Discovery and Classification in Astronomy: Controversy and Consensus
Cambridge University Press, 9 de set de 2013 - 458 páginas
Astronomical discovery involves more than detecting something previously unseen. The reclassification of Pluto as a dwarf planet in 2006, and the controversy it generated, shows that discovery is a complex and ongoing process - one comprising various stages of research, interpretation, and understanding. Ranging from Galileo's observation of Jupiter's satellites, Saturn's rings, and star clusters, to Herschel's nebulae and the modern discovery of quasars and pulsars, Steven J. Dick's comprehensive history identifies the concept of "extended discovery" as the engine of progress in astronomy. The text traces more than 400 years of telescopic observation, exploring how the signal discoveries of new astronomical objects relate to and inform one another, and why controversies such as Pluto's reclassification are commonplace in the field. The volume is complete with a detailed classification system for known classes of astronomical objects, offering students, researchers, and amateur observers a valuable reference and guide.
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Discovery in the Realm
of the Stars Themselves
The Structure of Discovery
The Varieties of Discovery
Discovery and Classiﬁcation
Technology and Theory as Drivers of Discovery
The Meaning of Discovery
Astronomys Three Kingdoms
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active galaxies asteroids astronomical objects Astrophysics biology black holes brown dwarfs Cambridge University Press Catalogue century Chapter Chicago classes of astronomical classes of objects classiﬁcation classiﬁcation system comets conﬁrmed cosmic evolution cosmic rays deﬁned deﬁnition detection discovered disks distance double stars dwarf planet Earth ellipticals emission evolutionary extragalactic ﬁeld ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁxed galactic Galileo gas giants Gingerich globular clusters H II regions Harvard Hertzsprung Hubble Hubble’s hydrogen identiﬁed interpretation interstellar jupiter known Kuiper Belt light-years luminosity main sequence mass Messier minor planets molecular clouds moons nature Neptune neutron stars observations Observatory orbit Orion particles physical planetary nebulae Pluto post-discovery Pre-discovery predicted pulsars quasars radiation Radio Astronomy realm redshift reﬂection rings Russell Sandage satellites Saturn Science scientiﬁc Shapley solar system Space Telescope spectroscopy spectrum spiral nebulae star clusters stellar subgiants Supercluster supernovae theory tion Trans-Neptunian objects understanding Uranus white dwarfs William Herschel Wilson Zwicky