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and thus was introduced to the Rev. Charles work, entitled “A Collection of Songs and Kingsley and others who were promoting that Ballads relative to the London 'Prentices and movement. Still continuing to write, his Trades, and to the Affairs of London name began to be known; and in 1853 generally, during the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, * Christabel” took the public completely by and Sixteenth centuries." He also edited surprise. Five editions of the work were A Book of English Songs,” and “A Book published in two years ; his pecuniary circum. of Scottish Songs, with Notes and Observastances improved in proportion to his fame tions.” In 1856 Dr, Mackay published the as a poet; and in 1855 he removed to Edin “Lump of Gold," and in the following year burgh, where in 1856 he issued “ Craigerook “ Under Green Leaves," two poetical works Castle," in his own estimation his best work. abounding with verses of the utmost melody, A collected edition of his poems has lately been rich with the choicest English epithets and published.

phrases. After the publication of these works Dr. Mackay made a tour to America, where

he delivered lectures upon “Poetry and Song," CHARLES MACKAY.

receiving everywhere a cordial and enthusiastic

reception; his poetry and songs, owing perCharles Mackay, a poet and journalist, haps to the higher standard of education in was born at Perth, in 1814. He is a de the Northern States, being well known and scendant of an honourable Highland family, appreciated among our Transatlantic cousins. the Mackays of Strathnever. Having received After his return to this country he published the rudiments of his education in London, he his “Life and Liberty in America,” which was in 1827 sent to a school at Brussels, and is characterized in the Athenæum as a bright, he remained in Belgium and Germany for fresh, and hopeful book ; worthy of an some years. On his return to this country he author whose songs are oftenest heard on abandoned his intention of entering the East the Atlantic. He also edited a Christmas India Service, for which he had been originally book, entitled “The Home Affections as intended by his uncle, General Mackay, and portrayed by the Poets." Dr. Mackay lately devoted himself to literature. In 1835, after published a narrative poem, entitled “A the publication of a small volume of poems Man's Heart," and has just edited “A which attracted the notice of Mr. John Black, Collection of the Jacobite Ballads of Scothe became connected with the “Morning land." He has been actively engaged in Chronicle." While employed in his arduous journalism, and was connected with the studies as sub-editor of a daily paper, Mr. “ London Review." Like all the great songMackay published two poetical works, writers, Dr. Mackay is a musician, and the Hope of the World," and "The Salamandrine," composer of all the melodies published with a third edition of which, illustrated by Gilbert, many of his songs. He possesses in a high appeared in 1856; within the same period he degree the rare faculty of a true lyric poet, published three works in prose, viz., “The that of working his words and music up into Thames and its Tributaries,” “Popular harmony and unison with the feelings they Delusions,” and “Longbeard, Lord of Lon

express. don, a Romance.” In 1844 he removed from London to Glasgow, to succeed the late Mr. Weir as editor of the "Argus," then a lead

MATTHEW ARNOLD. ing liberal journal in the West of Scotland.

“He was the eldest son of Dr. Arnold, the During his residence in Scotland he produced

well-known and highly-esteemed Master of * The Legends of the Isles, and other Poems,

Rugby School, and was born at Laleham, A Series of Twelve Letters to Lord Morpeth

1822. He won the Newdegate prize for on the Education of the People," and a

English verse at Oxford in 1843, and became volume entitled “ The Scenery and Poetry of a fellow of Oriel College in 1845. He was the English Lakes: a Summer Ramble." He

elected Professor of Poetry at Oxford in 1857. also published “Voices from the Crowd,” He has taken an active part in the promotion which contained the spirit-stirring song of middle-class education, and has contributed " The Good Time Coming." It was while Mr.

largely to the periodical literature of the day." Mackay remained in Scotland that he received

-Beeton's “ Dict. Univ. Biog." from the University of Glasgow the honorary degree of LL.D. In 1847 he returned to the metropolis, where he succeeded to the political editorship of the " Illustrated London News."

WILLIAM COX BENNETT. He published, in 1848, his " Town Lyrics; “He was born at Greenwich in 1820, and, in 1850, “ Egeria, or the Spirit of Nature; and as a modern English song-writer, his poems of other Poems,” to which was prefixed “ An childhood and other home subjects have Inquiry into the alleged Anti-poetical deservedly attained celebrity. His first volume Tendencies of the present Age.” In 1851 he of 'Poems' was published 1847 ; War Songs, edited for the Percy Society, with Notes and 1857 ; Queen Eleanor's Vengeance and an Introduction, an important antiquarian other Poems,' 1858; 'Songs by a Song

The

writer,' and 'Baby May and other Poems nature could absorb and feel its profoundest on Infants, both in 1859. His verses have meanings. The man who tosses it aside bea large number of readers as well in America cause it is difficult' is simply adopting a as in England, and he is now a contributor to subterfuge to hide bis moral littleness, not ! the Weekly Dispatch newspaper."--Beeton's his mental incapacity. It would be unsafe to “Dict. Univ. Biog."

predict anything concerning a production so many-sided; but we quite believe that its true public lies outside the literary circle, that men

of inferior capacity will grow by the aid of it, ROBERT BROWNING.

and that feeble women, once fairly initiated “Robert Browning is one of the most dis into the mystery, will cling to it as a suocour tinguished of modern English poets. He was passing all succour save that which is purely born near London in 1812. In 1836 he religious. Is it not here that we find the published 'Paracelsus,' which was favourably supremacy of Shakspeare's greatness ? Shaksreceived; and in 1837 produced 'Strafford,' a peare, so far as we have been able to observe, tragedy, in which Ir. Macready, the actor, places the basis of his strange power on his personated the hero. His other works are appeal to the draff of humanity. He is the Sordello,' 'Pippa Passes,' "The Blot in the delight of men and women by no means Scutcheon,' • King Victor and King Charles,' brilliant, by no means subtle; while he holds * Dramatic Lyrics,' 'Return of the Druses,' with equal sway the sympathies of the most

Colombe's Birth-day,' . Dramatic Romances,' endowed. A small intellect may reach to the &c. Of all his writings, perhaps his 'Pippa heart of Shakspearean power; not so a small Passes' and 'The Blot in the Scutcheon' nature. The key to the mystery is spiritual. are the best. His latest work, The Ring | Since Shakspeare we have had many poetsand the Book,' appeared in 1868.”—Beeton's poets, we mean, offering a distinct addition “Dict. Univ. Biog.”

to the fabric of human thought and language. Criticising the “ Ring and the Book,” the We have had Milton, with his stately and Atheneum, in one of its numbers published in crystal speech, his special disposition to 1869, on the publication of the last volume, spiritualize polemics, his profound and silent thus spoke of it:

contemplation of heavenly processions. We "At last, the opus magnum of our generation have had Dryden, with his nervous filterlies before the world—the 'ring is rounded '; ings of English diction ; and we have had the and we are left in doubt which to admire so-called Puritan singers, with their sweetly most, the supremely precious gold of the English fancies touched with formal charity, material or the wondrous beauty of the work like wild flowers sprinkled with holy water. manship. The fascination of the work is still In latter days, we have been wealthy indeed. so strong upon us, our eyes are still so spell Wordsworth has consecrated Nature, giren bound by the immortal features of Pompilia the hills a new silence, shown in simple lines (which shine through the troubled mists of the solemnity of deep woods and the sweetthe story with almost insufferable beauty), ness of running brooks. Keats and Shelley that we feel it difficult to write calmly and caught up the solemn consecration, and without exaggeration ; yet we must record at uttered it with a human passion and an once our conviction, not merely that The ecstatic emotion that were themselves a Ring and the Book' is beyond all parallel the revelation. Byron has made his Epimethean supremest poetical achievement of our time, and somewhat discordant moan.

Numberless but that it is the most precious and profound minor men, moreover, have brightened old spiritual treasure that England has produced outlines of thought and made clear what since the days of Shakspeare. Its intellec before was dim with the mystery of the tual greatness is as nothing compared with original prophet. In our own time, Carlyle its transcendent spiritual teaching. Day -a poet in his savage way-has driven some after day it grows into the soul of the reader, new and splendid truths (and as many errors) until all the outlines of thought are brightened into the heart of the people. But it is doubtand every mystery of the world becomes more ful, very doubtful, if any of the writers we and more softened into human emotion. Once have named-still less any of the writers we and for ever must critics dismiss the old stale have not named-stands on so distinct and charge that Browning is a mere intellectual perfect a ground of vantage as to be algiant, difficult of comprehension, hard of as together safe as a human guide and helper. similation. This great book is difficult of The student of Wordsworth, for example, is comprehension, is hard of assimilation; not in danger of being hopelessly narrowed and because it is obscure — every fibre of the dwarfed, unless he turns elsewhere for thought is clear as day; not because it is in. qualities quite un-Wordsworthian; and the tellectual,-and it is intellectual in the highest same is true of the students of Milton and of sense,—but because the capacity to compre Shelley. Of Shakspeare alone (but perhaps hend such a book must be spiritual ; because, to a certain extent, of Burns) would it be although a child's brain might grasp the safe to say, 'Communion with his soul is general features of the picture, only a purified ample in itself ; his thought must freshen, can

never cramp, is ever many-sided and full of the free air of the world.' This, then, is

ALEXANDER SMITH. supremely significant, that Shakspeare- un “Alexander Smith, a modern Scotch poet, like the Greek dramatists, unlike the Biblical

was born in 1830, and died Jan.5, 1867. He was poets, unlike all English singers save Chaucer

intended for the ministry; but circumstances only-had no special teaching whatever He

having conspired to prevent his entering upon was too human for special teacbing. He

the necessary course of study, he was put to touched all the chords of human life; and life,

the business of a lace-designer in Glasgow; so far from containing any universal lesson, while following which, he devoted his leisure is only a special teaching for each individual

to the composition of verses. Having for- sibylline riddle, by which each man may warded some extracts from his Life Drama educate bimself after his own fashion."

to the Rev. George Gilfillan, of Dundee, that gentleman was so highly pleased with the youthful poet's effusions as to obtain a place

for them in the columns of the Critic. He JOHN KEBLE, M.A.

subsequently produced 'City Poems' and " John Keble, M.A., a highly popular writer

'Edwin of Deira," and three volumes of prose, of sacred poetry, for many years vicar of

entitled Dreamthorp,''

A Summer in Skye,' Hursley, in Hampshire. Soon after taking

and 'Alfred Hagart's Household'; he also his B.A. degree he was chosen fellow of Oriel

edited an edition of the works of Burns. In College, Oxford ; and from 1831 to 1841 was

1854 he was appointed secretary to the Edinprofessor of poetry at his university. His burgh University.”- Beeton's “Dict. Univ. chief works are the Christian Year,' of which

Biog."
thousands of copies have been sold, and
Lyra Innocentium.' Born 1792; died 1856."
-Beeton's "Dict. Univ. Biog."

RICHARD CHENEVIX TRENCH, D.D.

“The present Archbishop of Dublin is best

known as a modern English philologer. He HON. CAROLINE ELIZABETH SARAH

was born in 1807, and after completing his

studies at the University of Cambridge, entered NORTON.

into orders, and became a country curate. “This modern English poetess was one of His earliest efforts in literature were as a the three daughters of Thomas Sheridan, son poet, in imitation of the chaste style of of the celebrated Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Wordsworth. After obtaining some preferShe was born in 1808. Her father dying ment in the Church, he became in 1846 a while she was still very young, her care select preacher at the University of Cambridge, devolved upon her mother, who gave her a and in 1856, after the death of Dr. Buckland, high education. At the age of nineteen she was appointed Dean of Westminster. In became the wife of the Hon. George Chapple 1864 he succeeded Dr. Whately as Archbishop Norton, the barrister and police-magistrate, a of Dublin. His most important works were, union which proved an unhappy one. In Notes on the Miracles,' Proverbs and their 1829 she commenced her career of authorship Lessons,' Synonyms of the New Testament,' by publishing anonymously the “Sorrows of and "The Study of Words.'”-Beeton's Rosalie,' a tale, and other poems. In the “Dict. Univ. Biog." following year she achieved the greatest success as a poetess, with the production of her "Undying One,' and other poems, which the Quarterly Review declared to be worthy

ERNEST JONES. of Lord Byron. The Child of the Islands,' 'Aunt Carry's Ballads for Children,' and

“ Ernest Jones was educated in Germany, Stuart of Dunleath,' a novel, were her sub and having kept his terms as a law-student of sequent works. In 1854 her warm sympathies the Middle Temple, was called to the bar in with the social wrongs of her sex found ex 1844. In the following year he joined the pression in a work entitled 'English Laws for Chartist movement, and soon became one of Women in the 19th Century. This work was the most conspicuous and active leaders of the privately printed ; but a very large circulation party; remaining so until Chartism expired was obtained for a later effort of the same in 1858. During this period he edited the character, which was named ' A Letter to the People's Paper and other Chartist periodicals. Qneen on Lord Chancellor Cranworth's Mar In 1848 he was tried for making a seditious riage and Divorce Bill.' In 1862 she published speech, and condemned to two years' ima poem entitled 'The Lady of Garaye,' which prisonment. He stood for Halifax in 1847, met with considerable public favour." and Nottingham in 1853 and 1857, without Beeton's " Dict. Univ. Biog."

success. In January, 1869, when it was supposed that Mr. Hugh Birley would lose his seat for Manchester, through being a govern

ment contractor at the time of his election, in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth!' and 'Two Mr. Jones was chosen by ballot to fill the Years Ago.'. These novels, by their great expected vacancy against Mr. Milner Gibson, excellence, have placed their author among the but died a few days after. He was an honest foremost of recent writers. Mr. Kingsley politician, for he refused a large fortune rather also produced a volume for juvenile reading, than give up his principles. He wrote the called 'The Heroes,' in which the deeds of * Revolt of Hindostan,' The Battle Day,' some great chiefs of the Grecian mythology and other poems. He was born about 1820." are narrated in a captivating manner. -Beeton's "Dict. Univ. Biog."

Among the more important of his religions writings may be enumerated, “The Message of the Church to Labouring Men,' 'Sermons

on National Subjects, preached in a Village REV. CHARLES KINGSLEY.

Church,' and 'Sermons for the Times;'all

of these being inspired by a pure, generous, “The Rev. Charles Kingsley, a distinguished

and enlightened Christian feeling. He ex. modern novelist and essayist. At fourteen

pounded mental philosophy in his · Phaeton ; years of age he became the pupil of the Rev.

or, Loose Thoughts for Loose Thinkers,' and Derwent Coleridge, son of the poet : he after

his Alexandria and her Schools ;' while, for wards went to Cambridge University, where

natural philosophy and the observation of he distinguished himself both in classics and

nature, he contributed his 'Glaucus; or, the mathematics. He was at first intended for

Wonders of the Shore. He likewise wrote the law, but the church was afterwards

for Fraser's Magazine, the North British chosen. In 1842 he was appointed curate of

Review, and the Encyclopædia Britannica. Eversley, in Hampshire ; two years later he

His last works of importance are The succeeded to the same living. He married,

Roman and the Teuton,' lectures delivered at about the same time, a daughter of Mr.

Cambridge in 1864; and a novel entitled Grenfell, who represented Truro and Great

'Heraward the Wake; or, the Last of the Marlow in Parliament for many years, and whose other daughter became the wife of

English.' A bold, independent, and earnest

thinker, Mr. Kingsley, in every one of his the eminent historian Mr. J. A. Froude. His

popular and excellent work., contributed to first acknowledged contributions to literature

elevating the tone of modern society, and to were a volume of Village Sermons,' and

giving it a more enlarged and refined appreci• The Saint's Tragedy,' a drama in verse, pub

ation of the good, beautiful, and true, whether lished in 1848. 'Alton Locke, Tailor and

in art or nature. He succeeded Sir James Poet,' was his third essay, and, from its

Stephen as professor of modern history in the first appearance, it commanded the greatest

University of Cambridge, in 1859. Born at attention. The bold and earnest views of its

Holne Vicarage, Devonshire, 1819."-Beeton's anthor-'the Chartist clergyman,' as he was

“ Dict. Univ. Biog." called — sank deeply into the public mind. This novel has been several times reprinted; its treatment of social and political questions remaining as fresh and valuable as when the book first came before the public, A second

HENRY KINGSLEY. novel, - Yeast, a Problem,' was first pub “ Henry Kingsley, brother of the preceding, lished in Fraser's Magazine,' and afterwards was educated at King's College, London, and reprinted in 1851 : this is a philosophical at Oxford. In 1852 he went to Australia, rather than a political novel. His subsequent from which he returned in 1858. He contri. works were 'Hypatia ; or, New Foes with an buted to "Fraser's' and 'Macmillan's' old Face,' a beautiful descriptive fiction, magazines ; ' Ravenshoe,' "Geoffry Hamlyn,' illustrating the times of the early Christian and · The Hillyars and the Burtons,' being the church in the East; Westward Ho! or, the best known of his productions. Born 1830."Voyages and Adventures of Sir Amyas Leigh Beeton's " Dict. Univ. Biog."

SEVENTI PERIOD.

From 1780 to 1866.

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dwell ;

1077.—THE CHARACTER OF CHATHAM. A. Patriots, alas! the few that have been

found Where most they flourish, upon English

ground, The country's need have scantily supplied ; And the last left the scene when Chatham

died. B. Not so; the virtue still adorns our age, Though the chief actor died upon the stage. In himn Demosthenes was heard again; Liberty taught him her Athenian strain; She clothed him with authority and awe, Spoke from his lips, and in his looks gave

law. His speech, his form, his action full of grace, And all his country beaming in his face, He stood as some inimitable hand Would strive to make a Paul or Tully stand. No sycophant or slave that dared oppose Her sacred cause, but trembled when he rose; And every venal stickler for the yoke, Felt himself crush'd at the first word he spoke.

Cowper.-Born 1731, Died 1800.

No groves have ye; no cheerful sound of

bird, Or voice of turtle in your land is heard ; Nor grateful eglantine regales the smell Of those that walk at evening where ye But Winter, arm'd with terrors here un.

known, Sits absolute on his unshaken throne, Piles up his stores amidst the frozen waste, And bids the mountains he has built stand

fast; Beckons the legions of his storms away From happier scenes to make your lands a

prey; Proclaims the soil a conquest he has won, And scorns to share it with the distant sun. Yet Truth is yours, remote, unenvied isle ! And Peace, the genuine offspring of her smile; The pride of letter'd ignorance, that binds In chains of error our accomplish'd minds, That decks with all the splendour of the true, A false religion, is unknown to you. Nature indeed vouchsafes for our delight The sweet vicissitudes of day and night; Soft airs and genial moisture feed and cheer Field, fruit, and flower, and every creature

here; But brighter beams than his who fires the

skies Have risen at length on your admiring eyes, That shoot into your darkest caves the day From which our nicer optics turn away.

Couper.Born 1731, Died 1800.

1078.—THE GREENLAND

MISSIONARIES. That sound bespeaks salvation on her way, The trumpet of a life-restoring day; 'Tis heard where England's eastern glory

shines, And in the gulfs of her Cornubian mines. And still it spreads. See Germany send forth Her sons to pour it on the farthest north; Fired with a zeal peculiar, they defy The rage and rigour of a polar sky, And plant successfully sweet Sharon's rose On icy plains and in eternal snows. Oh bless'd within the enclosure of your

rocks, Nor herds have ye to boast, nor bleating

flocks; No fertilizing streams your fields divide, That show reversed the villas on their side ;

1079.-RURAL SOUNDS. Nor rural sights alone, but rural sounds, Exhilarate the spirit, and restore The tone of languid nature. Mighty winds That sweep the skirt of some far-spreading

wood Of ancient growth, make music not unlike The dash of ocean on his winding shore, And lull the spirit while they fill the mind, Unnumber'd branches waving in the blast, And all their leaves fast fluttering all at once.

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