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which was produced on the Edinburgh stage, in Hants, and of Cobham, in Surrey. At the and afterwards published. This, along with age of sixteen our author was admitted a comsome alleged irregularities of conduct on the moner of Trinity College, Oxford, of which he part of Logan, tended to alienate his flock, continued a member, and an ornament, for and he was induced to retire on a small forty-seven years. His first poetical appearannuity. He betook himself to London, where, ance in print has been traced to five ' Eclogues' in conjunction with the Rev. Mr. Thomson in blank verse; the scenes of which are laid who had left the parish of Monzievaird, in among the shepherds, oppressed by the wars Perthshire, owing to a scandal—he wrote for in Germany. They appeared in Pearch's the 'English Review,' and was employed to Supplement to Dodsley's Collection of Fugi. defend Warren Hastings. This he did in an tive Pieces.' Warton disavowed those Ecable manner, although a well-known story logues' in his riper years. They are not disdescribes him as listening to Sheridan, on the creditable to him as the verses of a boy ; but Oude case, with intense interest, and exclaim it was a superfluous offering to the public, to ing, after the first hour, .This is mere decla subjoin them to his other works, in Mr. mation without proof'-after the next two, Chalmers's edition of the British Poets. His * This is a man of extraordinary powers '-and poem, "The Pleasures of Melancholy,' was ere the close of the matchless oration, Of all written not long after. As the composition of the monsters in history, Warren Hastings is a youth, it is entitled to a very indulgent conthe vilest. Logan died in the year 1788, in sideration; and perhaps it gives promise of a his lodgings, Marlborough Street. His ser sensibility, which his subsequent poetry did mons were published shortly after his death, not fulfil. It was professedly written in his and if parts of them are, as is alleged, pilfered seventeenth, but published in his nineteenth from a Swiss divine (George Joachim Zolli year, so that it must be considered as testify. kofer), they have not remained exclusively ing the state of his genius at the latter period ; with the thief, since no sermons have been for until his work had passed through the so often reproduced in Scottish pulpits as the press, he would continue to improve it. In elegant orations issued under the name of the year 1749 he published his Triumph of Logan.
Isis,' in answer to Mason's poetical attack on "We have already declined to enter on the the loyalty of Oxford. The best passage in controversy about The Cuckoo,' intimating, this piece, beginning with the lineshowever, our belief, founded partly upon Logan's unscrupulous character and partly on Ye fretted pinnacles, ye fanes sublime, internal evidence, that it was originally written Ye towers, that wear the mossy vest of by Bruce, but probably polished to its present time, perfection by Logan, whose other writings give us rather the impression of a man of discovers that fondness for the beauties of varied accomplishments and excellent taste, architecture, which was an absolute passion in than of deep feeling or original genius. If the breast of Warton. Joseph Warton relates Logan were not the anthor of The Cuckoo,' that, at an early period of their youth, his there was a special baseness connected with brother and he were taken by their father to the fact, that when Burke sought him out in see Windsor Castle. Old Dr. Warton com
Edinburgh, solely from his admiration of that plained, that whilst the rest of the party ex1
poem, he owned the soft and false impeach pressed delight at the magnificent spectacle, ment, and rolled as a sweet morsel praise from Thomas made no remarks; but Joseph Warton the greatest man of the age, which he knew justly observes, that the silence of his brother was the rightful due of another."--Gilfillan's was only a proof of the depth of his pleasure ; "Less-kn own Brit. Poets,” pp. 266-268. that he was really absorbed in the enjoyment
of the sight; and that his subsequent fondness for 'castle imagery,' he believed, might be traced to the impression which he then re
ceived from Windsor Castle. THOMAS WARTON.
“In 1750 he took the degree of a master of
arts; and in the following year succeeded to a " Thomas Warton, born 1728, died 1790, fellowship. In 1754 he published his 'Obserwas descended from an ancient family, whose vations on Spenser's Faëry Queen,' in a single residence was at Beverley, in Yorkshire. One volume, which he afterwards expanded into of his ancestors was knighted in the civil two volumes, in the edition of 1762. In this wars, for his adherence to Charles I. ; but by work he minutely analyses the Classic and the failure of the same cause, the estate of the Romantic sources of Spenser's fiction; and so
family was confiscated, and they were unable far enables us to estimate the power of the | to maintain the rank of gentry. The Toryism poet's genius, that we can compare the scat
of the historian of English poetry was, there tered ore of his fanciful materials with their fore, hereditary. His father was fellow of transmuted appearance in the 'Faëry Queen.' Magdalen College, Oxford : professor of poetry This work, probably, contributed to his apin that university; and vicar of Basingstoke, J pointment to the professorship of poetry, in
the university, in 1757, which he held, accord. which he meant to have extended to the last ing to custom, for ten years. While possessed century, was continued only to the reign of of that chair, he delivered a course of lectures Elizabeth. on poetry, in which he introduced his transla "In the year 1785 he was appointed to the tions from the Greek Anthology, as well as Camden Professorship of History, in which the substance of his remarks on the Bucolic situation he delivered only one inaugural dis. poetry of the Greeks, which were afterwards sertation. In the same year, upon the death published in his edition of Theocritus. In of Whitehead, he received the laureateship. 1758 he assisted Dr. Johnson in the Idler,' His odes were subjected to the ridicule of the with Nos. 33, 93, and 96. About the same Rolliad ; but his head filled the laurel with time he published, without name or date, 'A more learning than it had encompassed for Description of the City, College, and Cathedral a hundred years. of Winchester;' and a humorous account of * In his sixty-second year, after a life of Oxford, intended to burlesque the popular uninterrupted good health, he was attacked description of that place, entitled, “A Com by the gout; went to Bath for a cure, and panion to the Guide, or a Guide to the Com. returned, as he imagined, perfectly recovered; panion.' He also published anonymously, in but his appearance betrayed that his constitu1758, 'A Selection of Latin Metrical Inscrip tion had received a fatal shock. At the close tions.'
of an evening, which he had spent with more “ Warton's clerical profession forms no very than ordinary cheerfulness, in the commonprominent part of his history. He had an hall of his college, he was seized with a paraindistinct and hurried articulation, which was lytic stroke, and expired on the following peculiarly unfavourable to his pulpit oratory. day. His ambition was directed to other objects, “Some amusing eccentricities of his chathan preferment in the church, and he was racter are mentioned by the writer of his life above solicitation. After having served the (Dr. Mant), which the last editor of the curacy of Woodstock for nine years, as well as * British Poets' blames that biographer for his avocations would permit, he was appointed, introducing. I am far from joining in this in 1774, to the small living of Kiddington, in censure. It is a miserable system of biography, Oxfordshire; and, in 1785, to the donative of that would never allow us to smile at the Hill Farrance, in Somersetshire, by his own foibles and peculiarities of its subject. The college.
historian of English poetry would sometimes “ The great work to which the studies of forget his own dignity, so far as to drink ale, his life were subservient, was his History of and smoke tobacco with men of vulgar condiEnglish Poetry,' an undertaking which had tion; either wishing, as some have gravely been successively projected by Pope and Gray. alleged, to study undisguised and unlettered Those writers had suggested the imposing human nature, or, which is more probable, to plan of arranging the British poets, not by enjoy a heartier laugh, and broader humour their chronological succession, but by their than could be found in polite society. He was different schools. Warton deliberately re also passionately fond (not of critical, but) of linquished this scheme; because he felt that it military reviews, and delighted in martial was impracticable, except in a very vague and music. The same strength of association general manner. Poetry is of too spiritual a whieh made him enjoy the sound of the spiritnature to admit of its authors being exactly stirring drum,' led him to be a constant and grouped, by a Linnæan system of classification. curious explorer of the architectural monuStriking resemblances and distinctions will, no ments of chivalrous times; and, during his doubt, be found among poets; but the shades summer excursions into the country, he always of variety and gradation are so infinite, that committed to paper the remarks which he had to bring every composer within a given line of made on ancient buildings. During his visits resemblance, would require a new language in to his brother, Dr. J. Warton, the reverend the philosophy of taste. Warton, therefore, professor became an associate and confidant in adopted the simpler idea of tracing our poetry all the sports of the schoolboys. When engaged by its chronological progress. The work is with them in some culinary occupation, and certainly provokingly digressive, in many when alarmed by the sudden approach of the places, and those who have subsequently exa master, he has been known to hide himself in mined the same subject have often complained a dark corner of the kitchen ; and has been of its inaccuracies; but the chief cause of dragged from thence by the Doctor, who had those inaccuracies was that boldness and ex taken him for some great boy. He also used tent of research, which makes the work so to help the boys in their exercises, generally useful and entertaining. Those who detected putting in as many faults as would disguise his mistakes have been, in no small degree, in the assistance. debted to him for their power of detecting them. “Every Englishman who values the literaThe first volume of his History' appeared ture of his country must feel himself obliged in 1774; the second in 1778; and the third in to Warton as a poetical antiquary. As a poet, 1781. Of the fourth volume only a few sheets he is ranked by his brother Joseph in the were printed ; and the account of our poetry, school of Spenser and Milton; but this classi
fication can only be admitted with a full (Where the tall shaft and fretted nook understanding of the immense distance between
between him and his great masters. He had, indeed, Thick ivy twines) the taper'd rites * spelt the fabled rhyme;' he abounds in allu
betray.' sions to the romantic subjects of Spenser, and
His memory was stored with an uncommon he is a sedulous imitator of the rich lyrical manner of Milton: but of the tenderness and
portion of that knowledge which supplies
materials for picturesque description ; and his peculiar harmony of Spenser he has caught
universal acquaintance with our poets supplied nothing; and in his resemblance to Milton, he is the heir of his phraseology more than his
him with expression, so as to answer the full
demand of his original ideas. Of his poetic spirit. His imitation of manner, however, is not confined to Milton. His style often ex
invention, in the fair sense of the word, of his hibits a very composite order of poetical archi.
depth of sensibility, or of his powers of reflectecture. In his verses to Sir Joshua Reynolds,
tion, it is not so easy to say anything favour
able."--Campbell's “Specimens," pp. 618-620. for instance, he blends the point and succinct
See Gilfillan's "Less-known British Poets." ness of Pope with the richness of the elder and more fanciful school. It is one of his happiest compositions; and, in this case, the intermixture of styles has no unpleasing effect. In others, he often tastelessly and elaborately unites his affectation of antiquity, with the
JOSEPH WARTON. case-hardened graces of modern polish.
"If we judge of him by the character of the “ Joseph Warton, born 1722, died 1800, son majority of his pieces, I believe that fifty out
to the vicar of Basingstoke, and elder brother of sixty of them are such, that we should not
to the historian of English poetry, was born be anxious to give them a second perusal.
in the house of his maternal grandfather, the From that proportion of his works, I conceive
Rev. Joseph Richardson, rector of Dunsfold, that an unprejudiced reader would pronounce in Surrey. He was chiefly educated at home him a florid, unaffecting describer, whose by his father, Dr. Warton, till his fourteenth images are plentifully scattered, but without
year, when he was admitted on the foundation selection or relief. To confine our view, how
of Winchester College. He was there the ever, to some seven or eight of his happier schoolfellow and intimate of Collins, the pieces, we shall find, in these, a considerable
poet ; and, in conjunction with him and degree of graphic power, of fancy, and anima
another youth, whose name was Tomkyns, he tion. His Verses to Sir Joshua Reynolds' sent to the Gentleman's Magazine' three are splendid and spirited. There is also a
pieces of poetry, which were highly comsoftness and sweetness in his ode entitled
mended in that miscellany. In 1740, being The Hamlet,' which is the more welcome, for
superannuated, he left Winchester School, being rare in his productions; and his Cru
and having missed a presentation to New sade' and Grave of Arthur' have a genuine
College, Oxford, was entered a commoner at air of martial and minstrel enthusiasm. Those
that of Oriel. At the university he composed pieces exhibit, to the best advantage, the most
his two poems, The Enthusiast,' and 'The striking feature of his poetical character, which Dying Indian,' and a satirical prose sketch, in was a fondness for the recollections of chi imitation of Le Sage, entitled "Ranelagh,' valry, and a minute intimacy of imagination which his editor, Mr. Wooll, has inserted in with its gorgeous residences, and imposing
the volume that contains his life, letters, and spectacles. The spirit of chivalry, he may poems. Having taken the degree of bachelor indeed be said to have revived in the poetry of arts at Oxford, in 1744, he was ordained on of modern times. His memory was richly
his father's curacy at Basingstoke. At the stored with all the materials for description end of two years, he removed from thence to that can be got from books; and he seems not
do duty at Chelsea, where he caught the smallto have been without an original enthusiasm
pox. Having left that place, for change of for those objects which excite strong associa
air, he did not return to it, on account of tions of regard and wonder. Whether he
some disagreement with the parishioners, but would have ever looked with interest on a
officiated for a few months at Chawton and shepherd's cottage, if he had not found it
Droxford, and then resumed his residence at described by Virgil or Theocritus, may be
Basingstoke. In the same year, 1746, he fairly doubted; but objects of terror, splen- published a volume of his ‘Odes,' in the preface dour, and magnificence, are evidently con
to which he expressed a hope that they would genial to his fancy. He is very impressive
be regarded as a fair attempt to bring poetry in sketching the appearance of an ancient
back from the moralizing and didactic taste of Gothic castle, in the following lines :
the age to the truer channels of fancy and High o'er the trackless heath, at midnight description. Collins, our author's immortal seen,
contemporary, also published his Odes' in the No more the windows, ranged in long same month of the same year. He realized,
with the hand of genius, that idea of highly
personified and picturesque composition, which Virgil in English and Latin. To this work Warton contemplated with the eye of taste. Warburton contributed a dissertation on the But Collins's works were ushered iņ with sixth book of the Æneid ; Atterbury furnished no manifesto of a design to regenerate the a commentary on the character of Iapis; and taste of the age, with no pretensions of the laureate Whitehead, another on the shield erecting a new or recovered standard of ex of Æneas. Many of the notes were taken cellence.
from the best commentators on Virgil, par“In 1748 our author was presented by the ticularly Catrou and Segrais : some Duke of Bolton to the rectory of Winslade, supplied by Mr. Spence; and others, relating when he immediately married a lady of that to the soil, climate, and customs of Italy, by neighbourhood, Miss Daman, to whom he had Mr. Holdsworth, who had resided for many been for some time attached. He had not years in that country. For the English of been long settled in his living, when he was the Æneid, he adopted the translation by invited by his patron to accompany him to the Pitt. The life of Virgil, with three essays south of France. The Duchess of Bolton was on pastoral, didactic, and epic poetry, and a then in a confirmed' dropsy, and his Grace, poetical version of the Eclogues and Georgics, anticipating her death, wished to have a Pro- constituted his own part of the work. This testant clergyman with him on the Continent, translation may, in many instances, be found who might marry him, on the first intelligence more faithful and concise than Dryden's; but of his consort's death, to the lady with whom it wants that elastic and idiomatic freedom, he lived, and who was universally known by by which Dryden reconciles us to his faults ; the name of Polly Peachum. Dr. Warton and exhibits rather the diligence of a scholar complied with this proposal, to which (as his than the spirit of a poet. Dr. Harewood, in circumstances were narrow) it must be hoped his view of the classics, accuses the Latin that his poverty consented rather than his text of incorrectness. Shortly after the apwill. “To those' (says Mr. Wooll) who have pearance of his Virgil, he took a share in the enjoyed the rich and varied treasures of Dr. periodical paper "The Adventurer,' and conWarton's conversation, who have been dazzled tributed twenty-four numbers, which have by the brilliancy of his wit, and instructed by been generally esteemed the most valuable in the acuteness of his understanding, I need the work. not suggest how truly enviable was the jour * In 1754 he was instituted to the living of ney which his fellow-travellers accomplished Tunworth, on the presentation of the Jervoise through the French provinces to Montauban. family; and in 1755 was elected second master It may be doubted, however, if the French of Winchester School, with the management provinces were exactly the scene, where his and advantage of a boarding-house. In the fellow-travellers were most likely to be in- following year Lord Lyttelton, who had substructed by the acuteness of Dr. Warton's mitted a part of his History of Henry II.' to observations; as he was unable to speak the his revisal, bestowed a scarf upon him. He language of the country, and could have no found leisure, at this period, to commence his information from foreigners, except what he Essay on the Writings and Genius of Pope,' could now and then extort from the barbarous which he dedicated to Young, without subLatin of some Irish friar. He was himself scribing his name. But he was soon, and it so far from being delighted or edified by his would appear with his own tacit permission, pilgrimage, that for private reasons (as his generally pronounced to be its author. biographer states), and from impatience of Twenty-six years, however, elapsed before he being restored to his family, he returned home, ventured to complete it. Dr. Johnson said, without having accomplished the object for that this was owing to his not having been which the Duke had taken him abroad. He able to bring the public to be of his opinion set out for Bordeaux in a courier's cart; but as to Pope. Another reason has been assigned being dreadfully jolted in that vehicle, he for his inactivity. Warburton, the guardian quitted it, and, having joined some carriers of Pope's fame, was still alive ; and he was in Brittany, came home by way of St. Malo. the zealous and useful friend of our author's A month after his return to England, the brother. The prelate died in 1779, and in Duchess of Bolton died; and our author, 1782 Dr. Warton published his extended and imagining that his patron would, possibly, finished Essay. If the supposition that he have the decency to remain a widower for a abstained from embroiling himself by the few weeks, wrote to his Grace, offering to join question about Pope with Warburton be true, him immediately. But the Duke had no it will at least impress us with an idea of his mind to delay his nuptials; he was joined to patience ; for it was no secret that Ruffhead Polly by a Protestant clergyman, who was was supplied by Warburton with materials for found upon the spot; and our author thus a life of Pope, in which he attacked Dr. Warmissed the reward of the only action of his ton with abundant severity; but in which he life which can be said to throw a blemish on entangled himself, more than his adversary, in Eis respectable memory.
the coarse-spun robes of his special pleading. “In the year 1748-9 he had begun, and in The Essay, for a time, raised up to him another 1753 he finished and published, an edition of į enemy, to whom his conduct has even an air
of submissiveness. In commenting on a line “ He now visited London more frequently of Pope, he hazarded a remark on Hogarth's than before. The circle of his friends, in the propensity to intermix the ludicrous with metropolis, comprehended all the members of attempts at the sublime. Hogarth revenge Burke's and Johnson's Literary Club. With fully introduced Dr. Warton's works into one Johnson himself he was for a long time on inof his satirical pieces, and vowed to bear him timate terms; but their friendship suffered a eternal enmity. Their mutual friends, how breach which was never closed, in consequence
ever, interfered, and the artist was pacified. of an argument, which took place between | Dr. Warton, in the next edition, altered his them, during an evening spent at the house
just animadversion on Hogarth into an ill. of Sir Joshua Reynolds. The concluding merited compliment.
words of their conversation are reported, by “By delaying to re-publish his Essay on one who was present, to have been these, Pope, he ultimately obtained a more dis Johnson said, 'Sir, I am not accustomed to be passionate hearing from the public for the contradicted.' Warton replied, "Better, sir, work in its finished state. In the meantime, for yourself and your friends if you were : our he enriched it with additions digested from respect could not be increased, but our love the reading of half a lifetime. The author of might.' The Pursuits of Literature' has pronounced “In 1782 he was indebted to his friend, Dr. it a common-place book ; and Richardson, the Lowth, Bishop of London, for a prebend of St. novelist, used to call it a literary gossip : but Paul's, and the living of Thorley, in Hertford. a testimony in its favour, of more authority shire, which, after some arrangements, he than any individual opinion, will be found in exchanged for that of Wickham. His ecclethe popularity with which it continues to be siastical preferments came too late in life to read. It is very entertaining, and abounds place him in that state of leisure and indewith criticism of more research than Addi pendence which might have enabled him to son's, of more amenity than Hurd's or War- devote his best years to literature, instead of burton's, and of more insinuating tact than the drudgery of a school. One great project, Johnson's. At the same time, while much which he announced, but never fulfilled, ingenuity and many truths are scattered over namely, 'A General History of Learning,' was, the Essay, it is impossible to admire it as an in all probability, prevented by the pressure entire theory, solid and consistent in all its of his daily occupations. In 1788, through parts. It is certainly setting out from un the interest of Lord Shannon, he obtained a fortunate premises to begin his 'Remarks on prebend of Winchester ; and, through the Pope' with grouping Dryden and Addison in interest of Lord Malmsbury, was appointed to the same class of poets, and to form a scale the rectory of Euston, which he was afterfor estimating poetical genius, which would wards allowed to exchange for that of Upham. set Elijah Fenton in a higher sphere than In 1793 he resigned the fatigues of his masterButler. He places Pope, in the scale of our ship of Winchester; and having received, poets, next to Milton, and above Dryden; yet from the superintendents of the institution, a he applies to him the exact character which vote of well-earned thanks, for his long and Voltaire gives to the heartless Boileau-that meritorious services, he went to live at his of a writer, perhaps, incapable of the sub rectory of Wickham. lime which elevates, or of the feeling which “During his retirement at that place, he affects the soul.' With all this, he tells us, was induced, by a liberal offer of the bookthat our poetry and our language are ever sellers, to superintend an edition of Pope. lastingly indebted to Pope : he attributes which he published in 1797. It was objected genuine tenderness to the 'Elegy on an Un to this edition, that it contained only his fortunate Lady;' a strong degree of passion * Essay on Pope,' cut down into notes; his to the 'Epistle on Eloise ;' invention and biographer, however, repels the objection, by fancy to The Rape of the Lock;' and a alleging that it contains a considerable portion picturesque conception to some parts of of new matter. In his zeal to present every. * Windsor Forest, which he pronounces thing that could be traced to the pen of Pope, worthy of the pencil of Rubens or Julio he introduced two pieces of indelicate humour, Romano. There is something like April “The Double Mistress,' and the second satire Weather in these transitions.
of Horace. For the insertion of those pieces, "In May, 1766, he was advanced to the he received a censure in the Pursuits of head-mastership of Winchester School. In Literature,' which, considering his grey hairs consequence of this promotion, he once more and services in the literary world, was unbevisited Oxford, and proceeded to the degree coming, and which my individual partiality for of bachelor and doctor in divinity. After a Mr. Matthias makes me wish that I had not union of twenty years, he lost his first wife, to record. by whom he had six children ; but his family “As a critic, Dr. Warton is distinguished and his professional situation requiring a do by his love of the fanciful and romantic. He mestic partner, he had been only a year a examined our poetry at a period when it apwidower, when he married a Miss Nicholas, of peared to him that versified observations on Winchester.
familiar life and manners had usurped the