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abuses, but throughout the economy But the expedition itself was misa of the army. He cashiered, upon managed, or was unfortunate. This one occasion, an entire legion: he result, however, does not restored, as far as he was able, the chargeable upon Alexander. All the ancient discipline; and, above all, preparations were admirable on the he liberated the provinces from mi- march, and up to the enemy's fronlitary spoliation. " Let the soldier,” tier. The invasion it was, which, said he,“ be contented with his pay; in a strategic sense, seems to have and whatever more he wants-let been ill-combined. Three armies him obtain it by victory from the were to have entered Persia simul. enemy, not by pillage from his fel- taneously: one of these, which was low-subject." But whatever might destined to act on a flank of the gebe the value or extent of his reforms neral line, entangled itself in the in the marching regiments, Alexan- marshy grounds near Babylon, and der could not succeed in binding the was cut off by the archery of an Prætorian guards to his yoke. Under enemy whom it could not reach. the guardianship of his mother Mam- The other wing, acting upon ground mæa, the conduct of state affairs bad impracticable for the manæuvres of been submitted to a council of six. the Persian cavalry, and supported teen persons, at the head of which by Chosroes the king of Armenia, stood the celebrated Ulpian. To gave great trouble to Artaxerxes,this minister the Prætorians imputed and, with adequate support from the the reforms--and perhaps the whole other armies, would doubtless have spirit of reform; for they pursued been victorious. But the central him with a vengeance which is else army, under the conduct of Alexanhardly to be explained. Many days der in person, discouraged by the was Ulpian protected by the citizens destruction of one entire wing, reof Rome, until the whole city was mained stationary in Mesopotamia threatened with conflagration ; be throughout the summer; and at the then fled to the palace of the young close of the campaign was withdrawn Emperor, who in vain attempted to to Antioch, re infectå. It has been save him from his pursuers under observed that great mystery hangs the shelter of the imperial purple. over the operations and issue of this Ulpian was murdered before his short war. Thus much, however, is eyes; nor was it found possible to evident—that nothing but the prepunish the ringleader in this foul vious exhaustion of the Persian King conspiracy, until he had been re- saved the Roman armies from signal moved by something like treachery discomfiture; and even thus there is to a remote government.

no ground for claiming a victory (as Meantime a great revolution and most historians do) to the Roman change of dynasty had been effected arms. Any termination of the Perin Parthia; the line of the Arsacidæ sian war, however, whether glorious was terminated; the Parthian empire or not, was likely to be personally was at an end; and the sceptre of injurious to Alexander by allowing Persia was restored under the new leisure to the soldiery for recurring race of the Sassanides. Artaxerxes, to their grievances. Sensible, no the first prince of this race, sent an doubt, of this, Alexander was gratiembassy of four hundred select fied by the occasion which then arose knights, enjoining the Roman Empe- for repressing the hostile movements Tor to content himself with Europe, of the Germans. He led his army and to leave Asia to the Persians. off upon this expedition ; but their In the event of a refusal, the am- temper was gloomy and threatening; bassadors were instructed to offer and at length, after reaching the seat a defiance to the Roman prince. of war, at Mentz, an open mutiny Upon such an insult, Alexander broke out under the guidance of could not do less, with either safety Maximin, which terminated in the or dignity, than prepare for war. murder of the Emperor and his moIt is probable, indeed, that, by this ther. By Herodian the discontents expedition, which drew off the minds of the army are referred to the ill of the soldiery from brooding upon management of the Persian camthe reforms which offended them, paign, and the unpromising comthe life of Alexander was prolonged. mencement of the new war in Ger

many. But it seems probable that mild Alexander, should suffer under a dissolute and wicked army like the barbarous and capricious rigour that of Alexander, had not murmured of Maximin. That rigour was his under the too little, but the too much ruin: sunk and degraded as the Seof military service; not the buying a nate was, and now but the shadow truce with gold seems to have of- of a mighty name, it was found on fended them, but the having led this occasion to have long arms when them at all upon an enterprise of supported by the frenzy of its oppodanger and hardship.

nent. Whatever might be the real Maximin succeeded, whose feats weakness of this body, the rude of strength when he first courted the soldiers yet felt a blind traditionary notice of the Emperor Severus, have veneration for its sanction, when been described by Gibbon. He was prompting them as patriots to an act at that period a Thracian peasant; which their own multiplied provosince then he had risen gradually to cations bad but too much recomhigh offices; but, according to histo- mended to their passions. A party rians, he retained his Thracian bru- entered the tent of Maximin, and tality to the last. That may have despatched him with the same unbeen true ; but one remark must pitying haste which he had shewn be made upon this occasion; Maxi- under similar circumstances to the min was especially opposed to the gentle-minded Alexander. Aquileia Senate; and, wherever that was the opened her gates immediately, and case, no justice was done to an Em- thus made it evident that the war peror. Why it was that Maximin had been personal to Maximin. would not ask for the confirmation A scene followed within a short of his election from the Senate, has time which is in the highest degree never been explained ; it is said that interesting. The Senate, in creating he anticipated a rejection. But, on two Emperors at once (for the boy the other hand, it seems probable Gordian was probably associated to that the Senate supposed its sanction them only by way of masking their to be despised. Nothing, apparently, experiment), had made it evident but this reciprocal reserve in making that their purpose was to restore approaches to each other, was the the Republic and its two Consuls. cause of all the bloodshed which This was their meaning; and the followed. The two Gordians, who experiment had now been twice recommanded in Africa, were set up peated. The army saw through it: by the Senate against the new Empe. as to the double number of Emperor; and the consternation of that rors, that was of little consequence, body must have been great, when farther than as it expressed their inthese champions were immediately tention, viz. by bringing back the overthrown and killed. They did consular government, to restore the not, however, despair: substituting power of the Senate, and to abrogate the two governors of Rome, Pupi- that of the army. The Prætorian enus and Balbinus, and associating troops, who were the most deeply to them the younger Gordian, they interested in preventing this revoluresolved to make a stand; for the tion, watched their opportunity, and severities of Maximin had by this attacked the two Emperors in the time manifested that it was a con- palace. The deadly feud, which had test of extermination. Meantime already arisen between them, led Maximin had broken up from Sir- each to suppose himself under asmium, the capital of Pannonia, and sault from the other. The mistake had advanced to Aquileia--that fa- was not of long duration. Carried mous fortress, which in every inva. into the streets of Rome, they were sion of Italy was the first object of both put to death, and treated with attack. The Senate had set a price monstrous indignities. The young upon his head; but there was every Gordian was adopted by the soldiery. probability that he would have tri- It seems odd that even thus far the umphed, had he not disgusted his guards should sanction the choice of army by immoderate severities. It the Senate, having the purposes which was, however, but reasonable that they had ; but perhaps Gordian had those, who would not support the recommended himself to their favour strict but equitable discipline of the in a degree which might outweigh what they considered the original modus, Pertinax, Didius Julianus, vice of his appointment, and his Septimius Severus, Caracalla, and youth promised them an immediate Geta, Macrinus, Heliogabalus, Aleximpunity. This prince, however, like ander Severus, Maximin, the two so many of his predecessors, soon Gordians, Pupienus and Balbinus, the came to an unhappy end. Under the third Gordian, and Philip the Arab. guardianship of the upright Misithe- In looking back at this series of us, for a time he prospered; and Cæsars, we are horror-struck at the preparations were made upon a blood-stained picture. Well might great scale for the energetic admi- a foreign writer, in reviewing the nistration of a Persian war. But same succession, declare, that it is Misitheus died, perhaps by poison, like passing into a new world when in the course of the campaign; and the transition is made from this to him succeeded, as Prætorian Pre- chapter of the human history to that fect, an Arabian officer, called Phi- of modern Europe. From Comlip. The innocent boy, left without modus to Decius are sixteen names, friends, was soon removed by mur- which, spread through a space of 59 der; and a monument was after years, assign to each Cæsar a reign wards erected to his memory, at the of less than four years. And Casjunction of the Aboras and the Eu- aubon remarks, that in one period phrates. Great obscurity, however, of 160 years, there were 70 persons clouds this part of history; nor is who assumed the Roman purple; it so much as known in what way which gives to each not much more the Persian war was conducted or than two years. On the other hand, terminated.

in the history of France, we find Philip, having made himself Empe- that, through a period of 1200 years, ror, celebrated, upon his arrival in there have been no more than 64 Rome, the secular games, in the year kings : upon an average, therefore, 247 of the Christian era—that being each king appears to have enjoyed a the completion of a thousand years reign of nearly nineteen years. This from the foundation of Rome. But vast difference in security is due to Nemesis was already on his steps. two great principles--that of primoAn insurrection had broken out geniture as between son and son, and amongst the legions stationed in of hereditary succession as between Moesia; and they had raised to the a son and every other pretender. purple some officer of low rank. Well may we hail the principle of Philip, having occasion to notice hereditary right as realizing the this affair in the Senate, received for praise of Burke applied to chivalry, answer from Decius, that probably viz. that it is “ the cheap defence of the pseudo-Imperator would prove nations ;" for the security which is a mere evanescent phantom. This thus obtained, be it recollected, does conjecture was confirmed : and Phi- not regard a small succession of lip in consequence conceived a high princes, but the whole rights and opinion of Decius, whom (as the interests of social man: since the insurrection still continued) he contests for the rights of belligerent judged to be the fittest man for ap- rivals do not respect themselves peasing it. Decius accordingly went only, but very often spread ruin and armed with the proper authority. proscription amongst all orders of But on his arrival he found himself men. The principle of hereditary compelled by the insurgent army to succession, says one writer, had it choose between empire and death. been a discovery of any one indiviThus constrained, he yielded to the dual, would deserve to be considerwishes of the troops; and then has- ed as the very greatest ever made: tening with a veteran army into and he adds acutely, in answer to Italy, he fought the battle of Verona, the obvious, but shallow objection where Philip was defeated and kill. to it (viz. its apparent assumption of ed; whilst the son of Philip was equal ability for reigning in father murdered at Rome by the Prætorian and son for ever), that it is like the guards.

Copernican system of the heavenly With Philip ends, according to bodies-contradictory to our sense our distribution, the second series and first impressions, but true notof the Cæsars, comprehending Com- withstanding.




We have now reached the second tionists, of men ready to go any stage in révolutionary movements; length in measures of spoliation; and the first is numbered with the things who, having little or nothing to lose which have been. We are running themselves, are careless of the hazard the usual, the thousand-times pre- in which they may place the prodicted course of such changes: their perty of others. This desperate party, first effect bas destroyed the princi. it is also true, is fearfully increased ples with which they set out; preci- by the progress of corruption, and pitated from the helm the conscien- the changes of fortune, incident to a tious part of the Government, who wealthy and commercial society; for were carried away by their illusion. as Bacon well observes, “as many Purified of its constitutional suppor- as there are overthrown fortunes, are ters, deprived of its brightest talent, there assured votes for innovation.” stript of its noblest eloquence, the But great as this party sometimes Reform Cabinet has changed its becomes in the progress of wealth in character, altered its intentions, the later stages of society, especially abandoned its pledges. It no longer after a monetary crisis, such as we pretends to uphold the constitution; have passed through, it never can it gives up the stale pretence of re- overcome the holders of property, forming, not changing, the govern- and the men of education, if they only ment-it avows its inability to with. behave with common resolution, and stand the movement. We no longer remain true to themselves, their princihear of resting where we are-of ples, their duties, and their interests. making a great and sweeping, but it is the defection of a portion, and final change; of lopping off the cor- it is often a noble and generous porrupt, but retaining the sound part of tion, of this phalanx, irresistible when the constitution. Concession to the united, which can alone give even a

pressure from without" is now the temporary ascendency to the Revowatchword; ecclesiastical spoliation lutionary party, and enable the reis admitted in principle; the inten- fuse of society,--thereckless, the protion is avowed of marching with the figate, the desperate,--the prodigals, spirit of the age; the fact is assu- the bankrupts, the infidels,—to usurp med, but falsely assumed we trust, the dominion over the industry, the that that spirit is revolutionary. virtue, the wisdom of the State; over These vast and important announce- the religion of Christ, and the instituments mark the commencement of tions of ages; over all that labour has the SECOND PERIOD of revolutionary accumulated, and all that learning progress, that in which the old pre- has bequeathed; over the dictates of tences of restoring, not altering, are wisdon, and the efforts of genius; at length abandoned ; in which the

over all that constitutes the happidemocratic influence, raised up by ness of man here, and all that aristocratic ambition for its own grounds his hopes hereafter. Yet selfish purposes, is at length openly such is Revolution, and such the admitted as the ruling power; and consequence of the fatal alliance the terrified Government, virtually which ever marks its outset, between resigning the helm, proclaims its ina- deluded philanthropy and artful bility to resist the tempest, and drifts ambition ; between ardent genius away a melancholy wreck before the and cautious calculation ; between fury of the winds.

religious benevolence and infidel selfTo subvert a long established Go- ishness. We need never fear the vernment-still more to overcome approaches of political convulsion, the attachment to old institutions, wbere its banners are borne only by which forms at once the glory and those who are ultimately to adhere the security of free constitutions, to them; it is the seduction of a concan never be effected by any single siderable portion of the property, party, how powerful soever in the talent, and enthusiasm of the nation, State. In all ages, indeed, there are which alone renders them formid. a certain number of decided Revolu- able; it is the support of those who are to be its earliest victims which the gales of probperity, those of fufirst intrenches Revolution in power, ture glory are frequently hardened and enables its hardened leaders in their growth by the storms of adultimately to discard their assistance, versity. The tomb is ever to be and drive its fiendlike car alike over seen beside the palace; but the pathe virtuous part of its supporters, lace rises as often beside the tomb. and the courageous host of its anta- Prosperity leads to misfortune; but gonists. This frightful progress is out of the bosom of suffering there in the main owing more to human often arise the high resolves, the delusion, than wickedness; its early noble resolutions, which are the and irretrievable successes are inva- source at once of all that dignifies riably owing to the support of the and adorns the human race. mistaken good, the unsuspecting It is these principles which we brave; and in its most hideous con- apply to the present time; it is these sequences may be perceived an ad- lessons which we deduce from the ditional confirmation of the profound crisis which the nation is now unobservation of Rochefoucauld, that dergoing. During the triumph and “ Hypocrisy itself is the homage glory of Conservative principles, which Vice pays to Virtue.”

from 1815 to 1830, when their power So inseparably interwoven are the was thought to be perpetual, and contending principles of good and their influence unbounded, the seeds evil in our nature; so invariably are of evil were rapidly growing, and men destined to experience in all the the downfall of the Government, stages, whether of public or private founded on right maxims, preparing life, whether of the individual or the in the supposed irresistible nature of social system, that this is a state of its authority. In the plenitude of probation, and not our ultimate their power, they sometimes forgot abiding-place; that there is no state these principles; in the consequenof prosperity, how great soever, ces of their greatness, unknown to arising from the steady growth of them, antagonist motives were acright principles, which is not lia- quiring an ultimately overwhelming ble to be speedily assailed by its influence. The youth of the higher own peculiar causes of corruption; ranks deserted them; they travelled nor any pitch of power from which abroad, and became tinged with an we are not liable to be instantly absurd pseudo liberality; they redashed, by the consequences which turned home, and joined the ranks its possession have brought forth of a supposed liberal and enlightened From the height of glory and the Opposition. Conservative principles, pinnacle of fame, from the crown of having been long triumphant, were Charlemagne and the empire of Eu- supposed to be unnecessary; the rope, Napoleon was precipitated, brave man, having won his laurels, through the effects of his own tri- forgot the toils of his youth; the umphs, to the rock of St Helena. From rich, having made his fortune, no the glories of Waterloo and Trafal- longer remembered that it had been gar—from the command of the ocean, won by industry and exertion. The and the lead of civilisation, England nation reposed on the recollection was plunged at once into internal of its achievements, and yielded to agony and external weakness, divi- the siren voice, which lured its sions unprecedented since the Great youth by the voice of flattery to perRebellion, disgrace unknown since dition. This state of the public the days of Charles II. Superficial mind-this ruinous departure from or inconsiderate observers may con- just principles-this destructive declude from these changes, that hu- reliction of right views of society, man affairs are subject to the caprice soon appeared in the successive de. of chance, or the revolutions of des- falcations which took place from the tiny : let us discern in them the Conservative ranks. A large body incessant operation of general laws, broke off with Mr Canning; a still and the continued existence of that larger seceded with Mr Huskisson. mysterious union of good and evil The Tories were at length reduced which was the lot bequeathed to to a remnant, supported only by the man from his first parents. If the recollection of their former glory: seeds of misfortune are sown with Stabat magni nominis umbra;

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