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in Scotland have the power of examining what witnesses they please, for they are frequently in the situation of prosecutors." True ; for they are never judges in the last resort : they are subordinate tribunals, who make

up the case for other courts. But that man is unfit to adjudicate the smallest matter, who cannot distinguish between his duties as a prosecutor and his duties as a judge. Had they been able to allege a doubt as to certain facts on which they required clearer evidence, there might have been some colour for the proposal; but common sense, on a perusal of the trial, will discover the real motive for this dismissal of the character of judge, and assumption of that of prosecutor.

The ignorance of the Presbytery, not only in the forms of procedure in their own church, but, what was of much more importance, of the first principles of justice, betrayed them continually into acts which would have been only absurd, had they not been injurious to the cause of justice. They had heard somewhere in Scotland, that at a certain period, in a church cause, it is not competent for any to constitute themselves parties therein : and therefore, while the very matter in discussion was whether all the trustees assented to the complaint or not, they refused to hear one of the trustees, who rose to set them at rest on the subject, and to say that he did not assent to the complaint. And

the same ground they refused to listen to the united voice of the subscribers and seat-holders, expressive of their wish to retain Mr. Irving as minister. Rules for the goverment of a large community may be very good things, and tend on the whole to the promotion of justice; but it quite escaped the Rev. Gentlemen, notwithstanding their anxiety for abstract maxims, that “ summum jus" is too frequently " summa injuria.”

But, above all, and beyond all, was their daring act of defiance to God and His word, in their refusal to allow appeal to the word of God, upon a subject which, from the nature of the case, could only be determined theologically from the word of God. Let our readers mark the manner in which this was done: for, iniquitous as was the decision of the General Assembly in forbidding to Mr. Campbell a similar appeal, there was no common principle whereby to connect the present case with Mr. Campbell's, as was attempted by the Presbytery. The latter case, even had it been rightly ruled, was no precedent for the former. Mr. Campbell was charged on a matter of doctrine, which, after proving that the standards did not contradict, he attempted to support and enforce out of the word of God, and thence to draw additional proof that his was the correct construction of the standards. He was told to limit himself to the standards. But in the present case a witness was asked as to his own private belief--a matter which had nothing to do with the question, it is true; but which line of examination by Mr. Irving had been rendered neeessary by the previous examination

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by complainants and court ;-and it was on a private man's belief, not on the doctrine held by a church, that the appeal to the Scriptures was forbidden. If this be not rank Popery, to be a Papist is an impossibility.

Being thus prevented from appealing to the Scriptures, Mr. Irving put in the following Protest :-" I protest, in the presence of Alinighty God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, the only Head of the Church, that I was not permitted, in questioning the witnesses, to refer to the word of God, which is the only appeal in all questions; that my judgment therein was taken away; and that I will put no further questions.” This conduct was persisted in by the Presbytery, and subsequently attempted to be justified by the Moderator, on the precedent afforded by the General Assembly of last year. “I can state,” he said, “on my own personal credit, having been present at the case, that, at the last General Assembly, the Rev. Mr. Campbell of Row, who is now a deposed minister, was proceeding with the same line of defence, by taking his appeal to the Scriptures, instead of justifying his doctrine as coming under the standards of the Church. The General Assembly ruled that it was an incompetent line of defence.” This is a practical illustration of the argument at the commencement of this article, and shews that the Church of Scotland refuses to be tried by the Word of God, and must be dashed in pieces, unless she instantly repents of her sin, and abjures the abominable acts of her rulers.

We cannot conclude without calling the attention of our readers to one matter further in the conduct of the Presbytery. Conscious of their disqualification, so far as accorded with all human maxims and morality, to act with impartiality in the adjudication of this question, and therefore of the necessity of publishing the ground for taking on themselves a burthen which, contrary to their own inclination, as they alleged, was cast upon them; they give, as their solemn reason for so doing, in their Judgment, that “the Trust Deed, legally drawn with the consent of the Rev. E. Irving and the parties thereto, provides not only that this Presbytery shall act and adjudicate in all cases of complaint brought against the Minister for the time being by such persons, but that the said award shall be final and conclusive. These words are very clear; their intent also is very clear : and therefore, as the Presbytery were convinced that under the Trust Deed a majority only of the trustees were sufficient to compel them to adjudicate, not their will consented, but necessity threw upon them the decision : otherwise justice must have been deprived of her efficacy; and—a pastor and his whole flock, with the exception of some eight or ten'individuals, must have been permitted to continue in the house erpressly built for them, against the will of those few individuals. However, our readers will be astonished: to hear, and the Presbytery grieved to learn, for the first time,

ground

that the burden of adjudication was not necessarily laid upon them, that the very next clause in the Trust Deed to that which regulates the form of proceedings before the Presbytery, is a provision, that“ if the London Presbytery shall neglect or refuse, for one calendar month next after any matter shall be so referred to them as aforesaid, to declare their consent to hear and decide on the same; then the complaint shall be referred to the consideration of” (the parties really interested, namely,)“ the seat-holders of the said church at a general meeting.” Now, as the of complaint against Mr. Irving is not false doctrine (such complaint the trustees specially guard themselves from the imputation of making), but the interruptions, as they are called, of the public worship; to whom could the complaint have been with so much propriety referred as to the seat-holders ?-We have presumed that this clause was unknown to the Presbytery. They inspected the original Deed, yet might have overlooked it: This might have been negligence. But, since writing the last few lines, we regret to observe, on reference, that the Trustees have, most properly, taken express care to state it in the body of their complaini. What this amounts to, we leave to our readers to decide.

In making the above remarks on what we do not hesitate to call a perversion of all the forms and all the essentials of justice, the guardianship whereof was on this occasion assumed by, but, had it regularly come before them, would have been improvidently committed to, most incompetent hands—incompetent both in a moral and intellectual sense-we have carefully abstained, as far as possible, from remarks on individuals. It is much to be deplored, for it is a mark of our innate depravity, that men in a body, and therefore removed from individual responsibility and remark so far as regards their fellow-creatures, will ever be liable to fall into acts which they would have cautiously avoided in their individual capacities. We condemn the Presbytery-for their acts, we condemn them. We say not one word of the individuals composing the Presbytery; neither of those who distinguished themselves either by violent or more discreet animosity, nor of those who in taking part in the proceedings could not conceal the sparks of former regards still latent and alive. However, they have taken their part, and to God must they answer individually, not only for the incidental acts on which we have been last remarking, but for that principal crime which, in ignorance as we trust, they have committed.

As to the promoters in this unhappy affair, when passion has subsided, and the common and universal affections of mankind begin to operate, bitter and severe must be the reflections with which their breasts will be disturbed. All have partaken of Mr. Irving's hospitality; all profess great personal regard for him; all of them know that he has never hoarded a shilling, and that his: stipend as a minister is his only support: they not only bring

no charge against his moral character, but eulogize it in the highest terms; they bring no charge against his doctrine, “but restrict this their complaint to the matters set forth therein" (p. 6); yet, for an irregularity, at most, in the service of the church, and an irregularity which has excluded nothing and broken down nothing, they cast Mr. Irving and his family upon the world, depriving him, as far as in them lies, of all means of support. But is he without support? Oh no! he stays himself upon his God, and beneath him are the Everlasting Arms. "I have been young, and now am old, yet never have I seen the righteous forsaken, nor his seed begging their bread.” And the time is short. Mr. Irving carries with him his attached flock; and such a shelter as is needed for this short time will be easily provided ; and such means of support as their pastor needs, they esteem it a privilege to furnish. The towers and pinnacles of the building from whence they have been ejected may aptly symbolize the antiquated church, garnished with man's devices, which has cast Mr. Irving out; but the plain and hasty building which will now be erected will better suit with our condition of “strangers and pilgrims ” here below, and more fitly symbolize that “house not made with hands,” whither we hope speedily to arrive, the city which hath foundations, whose maker and builder is God.”

TO CORRESPONDENTS.

We have received a continuation of the Journal of Rev. Joseph Wolfe, but not INDEX TO VOL. V.

sufficient to make a sheet, and we therefore defer its publication till a further
portion arrives. It commences from Semnan, the first considerable town of
Khorassan, 30th September, 1831: the succeeding dates are, Dowlat Abad, 2d
Oct.; Bustan, 3d Oct.; Deh Mullah, 6th Oct.; Detshe, 8th Oct. ; Rhana Rhode,
13th Oct.; and lastly, Ain Abad, in the province of Khorassan, 16th Oct.
1831 ; where he thanks God for having led them through the most dangerous
road without accident, and says that from thence to Herat the people and
roads are better. We have received the following sums for the use of this
zealous Missionary:
C. Barber, Macclesfield

£1 0 0
Mrs. Cowley..
Relief Church, Glasgow
Three Friends, Stow Market

M. Spurgin
K. Z. intimates that “ circumstances have occurred in the case of the person at

Clothall, mentioned in our last Number, which render the whole transaction more than simply equivocal.” Of these circumstances we have not heard, and shall be obliged to K. Z. if he will inform us. And we take this occasion most earnestly to request all our readers to do us the kindness, nay, the justice, of correcting any mistatement into which we may inadvertently fall. To Truth

we wish to devote ourselves : not to any party. Some Correspondents wish us to point out from time to time the new publica

tions of interest. We will endeavour to comply with their wishes ; but to do it conscientiously involves greater difficulty than they apprehend, for the right conduct of such a Journal as this absorbs nearly all our time.

2 .2 0 5 0 0 12 0 0 2 0 0

Page
Door shut

5
Downfall of churches 399
D'Oyley and Mant.. 363
Dragon

9
Drawing water 254
Drunkards of Ephraim 292

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Page
Abraham

2
Abraham's Seed 121
Abram's call

120
Advent

2
Amen

17
Ambrose.

141
Ancient ceremonies 225
Anglo-Saxons 170
Antichrist .1,
Apocalyptic Epistles 17
Apostasy

24
Apostates

3
Apostles.

332
Apostolic office .... 335
Apostolic preaching 83
Archangel

244
Ark...

15
Ark of God

441
Armstrong, Rev. Mr. 198
Ashurst, Lady 213
Assur

262
Assyria

5,7
Attalus

383

Page
Canons

156
Causes Célèbres 158
Change on man.... 391
Charisere, Charlotte 218
Charpentiere 157
Chastening

41
Cholera

423
Christ of God 385
Christ's coming 270
Christ in flesh 232
Christ the Morning
Star...

1
Christ's kingdom 115
Christendom

53
Church one

90
Church glorified 368
Clairvoyans

148
Clergy...

13+
Cloud of glory 246
Cold and hot

20
Commerce

9
Common Prayer 156
Comparison

32
Confession

23
Confirmation

140
Costerus...

156
Creation of man 387
Cuninghame, W.Esq. 359
Cyprian .....142, 205
Cyrus.

174

Earthquakes ...... 241
Eastern churches 365
Eastern empire

283
Edinburgh Christian
Instructor

230
Egypt

.4, 296
Eighth day.

251
End of God's purpose 239
Ends of the world.. I
England

15
English Revolution 395
Evans, Rev. J. H... 145
Euphrates

123
Eye salve

36

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50

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Babylon

4
Rome

50
her fall
Babylonian ara 166
Balaam

196
Baptism of fire .... 316
Barnabas, St......

196
Batt, Mons.

211
Baxter, Mr.

304
Begg, Mr., healed.. 424
Believers

3
Bishop of London 201
Blasphemy.

64
Blind

35
Bonner

147
245

85

119
Bride

1
Bridegroom

117
Bulteel, Rev. ..219, 221
Burns, Dr......
Burning

39
Buy from Christ 38

Followers of Anti-
christ

11
Foolish virgins
Forms of prophecy 362
Fulfilled prophecies 117

14

Sionism

Dagon's temple

441
Daniel's weeks

325
days ..173, 277
Darius............ 175
Day of grace ......

5
atonement..

269, 382
the Lord

5, 16, 374
darkness 16

vengeance 259
Delegates

397
Demoniacal posses-
sion...

145
Desolator

278
Destruction of Baby-
lon

73
Dislocation cured 215
Dissenters

139
Doctrine of Spiritual
Gifts

404

Gairdner, Dr....... 88
Gathering

2
General Assembly.. 84
Gentiles

126
Gibeon

7
Gifts....

94, 132
Gift of healing .... 225
Glorious appearing

1
Glorified in the saints 3
God

383
God is love

86
God's day

272
Gog and Magog. 260
Gold

40

.. 191

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Campbell, Rev. J... 84
Cambyses

174
Canaan

125

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