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suits,” Paris, 1612, Svo. 3.“ Petri Hardovilierii Actio pro Academia Parisiensi adversus Presbyteros & Scholasticos Collegii Claromontanii babita in Senatu Parisiensi. ann. 1611,” Paris, 1612, 8vo. Niceron observes, that our author's satirical style was very like that of the famous Scbioppius, which was apparently the reason of his chusing that mask, which suited him exactly well.

The two subsequent years he employed his pen in satire · and panegyric, both grossly exaggerated. These panegyrics are, 1. “ Oraison L'Andreæ de Nesmond premier President du Parlement de Bourdeaux." This oration was made in 1616, when that president died, and was printed with his remonstrances at Lyons, 1656, 4to. 2. “ Colossus Henrico Magno in ponte novo positus, Carmen,” Paris, 1617, 4to. That famous equestrian statue was erected Aug. 25, 1614. The satire is, “ Le banquet des Playdoiers de Mr. Servin, par Charles de l'Espinoell," 1617, 8vo; a virulent attack on the magistrate Servin.

In 1618, he took the four vows, and became a father of his order. This is the highest title conferred on that or any other of the monastie institutions, and our author, being thereby admitted to read and study the sublimest mysteries of his religion, in a few years appeared upon the stage of the public in the character of a zealous champion for the faith, against the infidels and prophaners of those mysteries. But in the mean time his pen was far from lying idle. In 1620 he printed a piece entitled “ Rabelais reformed by the ministers, particularly Peter du Moulin, minister of Charenton, in answer to the buffooneries inserted in his book” (of the invocation of pastors); and two years afterwards he ventured to attack the ghost of Stephen Pasquier, in another piece, entitled “Recherches des Recherches & autres cuvres d'Etienne Pasquier.” There cannot be given a better specimen of the peculiar strain of his satirical wit, than is furnished by the epistle dedicatory to this book. It is addressed to the late Stephen Pasquier, wherever he may be : “ for,” says he, “ having never been able to find out your religion, I know not the route or way you took at your departure out of this life; and therefore I am forced to write to you at a venture, and to address this packet wherever you may be."

Garasse the next year, 1628, published “ La Doctrine curieuse des beaux esprits de ce temps, &c. The curious doctrine of the wits, or pretenders to wit, of this age, con

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taining several maxims pernicious to the state of religion and good manners, refuted and overthrown." He took occasion in several places of this work, to throw out rough and abusive raillery upon Pasquier; and went on in the same strain, in a third production, printed in 1625, 4to. The sons of Pasquier were at last provoked beyond all patience, to see the manes of their father so irreligiously disturbed. Resolving to revenge bis memory, and to pay our author in his own coin, they published a treatise, in which Garasse was thus accosted: having recounted the words of his dedication just mentioned; “ This," say they, in the singular number, “has made me use the same freedom with you, and forced me to address this packet to you, in what place soever you may be. For, not knowing whether you may be at the service-tree, which you call a tavern of honour, and where you confess you have had many a good meal free-cost; or at the town of Clomar, in the suburbs of St. Germain, where your name is written in such fair characters on all the mantle-trees of the chimnies; or in some other place of the same kind; I am constrained to send you this book at a venture, and to direct it to you in what place soever you be.” The truth was, that in general the free course of Garasse's life ran parallel to that of his wit, which he had indulged to such a height in his “ Doctrine Curieuse,” that notwithstanding the specious title against atheists and atheistical libertines prefixed by the author, a very different one was bestowed upon it by others, particularly Naudè, who distinguished it by the title of “ Atheism reduced to an art.” Prior Ogier, in particular, having observed that our author was better qualified for a satirical poet or a merry Andrew*, than for a catholic doctor, exclaimed against the whole order, for making choice of such a champion. This was made public the same year ; and in the following our author issued a defence, entitled “ Apologie de F. Garasse,” &c. To this the prior immediately prepared for a reply; but here the fraternity stepped in, and procured such mediators as found means to end the dispute in an amicable way. The jesuit prevented his antagonist by a letter full of civilities, which was answered in the same way by the prior, and care was taken to let the public see those letters, as soon as they

• He alludes to Garasse's assuming sure de livre de la Doctrine Curieuse the name of Andrew Schioppius. The de Françoise Garasse." title of the book is “ Jugement et Cen

were written, in 1624*. By the same method our author was also reconciled to Balzac, with whose character he had made free, having provided a seat for him among the atheists of the times.

The “ Doctrine Curieuse," carried the strongest marks of a most busy and active temper ; vivacity was the 'characteristic of the author, and he had no sooner escaped the difficulties which that treatise brought upon him, but he plunged into another, of a much more threatening aspect. This was created by a book he published in 1625, under the title of “ La Somme Theologique des veritès capitales de la religion Chretienne.” It was this book which first excited the war between the Jansenists and the Jesuits, and in the following manner. The abbot of St. Cyran, observing in Garasse's book a prodigious number of falsifications of Scripture and the fathers, besides many he. retical and impious opinions, thought the honour of the church required a refutation of them. Accordingly, he wrote an answer at large, in four parts. But while the first part was in the press, the noise it

where made occasioned Garasse's book to be more carefully examined. March 2, 1626, the rector of the Sorbonne declared before that society that he had received several complaints of it; and, proposing to have it examined, a committee was appointed for that purpose, who should give their opinion of it on the 2d of May following. This matter alarming Garasse, he presently after this appointment published at Paris, “ L'abus decouverte,” &c. In this piece he drew up a list of 111 propositions; the most easy to maintain that he could find, and having composed a censure of them, which he pretended was that of the abbot St. Cyran, he refuted that answer with ease. This coming to the hands of St. Cyran, March 16, he wrote some notes upon it the same day, which were printed with the title of “A refutation of the pretended abuse, and discovery of the true ignorance and vanity of father Francis Garasse;" and the committee of the Sorbonne made their report on the day appointed. But some persons who approved the book desired more time, and that the propositions censured might be communicated to them. This was granted; and on the 1st of July, attempting partly to defend, and partly


* In favour of Garasse they bore & bujus ad illum de sua cum Ecclesia Lhis artful title, “ Literæ a D. Ogier reconciliatione."

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to explain it, they found themselves under a necessity of confessing that there were some passages in it which could not be excused; and that F. Garasse had promised to correct them, without performing his promise. On this, the doctors agreeing that the book ought to be censured, the censure was accordingly passed Sept. 1, and immediately published, with the title of “ Censura S. Facultatis Theologicæ, &c. The Censure of the sacred Faculty of the Clergy at Paris, upon a book entitled Theological Summary of F. Francis Garasse.” The sentence was to this effect, that the summary contained several heretical, erroneous, scandalous, and rash propositions ; several falsifications of passages of Scripture, and of the holy fathers, falsely cited, and wrested from their true sense; and an infinite number of expressions unfit to be written or read by Christians and divines.

This sentence was perfectly agreeable to the abbot of St. Cyran's critique, which, after many hindrances raised by the Jesuits, came out the same year, entitled, Collection of the faults and capital falsities contained in the Theological Summary of F. Francis Garasse *." In answer to which, our author wrote, “ Avis touchant la refutation, &c. Advice concerning the refutation of the Theological Summary of F. Garasse.” This came out also before the end of the year, and concluded the dispute between the two combatants in particular. But the two orders of Jesuits and Jansenists in general, of whom these were respectively the champions, grew from the consequences of it, into such an implacable hatred and animosity against each other, as seemed not be extinguishable by ordinary means. With respect to Garasse, the Jesuits used some kind of prudence. They did not obstinately persist in supporting him, but banished him to one of their houses at a great distance from Paris, where he was heard of no more. This punishment, to a man of his ambitious and busy temper, was worse than death. Accordingly, as if weary of such a life, when the plague raged violently in Foictiers, in 1631, he asked earnestly of his superiors to attend those that were seized with it; leave was granted, and in that charitable

# He intended four volumes, but commends it as one of the most useful the two first only were printed, and an books a man can read, especially if he abridgment of the fourth ; his name designs to set up for an author who is not in the title-page, and in the pri- argues from authorities, allusions, comvilege prefixed, he assumes the name parisons, &c. of Alexandre de l'Exclusse. Bayle re

office, catching the contagion, he died among the infected persons in the hospital, on the 14th of June that year.

. He is styled by bp. Warburton, in his Commentary on the “ Essay on Man,” an eminent casuist.'

GARCILASSO, or GARCIAS LASSO DE LA VEGA, a celebrated Spanish poet, was born of a noble family at Toledo, in 1500 or 1503. His father was a counsellor of state to Ferdinand and Isabella, and employed by them on several important negociations, particularly in an embassy to pope Alexander Vi. Garcilasso was educated near the emperor Charles V. who had a particular regard for him, and took him with him in his military expeditions, where he became as renowned for his courage as for his poetry. He accompanied that emperor into Germany, Africa, and Provence; and it was in this last expedition, in 1536, that he commanded a battalion, when he received a wound, of which he died at Nice, about three weeks after, aged only thirty-three. The wound was made by a stone thrown by a countryman from a turret, and falling upon his head. The Spanish poetry was greatly obliged to Garcilasso, not only for extending its bounds, but also for introducing new beauties into it. He had strong natural talents for poetry; and he did not fail to improve them by culture, studying the best poets ancient and modern.' His poems are full of fire; have a nobleness and majesty without affectation ; and, what is somewhat singular, there is in them a great deal of ease, united with much subtilty. Paul Jovius has not scrupled to say that his odes have all the sweetness of Horace. Though his imitations of the ancients may be traced throughout almost all his works, yet, as they are conspicuous for good taste and harmonious versification, and were written amidst many distracting occupations, there can be no doubt that he would have gained great celebrity if he had lived longer. The learned grammarian Sanctius has written commentaries upon all his works, and has illustrated him every where with very learned and curious notes. They were all printed at Naples in 1664, with this title, “ Garcilasso de la Vega Obras Poëticas con annotationes de Franc. Sanchez," in 8vo. We must not confound this poet with another person of the same name, a native of Cusco, who wrote in Spanish the History of Florida, and that of Peru and the Incas.?

| Gen. Dict. by Bayle.—Moreri.-Viceron, vol. XXXI. 2 Antonio Bibi. Hisp.-Morers.

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