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way: he insisted upon people kneeling down “ Incoherence and extravagance we find here along with him in the street and praying. and there; but it is not the flutter of weakDuring his confinement, writing materials ness, it is the fury of power : from the very were denjod him, and he used to write his stumble of the rushing steed, sparks are kinpoetical pieces with a key on the wainscot. dled. And, even as Baretti, when he read Thus scrabbling,' like his own hero, on the the · Rambler' in Italy, thought within himwall, he produced his immortal Song to self, If such are the lighter productions of David.' He became by and by sane ; but, the English mind, what must be the returning to his old habits, got into debt, and grander and sterner efforts of its genius? died in the King's Bench prison, after a short and formed, consequently, a strong desire to illness, in 1770.
visit that country; so might he have rea“ The 'Song to David' has been well called soned, If such poems as ‘David' issue from one of the greatest curiosities of literature. England's very madhouses, what must be the It ranks in this point with the tragedies writings of its saner and nobler poetic souls ? written by Lee, and the sermons and prayers and thus might he, from the parallax of a uttered by Hall in a similar melancholy state Smart, have been able to rise toward the ideal of mind. In these cases, as well as in Smart's, altitudes of a Shakspere or a Milton. Indeed, the thin partition between genius and mad there are portions of the 'Song to David, ness was broken down in thunder,-the which a Milton or a Shakspere has never thunder of a higher poetry than perhaps they surpassed. The blaze of the meteor often were capable of even conceiving in their saner eclipses the light of moments. Lee produced in that state—which
* The loftiest star of unascended heaven, was, indeed, nearly his normal one-some glorious extravagancies. Hall's sermons,
Pinnacled dim in the intense inane.' monologised and overheard in the madhouse, -Gilfillan's “Less-Known Brit. Poets," vol. are said to have transcended all that he iii., pp. 151-3. preached in his healthier moods. And, assuredly, the other poems by Smart scarcely furnish a point of comparison with the towering and sustained loftiness of some parts of the
RICHARD GLOVER. Song to David.' Nor is it loftiness alone, although the last three stanzas are absolute “Richard Glover, born 1712, died 1785, inspiration, and you see the waters of Castalia was the son of a Hamburgh merchant in tossed by a heavenly wind to the very summit London, and was born in St. Martin's-lane, of Parnassus,--but there are innumerable Cannon-street. He was educated at the exquisite beanties and subtleties, dropt as if
school of Cheam, in Surrey ; but being inby the hand of rich haste, in every corner of
tended for trade, was never sent to the the poem. Witness his description of David's university. This circumstance did not prevent muse, as a
him from applying assiduously to classical * Blest light, still gaining on the gloom,
learning; and he was in the competent opinion
of Dr. Warton, one of the best Greek scholars The more than Michal of his bloom,
of his time. This fact is worth mentioning, The Abishag of his age.'
as it exhibits how far a determined mind may The account of David's object
connect the pursuits, and even distinctions of * To further knowledge, silence vice,
literature, with an active employment. His And plant perpetual paradise,
first poetical effort was a poem to the memory When God had calmed the world.'
of Sir Isaac Newton, which was written at Of David's Sabbath
the age of sixteen; and which his friend,
Dr. Pemberton, thought fit to prefix to a ''Twas then his thoughts self-conquest | View of the Newtonian Philosophy,' which pruned,
he published. Dr. Pemberton, who was a And heavenly melancholy tuned,
man of more science than taste, on this and To bless and bear the rest.'
on some other occasions addressed the public One of David's themes
with critical eulogies on the genius of Glover, * The multitudinous abyss,
written with an excess of admiration, which Where secrecy remains in bliss,
could be pardoned only for its sincerity. It And wisdom hides her skill.'
gives us a higher idea of the youthful promises
of his mind, to find that the intelligent poet And, not to multiply instances to repletion, Green had the same prepossession in his this stanza about gems
favour. Green says of him in the Spleen':Of gems-their virtue and their price,
* But there's a youth, that you can name, Which, hid in earth from man's device,
Who needs no leading-strings to fame; Their darts of lustre sheath ;
Whose quick maturity of brain
The birth of Pallas may explain.'
“At the age of twenty-five he published
nine books of his "Leonidas.' The poem was fortunes, and asserted the merit of his public immediately taken up with ardour by Lord conduct as a citizen. The name of Guildhall Cobham, to whom it was inscribed, and by is certainly not apt to inspire us with high all the readers of verse, and leaders of politics, ideas either of oratory or of personal symwho professed the strongest attachment to pathy; yet there is something in the history of liberty. It ran rapidly through three editions, this transaction which increases our respect, and was publicly extolled by the pen of not only for Glover, but for the scene itself, in Fielding, and by the lips of Chatham. Even which his eloquence is said to have warmly Swift, in one of his letters from Ireland, drily touched his audience with a feeling of his inquires of Pope, 'Who is this Mr. Glover, worth as an individual, of his spirit as a poliwho writ" Leonidas,” which is reprinting here,' tician, and of his powers as an accomplished and hath great vogue ?' Overrated as Leon speaker. He carried the sentiments and idas' might be, Glover stands acquitted of all endowments of a polished scholar into the attempts or artifice to promote its popularity most popular meeting of trading life, and by false means. He betrayed no irritation in showed that they could be welcomed there. the disputes which were raised about its Such men elevate the charaeter of a mercantile merit; and his personal character appears as country. respectable in the ebb as in the flow of his “During his retirement from business, he poetical reputation.
finished his tragedy of Boadicea,' which was “In the year 1739 he published his poem brought out at Drury Lane in 1753, and was ‘London; or the Progress of Commerce,' in acted for nine nights, it is said 'successfully,' which, instead of selecting some of those perhaps a misprint for successively. Boadicea interesting views of the progress of social life is certainly not a contemptible drama : it has and civilization which the subject might have some scenes of tender interest between Venusia afforded, he confined himself to exciting the and Dumnorix;
but the defectiveness of its national spirit against the Spaniards. This incidents, and the frenzied character of the purpose was better effected by his nearly British queen, render it upon the whole contemporary ballad of 'Hosier's Ghost.' unpleasing. Beaumont and Fletcher, in their
“His talents and politics introduced him to play on the same subject, have left Boadicea, the notice and favour of Frederick, Prince of with all her rashness and revengeful disposi. Wales, whilst he maintained an intimate tion, still a heroine ; but Glover makes her a friendship with the chiefs of the opposition. beldam and a fury, whom we could scarcely In the mean time, he pursued the business of condemn the Romans for having carted. The a merchant in the city, and was an able disgusting novelty of this impression is at auxiliary to his party, by his eloquence at variance with the traditionary regard for her public meetings, and by his influence with the name, from which the mind is unwilling to mercantile body. Such was the confidence in part. It is told of an eminent portrait-painter, his knowledge and talents, that in 1743 the that the picture of each individual which he merchants of London deputed him to plead, in took had some resemblance to the last sitter: behalf of their neglected rights, at the bar of when he painted a comic actress, she resembled the House of Commons, a duty which he ful. a doctor of divinity, because his imagination filled with great ability. In 1744, he was had not yet been delivered of the doctor. The offered an employment of a very different kind, converse of this seems to have happened to being left a bequest of £500 by the Duchess Glover. He anticipated the hideous traits of of Marlborough, on condition of his writing the Medea, when he produced the British queen. duke's life, in conjunction with Mallet. He re With a singular degree of poetical injustice, nounced this legacy, while Mallet accepted it, he leans to the side of compassion in delineabut never fulfilled the terms. Glover's rejection ' ting Medea, a monster of infanticide, and of the offer was the more honourable, as it prepossesses us against a high-spirited woman, came at a time when his own affairs were so who avenged the wrongs of her country, and embarrassed as to oblige him to retire from the violation of her daughters. His tragedy business for several years, and to lead a life of of “Medea' appeared in 1761; and the the strictest economy. During his distresses, spirited acting of Mrs. Yates gave it conhe is said to have received from the Prince of siderable effect. Wales a present of £500. In the year 1751, In his later years, his circumstances were his friends in the city made an attempt to greatly improved, though we are not informed obtain for him the office of city chamberlain ; from what causes. He returned again to but he was unfortunately not named as a public life ; was elected to parliament; and candidate till the majority of votes had been there distinguished himself, whenever merengaged to Sir Thomas Harrison. The speech cantile prosperity was concerned, by his which he made to the livery on this occasion knowledge of commerce, and his attention to did him much honour, both for the liberality its interests. In 1770 he enlarged his Leoniwith which he spoke of his successful oppo das' from nine to twelve books, and afterwards nent, and for the manly but unassuming wrote its sequel, the 'Athenaid,' and a sequel manner in which he expressed the consciousness to · Medea. The latter was never acted, and of his own integrity, amidst his private mis the former seldom read. The close of his
life was spent in retirement from business, ments; but how difficult was it, after all that but amidst the intimacy of the most eminent books could teach him, to give the close and scholars of his time.
veracious appearance of life to characters and “Some contemporary writers, calling them manners beheld so remotely on the verge selves critics, preferred Leonidas' in its day of the horizon of history! What difficulty to to Paradise Lost,' because it had smoother avoid coldness and generality on the one versification, and fewer hard words of learning. i hand, if he delineated his human beings only The re-action of popular opinion against a with the manners which history could authen. work that has been once over-rated is apt to ticate; and to shun grotesqueness and incondepress it beneath its just estimation. It is sistency on the other, if he filled up the vague due to 'Leonidas' to say, that its narrative, outline of the antique with the particular and descriptions, and imagery, have a general and familiar traits of modern life! Neither Fenechaste congruity with the Grecism of its lon, with all his genius, nor Barthelemy, with subject. It is far, indeed, from being a vivid all his learning, have kept entirely free of this or arresting picture of antiquity; but it has latter fault of incongruity, in modernising the an air of classical taste and propriety in its aspect of ancient manners. The characters of design; and it sometimes places the religion · Barthelemy, in particular, often remind us of and manners of Greece in a pleasing and statues in modern clothes. Glover has not impressive light. The poet's description of fallen into this impurity; but his purity is Dithyrambus making his way from the cave cold: his heroes are like outlines of Grecian of Eta, by a secret ascent, to the temple of faces, with no distinct or minute physiognomy. the Muses, and bursting, unexpectedly, into the They are not so much poetical characters as hallowed presence of their priestess Melissa, historical recollections. There are, indeed, is a passage fraught with a considerable some touches of spirit in Artemisia's character, degree of the fanciful and beautiful in super and of pathos in the episode of Teribazus ; stition. The abode of Oilens is also traced but Leonidas is too good a Spartan, and with a suavity of local description, which is Xerxes too bad a Persian, to be pitied ; and not unusual to Glover; and the speech of most of the subordinate agents, that fall or Melissa, when she first receives the tidings of triumph in battle, only load our memories her venerable father's death, supports a fine with their names. The local descriptions of consistency with the august and poetical Leonidas,' however, its pure sentiments, and character which is ascribed to her.
the classical images which it recalls, render it "A sigh
interesting as the monument of an accomBroke from her heart, these accents from her
plished and amiable mind." - Campbell's lips.
“Specimens," pp. 588-590. See Allibone's The full of days and honours through the
“Crit. Dict. Eng. Lit."; Maunder's “Biog. gate
Dict."; Beeton's "Dict. Univ. Biog."
“ Robert Dodsley, born 1703, died 1764. Whose sides are flow'ry, and whose meadows It is creditable to the memory of Pope to
have been the encourager of this ingenious Meets in his course a subterranean void , man, who rose from the situation of a footThere dips his silver head, again to rise, man to be a very eminent bookseller. His And, rising, glide through flowers and meadows plan of republishing Old English Plays' is new;
said to have been suggested to him by the So shall Oileus in those happier fields,
literary amateur Coxeter ; but the execution Where never gloom of trouble shades the of it leaves us still indebted to Dodsley's enmind.'
terprise.”—Campbell's “Specimens.” See Alli* The undeniable fault of the entire poem
bone's “Crit. Dict. Eng. Lit." is, that it wants impetuosity of progress, and that its characters are without warm and interesting individuality. What a great genius might have made of the subject, it may be
SAMUEL BISHOP. difficult to pronounce by supposition ; for
it is “ Samuel Bishop was born in 1731, and died the very character of genius to produce effects in 1795. He was an English clergyman, which cannot be calculated. But imposing master of Merchant Tailors' School, London, as the names of Leonidas and Thermopylæ and author of a volume of Latin pieces, enmay appear, the subject which they formed titled Feriæ Poeticæ,' and of various other for an epic poem was such, that we cannot poetical pieces. We give some verses to his wonder at its baffling the powers of Glover. wife, from which it appears that he remained A poet, with such a theme, was furnished an ardent lover long after having become a indeed with a grand outline of actions and senti- husband.” - Gilfillan's “Less-known Brit.
Poets.” See Allibone's “Crit. Dict. Eng.
JOHN BAMPFYLDE. “John Bampfylde, born 1754, died 1796, 'was the younger brother of Sir Charles Bampfylde. He was educated at Cambridge, and published his "Sonnets' in 1776, when very young. He soon after fell into mental de rangement, and passed the last years of his life in a private madhouse. After twenty years' confinement he recovered his senses, but not till he was in the last gasp of consumption.”—Campbell's “Specimens.” See Allibone's “Crit. Dict. Eng. Lit."
reputation. The volumes of its . Transactions are inestimable, and are enriched by several valuable productions from Sir William's pen. As a judge he was indefatigable and impartial. He studied the native laws of the country, and became so versed in the Sanscrit and the codes of the Brahmins, as to gain the admiration of the most learned men in that country. In 1799 his works were collected and published in 6 vols., and his life written by Lord Teignmouth, in one volume, 1804. A beautiful monument has been erected to his memory in St. Paul's Cathedral by the East India Company.” — Beeton's “Dict. Univ. Biog." See Maunder's “Biog. Dict.” ; Shaw's “ Hist. Eng. Lit.”; Chambers' “Cyc. Eng. Lit."
" Francis Fawkes, born 1721, died 1777, * Sir William Jones, an Indian judge and
made translations from some of the minor learned Oriental writer, was born in London,
Greek poets (viz. Anacreon, Sappho, Bion and 1746, and died at Calcutta, 1794. Losing his
Moschus, Museus, Theocritus, and Apollonius), father in his infancy, his education devolved
and modernised the description of May and on his mother, a woman of great virtue and
Winter,' from Gawain Douglas. He was born understanding, from whom he learnt the rudi.
in Yorkshire, studied at Cambridge, was curate ments of knowledge, and was then removed
of Croydon, in Surrey, where he obtained the to Harrow school, where he made such great
friendship of Archbishop Herring, and by him progress in his studies, that Dr. Sumner, the
was collated to the vicarage of Orpington, in master, affirmed that his pupil knew more
Kent. By the favour of Dr. Plumptre, he Greek than himself; a previous master hav
exchanged this vicarage for the rectory of ing said, 'If Jones were left naked on
Hayes, and was finally made chaplain to the Salisbury plain, he would nevertheless find the
Princess of Wales. He was the friend of road to fame.' In 1764 he was entered of Uni
Johnson and Warton; a learned and a jovial versity College, Oxford, where to his classical
parson.”—Campbell's “Specimens." See Allipursuits he added the study of the Persian and
bone's " Crit. Dict. Eng. Lit." Arabic languages, also the Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese. At the age of nineteen he became tutor to Lord Althorpe, and, during his resi. dence at Wimbledon, in that noble family, he
WILLIAM WHITEHEAD. greatly enlarged his acquirements in Oriental “ William Whitehead, an English poet, was literature. In 1769 he made a tour in France,
born at Cambridge, 1715, and died 1788. He and about the same time undertook, at the became secretary and registrar of the order request of the king of Denmark, to translate
of the Bath, and, in 1757, poet-laureate. the history of Nadir Shah from Persian into
Besides his odes and songs, he wrote “The French. In 1770 he entered on the study of
Roman Father,' and 'Creusa,' tragedies ; 'The the law at the Temple, but continued his ap
School for Lovers,' a comedy ; 'A Trip to plication to Oriental learning and general
Scotland,' a farce."--Beeton's “Dict. Univ. literature. In 1774 he published his 'Com.
Biog." mentaries on Asiatic Poetry,' dedicated to the University of Oxford. In 1783 he obtained the appointment of a judge of the Supreme Court at Calcutta, a post which had been the object
DR. JAMES GRAINGER. of his anxious wishes. The honour of knight “This writer possessed some true imaginahood was on this occasion conferred on him, tion, although his claim to immortality lies and he soon after married a daughter of the in the narrow compass of one poem-his Ode bishop of St. Asaph. In April of that year he to Solitude.' Little is known of his personal embarked for India, from which he was never history. He was born in 1721, belonging to destined to return. On the voyage his active a gentleman's family in Cumberland. He mind projected the establishment of a society studied medicine, and was for some time a in Bengal for the purpose of illustrating Orien surgeon connected with the army. When the tal antiquities and literature. This scheme he peace came, he established himself in London as saw carried into effect; and under his auspices, a medical practitioner. In 1775 he published and by his direction, the society acquired a high his "Solitude,' which found many admirers,
including Dr. Johnson, who pronounced its brief continuance, no property could be secure, opening lines “very noble.' He afterwards and no life could be safe. indited sereral other pieces, wrote a translation “ The commencement of the 'Ode to Soliof Tibullus, and became one of the critical staff tude’ is fine, but the closing part becomes of the Monthly Review. He was unable, how. tedious. In the middle of the poem there is ever, through all these labours to secure a i a tumult of personification, some of them competence, and, in 1759, he sought the West felicitous and others forced. Indies. In St. Christopher's he commenced
Sage Reflection, bent with years,' practising as a physician, and married the Governor's daughter, who brought him a
may pass, but fortune. He wrote a poem entitled "The Conscious Virtue, void of fears,' Sugar-cane.' This was sent over to London in MS., and was read at Sir Joshua Reynolds' table to a literary coterie, who, according to
Halcyon Peace on moss reclined,' Boswell, all barst out into a laugh when,
is a picture ; after much blank-verse pomp, the poet began * Retrospect that scans the mind,' a new paragraph thus
is nothing; Now, muse, let's sing of rats.'
* Health that snuffs the morning air,' And what increased the ridicule was, that is a living image ; but what sense is there in one of the company, slily overlooking the Full-eyed Truth, with bosom bare' ? reader, found that the word had been originally
and how poor his mice, but had been changed to rats as more dignified.
*Laughter in loud peals that breaks,' Boswell goes on to record Johnson's opinion
to Milton's of Grainger. He said, "He was an agreeable man, a man that would do any good that was
* Laughter holding both his sides'! in his power.' His translation of Tibullus The paragraph, however, commencing was very well done, but “The Sugar-cane, a Poem, did not please him. "What could he
"With you roses brighter bloom,' make of & Sugar-cane ? one might as well
and closing with write “The Parsley-bed, a Poem,” or “The * The bournless macrocosm's thine,' Cabbage Garden, a Poem."' Boswell— You must then pickle your cabbage with the sal
is very spirited, and, along with the opening Atticum.' Johnson-One could say a great lines, proves Grainger a poet."-Gilfillan's deal about cabbage. The poem might begin
“ Less-known British Poets," vol. iii. See with the advantages of civilized society over Allibone's “ Crit. Dict. Eng. Lit." a rude state, exemplified by the Scotch, who had no cabbages till Oliver Cromwell's soldiers
introduced them, and one might thus show ! how arts are propagated by conquest, as they
JAMES MERRICK. were by the Roman arms. Cabbage, by the way, in a metaphorical sense, might furnish a
" James Merrick, born 1720, died 1769, was
a clergyman, as well as a writer of verse, and very good subject for a literary satire.
became a Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, Grainger died of the fever of the country in 1767. Bishop Percy corroborates Johnson's
where Lord North was one of his pupils. He character of him as a man. He says, “He
took orders, but owing to incessant pains in
the head, could not perform duty. His was not only a man of genius and learning,
works are a translation of Tryphiodorus, but had many excellent virtues, being one of
done at twenty, a version of the Psalms, a the most generous, friendly, benevolent men I ever knew.'
collection of Hymns, and a few miscellaneous “Grainger in some points reminds us of
pieces. - Gilfillan's “Less-known British Dyer. Dyer staked his reputation on “The
Poets,” vol. iii.
JOHN SCOTT. effusion has survived the laboured work. And 80 Grainger's 'Solitude' has supplanted the “This worthy and poetical Quaker, who was stately 'Sugar-cane.' The scenery of the the son of a draper in London, was born, in the West Indies had to wait till its real poet borough of Southwark, 1730, and died 1783. appeared in the author of 'Paul and Virginia.' His father retired to Amwell, in Hertfordshire, Grainger was hardly able to cope with the when our poet was only ten years old; and this strange and gorgeous contrasts it presents of removal, together with the circumstance of his cliffs and crags, like those of Iceland, with never having been inoculated for the small vegetation rich as that of the fairest parts of pox, proved an unfortunate impediment to his India, and of splendid sunshine, with tempests education. He was put to a day-school, in of such tremendous fury that, but for their the neighbouring town of Ware, where not