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fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom." (King and kingdom are sometimes used interchangeably.) There never were but four great universal empires on earth, and there never will be another, except that of the Messiah.—His universal empire will be the fifth. The fourth beast "shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down and break it in pieces."—So did the Roman empire. And the ten horns are ten kings (or kingdoms) which shall arise out of this empire or kingdom; and another (the Little Horn) shall arise After them. And he shall be Diverse (not merely political) from the first (ten) and he shall subdue three kings; not only shall three of the kings give place to him,—but he shall destroy the antagonist power of the three empires that preceded his. "He shall speak great words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and think to change times and laws.—(These three never met in any beings save the popes of Rome.) And they shall be given into his hand until a time, and times, and the dividing of a time." A time is one annual revolution; a times, two; and half a time, half a year; in all, forty-two months; or one thousand two hundred and three score days,—the product of forty-two thirties; or forty-two Jewish months. Of all this, and of one day being given for a year, there is no controversy among Catholics or Protestants. The continuance of the empireof the Little Horn is therefore predestined to twelve hundred and sixty years.
But the judgment shall sit. The long prayed for and expected judgment shall be given in favor of the saints. Then shall be taken away his dominion to consume and to Destroy it unto the end or consummation. "Then" with anticipated triumph be itspoken—"the kingdom and dominion and the greatness of the kingdom, under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High,— (They were not all worn out by the Little Horn) whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, And All Dominions Shall Serve And Orey Him." Hitherto is the end of the matter. Now of all these items the sum is—
1. It is a beast, orempire, or power, that grew out of the Roman beast.
2. It rose after the empire was divided into ten kingdoms.
3. It was a new and different power, sagacious and politic—with human eyes—an eloquent, persuasive, and denunciatory power.
4. It supplanted and displaced three of the original states of the Roman empire or of the ten kingdoms into which it was at first divided.
5. It assumed more than any other empire. It uttered great things and its look was more stout (daring) than its fellows.
6. It made war not against sinners, like other empires—it made war against saints.
7. It prevailed for along time against them. It "wore out the saints."
8. It presumed to change times and laws. How many fasts, and feasts, and saints, and new laws, and institutions has this power set up!
9. It had power to hold in subjection all saints, and to lord it over them for a long time.
10. It was to be consumed, gradually wasted as the Protestant Reformation has been wasting its power and substance for three centuries —and is yet finally, suddenly and completely to be destroyed. Can my learned opponent find all these characteristics and circumstances in any other power or empire in the history of all time! I trust he will give mean opportunity to expatiate on these points and to defend them more fully.
Meantime, to excite attention, I positively affirm that these items never met in any King, Kingdom, State or Empire, save that of Papal Rome. There, and there only, can they all be found as large as life; and as exact as answers the image in the mirror to the face.
But I hasten to identify this prediction with the Babylon of John. And in doing this I can at present but sketch the rudest outline. Let us open the 13th chapter.
John stands in vision on the shore of the great sea, the Mediterranean. He saw a savage beast rising out of the sea. It had seven heads and ien harm, and on its heads the names of blasphemy.—It resembled the lion, the bear, and the leopard. It was composed of all that is savage. The dragon, the serpent of my opponent, Pagan Rome gave him his power and his throne, and great authority.—How much does this resemble the vision of Daniel! This seven headed Empire with ten horns—It is on this beast the woman sat—subsequently pictured out as Babylon The Great. This is the Latin Empire which sustained the Latin church. This is the beast out of which the Little Horn grew. The wounded head or the imperial, which was the sixth head, was healed by the great Charles, and his new empire controlled by the ecclesiastic beast, spoke blasphemies and daring things against God, his name, and all that dwell in heaven. This new religious and political Empire "made war againstthe saints and overcame them." "And itcontinued forforty-two months" "a time, and times and a dividing of time." His dominion extended over all the western Roman Empire. But next comes the Little Horn—the ecclesiastical beast.—In John's vision this beast resembles a lamb, but it speaks like a dragon! Christian Rome spoke like Pagan Rome! It obliged all the earth to worship the dragon—It was Catholic!! It made an image of the Pagan beast. It gave life to this image, and compelled all to die or worship the image of the Pagan beast. It was then a bloody persecuting beast. It was idolatrous as Pagan Rome. But instead of worshiping dead heroes it worships dead saints—instead of Goddesses it has Lordesses; angels instead of demi-gods.—
Indeed Papal Rome has borrowed much from Pagan Rome—Old Rome had herpontt/ex maximus, her purgatory, priests and priestesses, her victims and " hosts." She had her lustral water as modern Rome has her holy water. She had her vestal virgins as her descendant has her nuns. She had her Pantheon as modern Rome has her Vatican, and in the niches where stood the gods of the dragon now stand the saints of the Roman Draconic lamb.
My present argument requires me to identify this beast with the Roman church or with the Little Horn.—And therefore in addition to the resembling attributes already traced I proceed to the most definite of its marks. "Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding compute the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man, and his number is six hundred and sixty six."—
The ecclesiastic beast, or kingdom is thus definitely the letters of a name which together make 666. The name of a man is the name of this kingdom. Now we begin with a Roman saint—even with the great Irenaeus. We shall find in the name of the king and founder of the Latin empire the name of this prophetic personage—It is said by
the saint that among the Greeks the king's name was written Lateinos the letters of which being numerals in that language exactly make the sum: for A 30
1 T 300
He made the name of the founder stand for the name of the empire. But Bellarmine, a learned Jesuit, objects to this—that in the language and at the time the Revelation was written the orthography of this name was Axtivk, and not A&tuvo;. And this being so there is a plausible, nay a relevant objection aginst the interpretation of Irenaeus. We pause not to examine this matter; because we find a much more consistent and convincing exposition in the true and proper name of the Institution which in Greek was always written in full.
Ha«t..,s«;.,.i.». The Latin Kingdom. H=8, A=30. «=1, T=300, *—10, v=50, ,=.8. fi=2, «=1, t==200, —10, x=30, i=5, .=10, «=l: The sum, 666.
The conclusion from these premises is, that as there is no other kingdom on earth whose name is exactly 666—and as the beast, the symbol of this kingdom, has been proved to be the Latin empire, and He Latine Basileia, being proved to contain 666, this definitely and clearly marks out the Roman Institution as that to which the 13th chapter of the apocalypse and the 7th chapter of Daniel refer.
The only question of apparent difficulty that can be here asked, is: —Whether Rome Pagan or Rome Papal is intended: for that Rome is intended cannot be questioned. That it is Rome Papal is evident from the fact that what is called the second Beast, chap. 13, verse 12, is, chap. 18 and 20, called the false prophet—and this is the beast whose name is given as numerically equivalent to 666.
This moreover explains that love of Latin which to this day distinguishes this party. They not only have long gloried in the name Roman or Latin Catholic or Church of Rome, but they still say mass in Latin, and perform their religious services in that dead language; for although Paul " had rather speak five sentences in the vernacular, than ten thousand sentences in an unknown tongue"—that he might edify his hearers,—and although in the age of the "primitive Fathers" the whole church prayed and taught in the language of every country where they worshiped; still for the sake of Latin, to this day and even in this country, Romanists perform their most devout services in that dead and foreign tongue as though God himself preferred that language to every other. Thus they are providentially bearing to all nations and languages the grand mark, and the number of the name which identifies them as the beast and Babylon of John.
To return to the imagery of the Prophet John:—In the 17th chapter this ecclesiastic establishment is compared to a great harlot, with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and as having intoxicated all the inhabitants of the earth with the wine of her whoredom. The woman is further identified by being described as sitting upon a scarlet beast, full of blasphemous names, having seven heads and ten horns; and she is adorned with purple and scarlet, with gold, and diamonds, and pearls; having a golden cup in her hand, full of the abomination and pollution of her whoredoms. She had upon her forehead her
name written:—" Mvstery, Barylon The Great, The Mother 07 Harlots, And Of The abominations Of The Earth." And to make the matter more certain, the Spirit testifies, verse 18: "The woman which you saw is the great city (spiritually called Babylon, literally, Papal Rome) that rules over the kings of the earth."
Having thus connected these symbols, and seen the co-adaptation to the same subject we shall here introduce the Apostle Paul with his plain and unfigurative description of the Man of Sin, 2d chap. 2d Thessalonians, and examine the congruity of his description with the symbols of Daniel and John. He may be regarded as the literal interpreter of them both.
"Let no man deceive you by any means : for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshiped; so that he, as God, sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God. Remember ye not, that, when I was yet with you, I told you these things? And now ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his time. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work; only he who now letteth will let, until he he taken out of the way. And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming: Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all powers, and signs, and lying wonders, and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved." Verses 3—10. The Apostle foretells an apostacy (a falling away) in the Church; which apostacy would issue in the full revelation or manifestation of The Man Of Sin, (or of idolatry, for this is the sin of Jews and Gentiles.) The Man of Sin is again designated as the Son Of Perdition. He was the subject of past prophecy as Judas was; for on that account he too was called the Son of Perdition—foredoomed to ruin. The names of Man of Sin and Son of ruin, fitly represent this apostacy. The attributes and circumstances peculiar to this passage are the following.
1. He was to come forward stealthily by degrees and unobserved, (like Daniel's Little Horn, to grow up behind the others) "The secret, or mystery of iniquity already inwardly works."
2. He could not be revealed till " He who restrains or lets (the Pagan power) be taken out of the way." Political power as well as ecclesiastic was necessary to his development. So the Little Horn did not appear conspicuous till after the ten horns grew out of the fourth beast. The Man of Sin is, in historic truth, the youngest horn that sprung from the Pagan beast.
3. He was to exalt himself above all that is called a God, or an object of worship. My learned opponent will agree with me that God here may mean, as sometimes it does in the Bible, a magistrate or king. And certainly not only in the arrogant titles which he assumes, but in the dispensations which he has granted, in respect to laws divine and human, no magistrate, king, or potentate, ever claimed so much on earth as the Man of Sin, as the Popes of Rome He is not only styled "Universal Father," "Holy Father," "His Holiness," "Sovereign Pontiff," "Supreme Head of the Church on Earth," "Pater Familias," "Successor of Peter," "Prince of the apostles," "Infallible One," "Vicar of Christ," "Lieutenant of
i places himself"in the templi Man of Sin more specifically than any other attribute or circumstance in the passage. He is no Pagan idolater; he is no infidel Jew; he is no author of a new religion; but he sits in the Church of Jesus Christ— God's building—God's temple—holding the fundamental truths of religion, as did this community when the Man of Sin invaded the Church; for, yet, the great facts of Christianity are acknowledged by the Church of Rome, though "made of no effect by her traditions."
5. He exhibits or "shows himself to be a god." He claims to reign not only for Christ as his vicar, but the homage due to a representative of God he haughtily appropriates to himself. Such is the prediction of the man of sin; and who that is conversant wi'' history of the popes of Rome, from their coronation, standing altar in St. Peter's church, receiving the title of God's vicegerent, assuming the honors of the supreme head of the whole church; power over the angels of heaven, over the inhabitants of Hades, and over the laws and statutes of the bible, can think that Paul exaggerates the picture by saying that this son of perdition, and man of sin, was to pass himself off, was to "show himself as a God."
6. He is called The Lawless One; verse 8, "the wicked one." So Daniel's little horn is represented as "changing (or seeking to change) the times and the laws." Instances of such dispensations and indulgences could be multiplied, ad libitum, demonstrative that such have always been the professions and assumptions of the "Princes of the Apostles."
7. But another incident in the history of the decline of the man of sin deserves our attention, and singularly identifies him with the empire of the little horn. "Whom the Lord shall consume (or slay) by the spirit of his mouth, and destroy by the brightness of his coming." And of the dominion of the little horn, says Daniel: "They shall consume and destroy it to the end." Paul seems to have quoted the very words of Daniel, and thus most unquestionably identified the man of sin and little horn as designating the same apostacy from Christ and his religion.
8. In describing the coming of this man of sin, he is compared to the deceptions, assumptions, and approaches of Satan, who has often assumed a divine mission or the power of miracles. So the Roman church has ever pretended to the power of working miracles, and has gained and still retains much power by false signs and lying wonders.
Of this apostacy, and of the rise and progress of this man of sin, as described by Paul, we may mark his growth and progress in full agreement with the records of authentic history in the following order and style:—He was an embryo in Paul's time. (The mystery of iniquity doth already inwardly work). He was an infant in the time of Victor I., 195. He was a bold and daring lad in the time of Constantine the Great. A sturdy stripling in the days of Leo I., when auricular confession came in. He was nineteen years old in the days of Justinian's code; and a young man full twenty-one, when Boniface III. received from Phocas the title of Universal Patriarch or Pope, A. D. 606. He was twenty-five when Pepin and Charlemagne gave him political power and glory, A. D. 760: and at full prime, or at thirty-five, when Gregory the Great took the crown from the em