gate we were counted one miles from the city, a few donkeys, ten by one by an officer. camels, old and young, an Arab slave, On our arrival at Tripoli, Abd-eland myself. While I was yet with him Kader took me to an old house in a he bought also a young Fellatah girl. street narrow and dirty beyond deAs soon as we arrived, he sent me with scription, where we passed the night. Hassan, his slave, to the farm, where The next morning he went with me I worked some fifteen days. I told to my new master, Hadji Daoud, the him then that I was not used to such father of Abdy Agra. When we found work, and prayed him to sell me to him he was sitting on a divan of velsome Turk or Egyptian. He asked vet, smoking his narghile. He looked me what my father used to do, and I at that time to be about forty-five years told him that he was a warrior and old, and was of very fine appearance, also traded in gold-dust and ivory. On having a long beard, white as snow. hearing my father's name he opened Abd-el-Kader seemed well acquainted his eyes wide, and asked me why I with him, for they shook hands and did not tell him that in Soodan. He drank coffee together. After this we had known my father well, but had proceeded to the Turkish Bazaar, where not seen him for fifteen rainy seasons. I found that he was a merchant of From that day Abd-el-Kader was very tobacco, and had an extensive shop, kind to me, and said he had a great his own property. Hadji Daoud had notion to take me back. He, however, three wives; the principal one was an sold me after all to a young Turkish Arabian, one was a native of my officer named Abdy Agra, an excel- country, and one, and, to do her juslent young man, full of life and fun. tice, the best looking of them all, was

This officer was always with the Pacha, a Houssa girl. He believed in keeping and I believe was one of his aides. a comfortable table, and we had mutHis wife was a Kanowry woman. He ton almost daily, and sometimes fowls. used to bring home money every night He had but one son, and he was far and often gave me some. After he away. He told me that he intended had dressed me up, I accompanied him to treat me as a son, and every day I to the Pacha's every day. He spoke went to the shop with him. He treatmy language very correctly, only with ed me always kindly, but madam was a an accent, like all strangers trying to cross and overbearing woman. speak Kanowry, and he began to teach About this time my master started me Turkish. Strange to say, in Fezzan on his third pilgrimage to Mecca, leavthe Bornoo tongue is in great vogue, ing a friend in charge of his store, and rich and poor speaking Kanowry. I taking me with him. We went by sail stayed with Abdy Agra more than from Tripoli to Alexandria, touching at three months; but one day he told me Bengazi. From Alexandria we went that he had to send me to his father by cars to Ben Hadad, thence to Saida

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